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WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? ANSWER: The Scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
What is Real Psychology and What is Pseudo-psychology? Pseudo-psychology is the phony or unscientific psychology which pretends to be the real thing. link
SUBJECTS OF STUDY? Both humans and animals are studied by psychologists.
Why study psychology? 1. Insight 2. Practical info.
GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY 1. Description 2. Explanation 3. Prediction 4. Control
A BRIEF HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY Greeks: 5 th -6 th centuries B.C. -Behavior is not dominated by the Gods, but by their own minds.
MODERN PSYCHOLOGY Structuralism. Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology lab in Germany in 1879. He developed a method of self-observation called introspection. He tried to map out the thought process.
Darwin’s influence on Psych Human/Animal Continuity Individual Differences Adaptability Importance of Environment Emphasis on Change
FUNCTIONALISM William James, the first American psychologist, felt that structuralism was too limited. He focused on survival. He studied how mental processes, emotions, and self-concept worked to influence behavior.
Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud asserted that behavior and mental processes reflect unconscious conflicts within each person. He developed a theory of personality and analyzed people’s dreams. Childhood experiences are the “root” of all problems. Interpretation of Dreams
Freud/McLaughlin Dream Interpretation 1. Identify key moment of dream. 2. Who is there with you? What action is taking place? Symbolism? 3. How is dream resolved? How do you feel? Interpretation: Similarity to real life.
Behaviorism Watson refuted introspection and focused on only observable behavior that could be measured. Behaviorists argue that all behavior is learned. John Watson believed that we are conditioned to respond a certain way to stimuli. The responses we get “shape” our behavior. -Little Albert
Behaviorist Ctd. Ivan Pavlov used conditioning of dogs to show that behavior is learned. The dogs were conditioned to salivate when a tone was sounded.
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Sir Francis Galton Study of Genius Nature v. Nurture Early Personality and Intelligence Tests- Extremes of retardation and giftedness Eugenics
Humanism This perspective emphasizes the unique qualities of humans. Free will, self-concept, and self-fulfillment are emphasized. People are naturally positive and growth seeking.-Anti-Freudian Ex. - desire for love, self-esteem, acceptance, etc.
Biological Perspective Our behavior is a result of our physiological processes and biological development. Study psychological effects of genes, hormones, activity of the nervous system and the brain.
The Cognitive Perspective Cognitive theorists focus on the processes of thinking, remembering, decision-making. How people take in, retrieve, store, and process information.
Cognitive example Shoe Sandwich Fruit Blouse Pants Potato Soup Skirt
Cognitive Example Count backward from 100 by threes. Write down the list of words from before. ShoeSandwich BlouseFruit PantsPotato SkirtSoup Did you categorized them? This is a basic finding of cognitive psychologists.