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FIFTY YEARS & MORE OF HOVERCRAFT DEVELOPMENT SNAME and IHS Dinner Meeting 11 MAY 2011 DAVID R. LAVIS BAND LAVIS DIVISION OF CDI MARINE.

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Presentation on theme: "FIFTY YEARS & MORE OF HOVERCRAFT DEVELOPMENT SNAME and IHS Dinner Meeting 11 MAY 2011 DAVID R. LAVIS BAND LAVIS DIVISION OF CDI MARINE."— Presentation transcript:

1 FIFTY YEARS & MORE OF HOVERCRAFT DEVELOPMENT SNAME and IHS Dinner Meeting 11 MAY 2011 DAVID R. LAVIS BAND LAVIS DIVISION OF CDI MARINE

2 CONTENTS OF PRESENTATION  EARLY ENDEAVORS  RAPID EXPANSION  MAJOR CHALLENGES  MOST SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTIONS  MANY ACV & SES PHOTOS & VIDEOS  RECENT DEVELOPMENTS  CUSHION SEALS  PROPULSION  MANEUVERING CONTROL  DESIGN SOFTWARE  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS & THE WAY AHEAD

3 EARLY ENDEAVORS 1936 – Grandpa Lavis stumbles onto the idea of Amphibious Assault WELL, MY GRANDPA DID RUN A BOAT BUILDING BUSINESS

4 EARLY ENDEAVORS  RINA PAPER LISTS 30 INVENTORS WITH PATENTS PRIOR TO  AT LEAST 12 OTHERS DID NOT FILE PATENTS.  8 PATENTS FEATURED FLEXIBLE SKIRTS BEFORE SR-N1 CROSSED THE ENGLISH CHANNEL WITHOUT A SKIRT IN SR-N1 in 1959

5 Date of Patent Name and LocationSubject 1716Swedenborg, E., SwedenPlenum Craft Illustration 1876Ward, J., San Francisco, USA Plenum Machine Idea 1877Sir John Thornycroft, UKAir Lubricated Hull 1880Girard, L., FranceRail Car 1882De Laval, G., SwedenAir Lubricated Hull 1888Walker, J., Texas, USAAir Lubricated Hull Idea 1889Barre, M.C.A., FranceRail Car 1897Culbertson, USASidewall Craft Idea 1902Therye, C., FranceRail Car 1906Schroeder, F.W., Germany (British Patent) Air Lubricated Hull Design 1907Clark, J., USACraft With Annular Ducts 1908Worthington, C., USARail Car With Flexible Seals 1908Porter, J.R., UKAnnular Jet Craft With Flexible Skirt 1909Wunderlich, A., GermanyPlenum Craft 1912Alcock, A.U., Perth, Australia Levapad Craft 1913Eells, A.F., USARail Car 1916Von Thomamhul, D.M., Austria Air Lubricated Torpedo Boat 1921Gambin, M.A., FranceSidewall Craft 1922Breguet, L., Paris, FrancePlenum Craft With Flexible Seals 1922Trask, F.G., North Dakota, USA Rail Car 1925Casey, V.F., Minneapolis, USA Air Lubricated Hull With Air Recirculation 1927Tsiolkovski, K.E., RussiaRail Car 1928Nicin, V., Dresden, Germany Plenum Car Giving Reduced Wheel Load 1928Warner, D.K., Sarasota, USA Sidewall Craft with Spring-Loaded Rigid Seals 1935Birrard, J., FranceSidewall Craft Design 1935Kaario, T.J., FinlandPlenum/Ram Wing Craft Date of Patent Name and LocationSubject 1939Courant, FranceSidewall Craft with Mechanical End Seals 1942Cristadoro, C.C., Venice, CA, USA Sidewall Craft With Flexible End Seals 1944Brian, W.S. & Birk, F.J., Owensboro, KY, USA Sidewall Craft 1952Bondat, A.J., FranceSnow Skis With Multi-Plenum Air Cushions 1954Seck, W.G., Canton, Ohio, USA Hovering Vacuum Cleaner by Hoover Co. 1955De Lima, R.A., BrazilPeripheral Jet and Aircraft Landing Gear 1955Cockerell, C., UKPeripheral Jet and Sidewall Craft 1955Roe, A.V., CanadaPeripheral Jet Craft 1957Beardsley, M.W., Severna Park, MD, USA Craft With Peripheral Jet & Membrane Sheet 1957Weiland, C., SwitzerlandCraft With Labyrinth Seal 1957Bertin, M., FranceCraft With Multi-Cell Plenum Skirt 1958Jay, D.J. & Pelthman, H.W., USA Craft With Multi-Plenum 1958Latimer, C.H., Needham, UK Craft With Flexible Skirt 1958Petersen, T.K. & Smith, P.L., Tulsa, OK, USA Cargo Handling Conveyor 1959Gaska, C.W., Michigan, USA Craft With Flexible Skirt 1959Vaughen, J.F., Irving, Texas, USA Hover Pallet With Flexible Seals 1960Ford, A., USAHigh-Speed Sidewall SES 1960Hurley, R.T. & Agni, E.S., USA Sidewall Craft 1960Mackie, H.A. & Veryzer, R.W., USA Wheel Barrow With Flexible Skirt 1960McCreary, N.B., Arkansas, USA Plenum Craft With Flexible Skirt 1962Lewis, N.W., USACraft With Finger Skirt - Vertical 1962Bliss, D.S., of HDL, UKCraft With Finger Skirt - Inclined

6 CRAFT WITH FLEXIBLE SKIRT BY PORTER, UK, 1908 FABRIC SKIRT

7 FLEXIBLE END SEALS BY BREGUET, FRANCE, 1922

8 FLEXIBLE END SEALS AND CUSHION DIVIDER BY CRISTADORO, USA, 1942 Transverse Seal Air Supply Fans

9 AVRO PROJECT-Y, FLYING SAUCER (1952 to 1962, CANADA) Click for web source

10 CURTIS-WRIGHT MODEL 2500 AIR CAR (USA) Operated in 1959 with 8-inch Flexible Skirt Click for Web Source

11 EARLY ENDEAVORS (Contd.)  1952 – 1960 ACV (GEM) DEVELOPMENT  CANADA (AV ROE); UK (Cockerell), USA (CURTIS-WRIGHT, GM, FORD, CONVAIR, MARTIN, BELL, GD, H. Chaplin, Beardsley, Bertelsen)  1960 – HIGH-SPEED SES DEVELOPMENT  USA NADC (A. Ford) & UK HDL (Cockerell)  1960 – 1970 RAPID EXPANSION  UK, USA, CANADA, SWEDEN, NORWAY, FRANCE, JAPAN, RUSSIA, CHINA, AUSTRALIA

12 TECHNOLOGY PROGRESSION 1959 UK UK 1963 USA 1980 USA 2004 FINLAND

13 THE PRINCIPAL CHALLENGES  HIGH COST (LOW EFFICIENCY) PROPULSION  LOW RELIABILITY OF HIGH-POWERED SYSTEMS  NEED TO REDUCE AIRBORNE NOISE  PERFORMANCE SENSITIVE TO WEIGHT GROWTH  TWO ADDITIONAL SYSTEMS (SKIRTS + AIR SUPPLY)  SKIRT MAINTENANCE (MINIMIZED BY GOOD DESIGN)  SPEED LOSS IN A SEAWAY  CHALLENGING MANEUVERABILITY  SAFETY (HIGH-SPEED NAVIGATION)

14  Aerojet All-Welded Aluminum AALC JEFF(A) (ACV & SES) – 1977  Bell AALC JEFF(B) Controllable Bow Thrusters (ACV) – 1977  SRN-Series Integrated Lift & Propulsion (ACV & SES) – 1962  SRN-Series Integrated Maneuvering Controls (ACV) – 1962  US Navy XR-Series of Experimental SES –  Bell Skimmer Shrouded Propellers (ACV) – 1964  Aerojet General Application of Water Jet Propulsion (SES) – 1966  Aerojet General Ride Control (SES) – 1966  Aerojet 100A, Bell 100B and Rohr 3KSES Programs –  Hovermarine GRP Hull Mass Production (SES) – 1968 SOME OF THE MOST SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS 1962 to 1977  HDL Bag-Finger Skirt (ACV & SES) – 1962  Denny D-2 GRP Hulls (SES) – 1962  Airscrew-Weyroc Centrifugal Fans (ACV & SES) – 1962

15  BHC/HW Air-Cooled Diesel, Auto-Welded Structure for AP.1-88 (ACV) – 1982  Griffon Hovercraft Ltd starts World’s Largest Range of ACVs – 1982  LCAC Erosion Protected Propeller and Fan Blades (ACV) – 1984  Brodrene Aa Cored Composite Structures (SES) – 1986  BLA Compact Axial-Flow Water Jets (SES) – 1988  ABS Hovercraft Ltd M-10 with Advanced Composites (ACV) – 1994  BLA Deep Skirt (ACV) – 1995  BLA Wake-Adapted Shrouded Airscrews (ACV) – 2003  Japan’s Ogasawara 460-ft Techno-Superliner (SES) – 2005  Russia’s Murena E-Class Landing Craft (ACV) – 2005  IMAA Partial Air Cushion Catamaran, PACSCAT (SES) – 2008 SOME OF THE MOST SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS 1978 to 2008  BHC Low-Pressure Responsive Skirts (ACV) – 1978  Bell BH-110 Medium Displacement Sidehulls (SES) – 1978  BLA Whole-Craft Design Synthesis Tools (ACV & SES) – 1978

16 VA1, 1960 (UK)

17 CC 1 AND 2, 1960 & 1961 (UK)

18 CC 2, 1961 (UK)

19 SR-N2, 1961 (UK) First Integrated Lift & Propulsion & Maneuvering Control System

20 VICKERS VA-2, 1961 (UK)

21 VA3, 1962 (UK) First ACV Passenger Ferry

22 SR-N3, 1963 (UK)

23 BELL SKMR-1, 1963 (USA) First ACV with Shrouded Props

24 BELL SKMR-1 (USA)

25 HD1, 1963 (UK) With Inclined Finger Skirt

26 SR-N6 AND SR-N5, 1965 & 1964 (UK)

27 SR-N5, 1964 (UK) With Peripheral Jet Skirt

28 BHC SR-N4, 1968 (UK) With Bag-Finger Skirt

29 BHC SR-N4, 1968 (UK)

30 BHC BH-7, 1969 (UK)

31 BELL LACV-30, 1969 (USA/CANADA) Modular Construction for Transportability

32 JEFF(A), 1977 (USA) First ACV with Welded Aluminum Structure

33 JEFF(B), 1977 (USA) First ACV with Rotatable Bow Thrusters

34 BHC AP-188, 1982 (UK) Air-Cooled Diesel-Powered and Auto-Welded Aluminum Structure

35 LCAC, 1984 (USA)

36 GRIFFON-HOVERWORK 4000 TD (UK)

37 POMORNIK, 1986 (ZUBR-CLASS USSR) Click for Web Site

38 ABS M-10, 1994 (UK)

39 DASH 400, 1998 (UK)

40 DENNY D1 SES, 1961 (UK)

41 DENNY D2 SES, 1962 (UK) First SES Passenger Ferry and First of GRP

42 HD1 CONVERTED TO SES, 1963 (UK)

43 US NAVY XR-1 SES, 1963 (USA) First High-Speed SES

44 US NAVY XR-1D SES, 1974 (USA)

45 US NAVY XR-3 SES, 1967 (USA)

46 HM2 SES, 1968 (UK)

47 HM2

48 BELL SES 100B, 1972

49 AEROJET SES 100A, 1972 (USA)

50 3KSES (USA)

51 US NAVY XR-5 SES, 1973 (USA)

52 BELL-HALTER BH-110 SES, 1978 (USA) First Commercial SES in USA

53 SES-200, 1982 (USA)

54 CIRR 120P SES, 1987 (NORWAY) First Cored FRP SES

55 DERGACH SES, 1987 (USSR) Largest Military SES

56 CORSAIR SES,1989 (GERMANY) Modular Construction including MTU Diesels Suspended in Modules from the Overhead

57 AGNES 200 SES, 1990 (FRANCE)

58

59 SMYGE SES, 1991 (SWEDEN)

60 OKSOY & ALTA-CLASS, 1993 (NORWAY) Mine Hunters and Sweepers

61 OKSOY SES, 1993 (NORWAY)

62 P960 SES, 1997 (NORWAY) 55-knot Skjold Military Patrol SES

63 IMAA 1/3rd -Scale FLC Manned Model (UK) Partial Air Cushion Catamaran, PACSCAT (SES) Operating at High Speed in Scale SS4 Head Seas

64 PACSCAT 2010 (UK) Click for Web Source

65 JAPAN’S TSL-A140 OGASAWARA SES, 2005 Largest Fast Ferry of any kind

66 MORE RECENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS  CUSHION SEALS  PROPULSION  MANEUVERING CONTROL  DESIGN SOFTWARE

67 SKIRT SYSTEMS Cross-Section of JEFF Craft Skirts SIDE SKIRTBOW SKIRT

68 DEEP SKIRT DESIGN

69 Subjected to Extensive Sub-Scale Test Prior to Committing to Full-Scale Prototyping

70 NOT ALL IS GOOD Material Delamination after 100 operating hours on the prototype skirt.  Issue also showed up on the Canadian Coast Guard AP.1-88/400 and the Hoverspeed SR.N4 MKIII.  All three craft used the same natural rubber material. Suspected that Fatigue was the Primary Failure Mode.

71 NOT ALL IS GOOD FEA analysis of an inflated finger indicated Stress Concentrations and areas of Large Deformations. Stress MapDeflection Map

72 THINGS GET BETTER FEA analysis indicated that a modification of the Design & Lofting Process would correct this. Deflection Map before Modification Deflection Map after Modification

73 SECOND & THIRD GENERATION DESIGNS  2 nd Generation T-2000 Skirt had 440+ hours on original bow and side fingers.  Stern corner and stern fingers replaced after approximately 300 hours.

74 SECOND & THIRD GENERATION DESIGNS Believe that Additional Performance Improvements are Possible. Head-Sea Operation in Sea-State 3

75 THE OVERALL POWERING CHALLENGE Diminishing Transport Efficiency with Speed THE POWERING CHALLENGE CHALLENGE W.V P SPEED (VOLUMETRIC FROUDE NUMBER) Circle Q Circle K

76 TODAY’S SOLUTIONS 70-kt ACV 40-kt SEMI-SWATH 70-kt ACV 55-kt SES 100-kt OFFSHORE RACERS kt HYDROPLANES

77 DUCTED PROPULSORS  Typically, designs are developed for free-stream conditions.  Ignores Installation Effects.  Full-scale trials experience indicates that these designs typically produce Significantly Less Thrust than expected.

78 TOOL VERIFICATION  LCAC propulsor analyzed prior to starting new design.  Checked against known performance.  Results compared favorably. LCAC CFX Computational Model CFX for LCAC at 25 knots (Midway Station 7’6”)

79 AIR FLOW INTO PROPULSOR View from Bow View from Aft Leading Edge of Shroud

80 BOW THRUSTER NOZZLES  Bow Thrusters are used on many modern ACV’s  Enhance Maneuverability  Augment Thrust from Main Propulsors  Provide Some Redundancy to Main Propulsors

81 BOW THRUSTER NOZZLES  Typical Bow Thruster Nozzle  Easy to Manufacture  Aerodynamically Inefficient  Easy Bend versus Hard Bend  Large Over-Turning Moment on Bearing

82 BOW THRUSTER NOZZLES  Aerodynamically Efficient Cascade  Significant Reduction in “Over-Turning” Moment on Bearing  Reduced Visual & Radar Signature  Complex to Manufacture Low-Profile Bow Thruster Full-Scale Trials Verified Aerodynamic Efficiency

83 ACV DESIGN TOOL Designing With Respect to Cost

84 SUMMARY & THE WAY AHEAD  NEW SKIRT  Lower drag, reduced powering, more reliable, less cost.  Extra depth, improved seakeeping /overland operations.  NEW LIFT FANS  Higher efficiency, more compact & quieter.  NEW PROPULSORS  Higher power absorption, more efficient.  NEW BOW THRUSTERS  More efficient, less vulnerable, reduced loading.  NEW SES  Lower cost, more reliable PACSCAT solution.  ACV & SES DESIGN & ASSESSMENT TOOL  Reduced cost, easier to assess technology options.  Easier to assess cost impact of operational requirements.  WHAT’S LEFT  Lighter weight systems, better skirt material, stability, ride, collision avoidance, less noise, improved RMA & lower cost.

85 Questions?


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