Presentation on theme: "Russian traditional costume Kalkova O.K.. Historians suppose that traditional Russian costume started taking its shape in the 12th-13th centuries. Up."— Presentation transcript:
Historians suppose that traditional Russian costume started taking its shape in the 12th-13th centuries. Up to the 18th century it fitted well all layers of Russian society: it was worn by tsars, boyars, merchants, craftsmen, and peasants. After Peter’s decrees (18 th century) Russian nobility and the city costumes have undergone Europeanization. However, the national (folk) Russian costume was popular in the villages till the beginning of 20 th century.
male national costume Men’s costume was composed of a long shirt (rubakha- kosovorotk - a shirt with a stand-up collar fastening on the side), trousers (porty), a belt (poyas- kushak), and bast shoes (later boots).
Female national costume The Russian women’s costume was based on the “rubakha” ( a linen shirt or blouse). It was made flaxen embroidery, silk lace, golden threads and spangles. Collars and sleeves were decorated extensively.
Female national costume By the early 20th century the most widespread women costumes were of two types: the South Russian one with poneva, i.e. a homespun woollen skirt, and the Mid-Russian one with a sarafan, i.e. a kind of sleeveless dress. The typical color of the sarafan and skirts was red, as this color literally translates to “beautiful”.
Kokoshnik Historically a kokoshnik is a headdress worn by married women, though maidens wore a headdress very similar to a kokoshnik, but open in the back, named a "povyazka". The word "kokoshnik" describes a great variety of headdresses worn throughout Russia, including the cylindrical hats of Veliky Novgorod, two pointed nimbus "kika" of Vladimir, triangular shaped "kika" of Kostroma, small pearl hats ofKargopol or scarlet kokoshniks of Moscow etc.Veliky NovgorodKostromaKargopolMoscow
While in the past kokoshnik styles varied greatly, currently a kokoshnik is generally associated with a tall, nimbus or crest shaped headdress which is tied at the back of the head with long thick ribbons in a large bow. The crest can be embroidered with pearls and goldwork or simple applique, usually using plant and flower motifs. The forehead area is frequently decorated with pearl netting. While wearing kokoshnik the woman usually wears her hair in a plait. goldworkplait
The head-dress was treasured in the family and handed down, and was an integral element of a well-off bride’s dowry.
In Russian folk costume preserved vintage hats and custom for a married woman to hide the hair, but for girls - leave them uncovered. This explains the shape of female headdress in the form of a closed cap and girlish – with ribbon.
Male headdresse The cap (kartuz) came into being in the late 19th century, and it was decorated with a flower.
Lapti The woven shoes commonly made from fibres of the birch tree. No longer worn in modern times, today they are a decorative piece hanging in people’s homes.
In winter, Russians wore the fur coat (shuba) and wool felt footwear (valenki). It was extremely practical and effective in a cold northern climate. Shubas were made of fur turned inside or ‘wrong-side out’. The traditional male warm hat with flaps – ushanka (derived from the word ushi – ears) or treukh - was used to protect the ears from cold. Woman worn the traditional Russian knitting shawls and beautiful 100% wool Pavlov Posad scarves.
Wedding garments in Old Rus’ used to be very colourful, the red being the major wedding colour. White was considered the colour of sanctity and was not used in festivities. In many regions the bride had two wedding gowns: one to wear before the marriage service and the other to put on after it.
The first one was very simple, modest and even mournful: in some places the bride was even wearing black, including a black wedding veil. The second one was always of red colour symbolizing joy.
A wedding dress consisted of a sarafan (pinafore dress) and a blouse put on underneath. However, the same was with everyday garments. What made the wedding dress peculiar was its trimming first of all. The underblouse was decorated with rich embroidery of ornaments depicting leaves, berries, roosters and other birds. Birds being the symbol of the good were a favourite motive of embroidery.
18 century The Russian national costume lost its popularity after Peter the First banned it in 1699 for all except peasants, monks, priests and sextons. First he introduced into practice the Hungarian dress, followed by Saxon and French outerwear and German sleeveless jackets and underwear. Women were obliged to wear German dresses. All those who entered towns while wearing Russian clothes and beards had to pay duty: 40 kopeks from a pedestrian and 2 rubles from a person on horseback.
costume in the villageк early 19 before the First World War
By the early 20th century the most widespread women’s costumes were of two types: the South Russian one with poneva, i.e. a homespun woolen skirt, and the Mid- Russian one with a sarafan, i.e. a pinafore dress. A set of a skirt and knitted jacket became popular.
Russian embroidery The northern embroidered peasant shirts were samples of high artistic folk mastery. No less diverse in their beauty were the embroidered aprons of northern Russia. Among the motifs used most frequently in northern embroidery were birds, horses, trees, figures of women – all highly traditional images of Russian folk art with a deep content and symbolic meaning. The subjects of these patterns were linked with the Slavs’ pagan interpretation of the surrounding world, the forces of nature, the universe, good and evil. Birds were supposed to bring man joy, light, and goodwill; the horse embodied the image of the sun; the tree incorporated the image of the tree of life symbolizing ever- living nature.
Shirt embroidery has its special meaning: it wasn’t only a decoration, but also a woman protection. Shirt collar, its front and hem were decorated with particular care. People believed, that the more was the shirt embroidered, the happier would be the woman who wore it. Touching the ground and its herbs with the embroidered shirt hem, the woman was hoping to give the Earth her fertility, concealed in the embroidery ornaments and she believed to have the life energy in return.
The shirt collar was a special “magically important” part of the costume. People believed that the soul left the body after death through the collar. To prevent it the shirt collar was thoroughly decorated with the protective embroidery. White embroidered shirt sleeves symbolized something sacred and pure in the Russian culture. The white color impersonated feminine. This type of shirt was a costume element of young girls. The red ornaments of the peasant embroidery symbolized the Earth, accumulating the Sun energy and ready revive everything.
Embroidery meaning on the apron The mostly embroidered element of both southern and northern Russian women costumes was an apron that covered the woman silhouette in front. The apron was sometimes all decorated with ornamental lines and symbolized the Earth (diamonds; wavy lines – so called water signs; bird and Earth Mother images). It protected stomach of the woman, carrying a child.
Hair. Before marriage, a girl on weekdays often braided hair in one braid, coming down on the back and woven into her simple tape, which followed the growth of hair. During the holidays in a braid plaited bright silk ribbon and even bells. Married women in contrast to unmarried usually braided hair in two braids at the temples and tied their forehead, forming a "horns" or tightened the knot at the nape.
According to the ancient Slavs, the hair has magical powers associated with the idea of fertility, procreation and well-being, sexual power personified. This explains the great importance attached to the wedding rites act changes hairstyles and hats ( unwound and combing hair in front of the crown as a symbol of marriage, the bride laments on her maiden spit – «beauty», ceremony of «twisting» when after the wedding matchmaker braided bride hair in two braids and forever hide them from prying eyes under a female headdress ).
Headdress. Opening woman’s hair in public was considered as a terrible sin, as it is “releasing of their magical powers and thus - a revolt against the family and the bonds of marriage". With disheveled, matted hair Slavs presented only evil spirits - witches, mermaids. About unkempt maid said: "There's like a mermaid (mermaid, Water nymph)". However, there were times when women were allowed to hair : to relieve their sexual power. For example, during childbirth.