2NOUNSNouns are namers.Nouns name people, places, things, animals and ideas.The teacher dashed into the room.Scott is a writer.The idea is excellent.
3COMMON and PROPER NOUNS Common nouns name any person, place or thing and are NOT capitalized:girlboycityfoodProper nouns name a specific person, place or thing and ARE capitalized:JenniferScottLivingstonRice-a-Roni
4COMPOUND NOUNS and COLLECTIVE NOUNS Compound nouns are two or more nouns that function as a single unit:time capsulegreat-unclehomeworkbasketballCollective nouns name groups of people or things:audiencefamilyherdchoruscrowd
5SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS Singular nouns name ONE.One dogOne childOne deerOne personOne peachOne ponyOne monkeyOne leafOne oxPlural nouns name MORE than one.Three dogsSix childrenThree deerFour peopleEight peachesTwo poniesTwo monkeysThree leavesTwo oxen
6Articles or Noun Markers Articles are also called Noun Markers or Noun DeterminersA, The and AN are Articles or Noun MarkersThey mark that a noun will follow (Sometimes there’s an adjective before the noun)The dogAn apple (use “an” before words that begin with a vowel sound)A student
7PRONOUNS Pronouns take the place of a noun. Pronouns are substitutes. Bob ate the worms. He enjoyed them.Sue tried to jump the fence. She fell on it.The crowd cheered the band. They loved it.Scott and I saw our friends. We like them.You fix the bike yourself.He has only himself to blame.
9Pronoun Clarity RulesIf somebody writes, “Sue and Cassy went to the store. She bought a new skirt” we DON’T know who bought the skirt. The use of the pronoun “she” is unclear.If there are two or more boys in a sentence, you cannot use he or him in the next sentence.If there are two or more girls in a sentence, you cannot use she or her in the next sentence.If there are two or more things in a sentence, you cannot use it in the next sentence.
10ADJECTIVESAdjectives describe (modify) nouns. Adjectives add information about nouns and can spice-up your writing.He wore a green shirt and plaid pants.The big truck was ugly.She wore a feather boa.It was a dark, stormy and creepy night.My second cousin wanted those apples.I saw five geese.
11Adjectives answer the questions: Which one? This game, that car, those mountainsWhat kind? Pretty cat, fresh milk, American flagHow many? Some people, seven miles, several daysHow much? Enough food, less rain, more time
12VERBSVerbs show action or a state of being. Verbs are the engines that power sentences. Without a verb, a sentence can go nowhere. Every sentence MUST have a verb!!!Action verbs: walk, run, jump, soar, whisper, stomp, tattle, spend, sing…Action verbs tell something you can do, like “sleep” (even if it isn’t very active).
13State-of-Being VerbsState-of-being verbs are the form of the verb “be.”Am, is, are, was, were, has been, will be and have beenI am a good student. She is happy. He was excited. They were delicious. He has been sick. She will be glad. They have been good students.
14HELPING VERBSHelping verbs “help” action verbs to be in the correct tense. Forms of “be” are often helping verbs if they are paired with an action verb.Helping verbs: has, have, had, can, could, would, should, will, shall, may, might, must, did, do, does.We can graduate. He has been learning.We have learned a lot. They can dance.We will have learned a lot.
15Helping Verbs/Sate-of-Being Verbs When a state-of-being verb is with an action verb, it becomes a helping verb.He is cute (“is” is a state-of-being verb).He is dancing (now “is” is a helping verb).She was excited (“was” is a state-of-being verb)She was dancing (now “was” is a helping verb).
16Finding VerbsIn order to find the verb in a sentence, using the “time change” method always works.By saying yesterday, every day, and tomorrow at the beginning of a sentence, the verb will change automatically. Remember it as the YET (Yesterday, Every day, Tomorrow) method.
17Examples of Time Change Listen for the word or words that change when the time is changed. That word is the verb:Yesterday: Steve ate a taco.Every day: Steve eats a taco.Tomorrow: Steve will eat a taco.Yesterday: Jill was happy.Every day: Jill is happy.Tomorrow: Jill will be happy.
18VERBSVerbs show a state-of-being. They are the forms of the verb “be.”State of being verbs: am, is, are, was, were, has been, will be…Mrs. McMillion is a teacher.The students will be smart learners.She was clever.They were late
19MORE ABOUT VERBSVerbs tell present, past and future tense. They tell when something is happening.Present (today): I dance.Past (yesterday): I danced.Future (tomorrow): I will dance.
20ACTIVE vs PASSIVE VERBS Verbs can be active or passive. Sometimes this is called active or passive voice.Active verbs (or voice) put the person (or thing) doing the action in charge: Connie passed the test.With passive verbs (or voice), the subject receives the action: The test was passed by Connie.Hint: Use the active voice in your writing.
21ADVERBSAdverbs describe (modify) verbs. They tell when, where and how.The band played beautifully. (How)The student will arrive soon. (When)The boy sat near. (Where)She studied carefully. (How)He quickly jumped. (How)
22Adverbs WHEN WHERE HOW Tomorrow there sweetly Tonight here kindly Soon everywhere wellNow nowhere simplyLater outside thoughtfully
23PREOPSITIONSPrepositions show position relative to another noun. A preposition MUST be connected to a noun or a pronoun. A prepositional phrase is a preposition and its object:in the door next to meon the car behind itaround the house near the garage
24LIST of PREPOSITIONS About Above Across Against Around Before Behind BelowBeneathBesideBetweenBeyondByDownIntoInsideNearNext toOffOnOntoOutOutsideOverPastThroughTowardUnderUponWithin
25ConjunctionsConjunctions join words, phrases and clauses together. They are the words: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.We ate salad and bread.She was happy yet sad.They were neither absent nor tardy.We can dance or sing.
26InterjectionsInterjections express emotion. If it’s a strong emotion, the word(s) can stand alone with an exclamation mark following, as in: Wow! Hurray! Yippee!If an interjection isn’t a strong emotion, it can go before a regular sentence followed by a comma:Good grief, Charlie Brown missed the ball.Hey, that’s a great idea.