2Part of Skeletal System SkeletonCartilagesLigamentsJointConsist of :Birth skeletal 270Adult skeletal 207/206Why different?
3Function of Skeletal Support Storage of minerals Blood cell production ProtectionBody movement
4FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETON Supports the body.The bones of the lower limbs support the entire body when we are standing, and the pelvic girdle supports the the abdominal cavityProtects soft body partThe bones of the skull protect the brain; The rib cage protects the heart and lungs.Produces blood cellsAll bones in the fetus have red bone marrow that produces blood cells. In the adult, only certain bones produce blood cells.
5Stores minerals and fat All bones have a matrix that contains calcium phosphate, a source of calcium ions and phosphate ions in the blood. Fat is stored in yellow bone marrowAlong with the muscles, permits flexible body movementWhile articulations ( joints ) occur between all the bones, we associate body movement in particular with the bones of the limbs
6Skeletal System Divide into 2 division: Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton
7Skeletal System Axial Skeleton Appendicular skeleton Skull Hyoid Bone Auditory ossicleVertebral ColumnRib cagePectoral gridleUpper extremitasPelvic gridleLower extremitas
13Mandible Forms the lower jaw Largest, strongest bone of the face It has a body and two upwardly projecting sections called ramiHouses lower dentition
14Hyoid Bones The hyoid bone above the larynx below the mandible Supports the tongueAssists in swallowing
15Os HyoidUnique part of the skeleton not attach directly to any other bone.Located: the neck region, below the mandible. Suspended from the styloid process of the temporal bone by the stylohyoid muscles and ligaments.Has a body, two lesser cornua extending anteriorly, and two greater cornua, which project posteriorly to the stylohyoid ligaments.Supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles.It may be palpated by placing a thumb and a finger on either side of the upper neck under the lateral portions of the mandible and firmly squeezing medially.
16In case: Fracture Hyoid This bone is carefully examined in an autopsy when strangulation is suspected, because it is frequently fractured during strangulation.However, this is not necessarily the case in children and adolescents, where the hyoid bone is still flexible as ossification is yet to be completed
17Auditory ossicle Three small paired bones, called auditory ossicles Located within the middle-ear cavities in the petrous part of the temporal bones.From outer to inner, the malleus (“hammer”), incus (“anvil”), and stapes (“stirrup”).Their movements transmit sound impulses through the middle-ear
18Vertebral ColumnComposed of 33 individual vertebrae, some of which are fused.Consist of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 4 to 5 fused sacral, and 3 or 5 fused coccygealAdult vertebral column composed of a total of 26 movable parts.Vertebrae are separated by fibrocartilaginous intervertebral discs.Secured to each other by interlocking processes and binding ligaments.Between the vertebrae are openings called intervertebral foramina that allow passage of spinal nerves.
20General structure of vertebrae Common patternBody or centrumVertebral archlaminapedicleVertebral foramenSpinous processMuscles attachTransverse process
21General structure of vertebrae Interlocking patternSuperior and inferior processes interlockThe inferior from above and the superior from the vertebrae below form a movable jointThe movement contributes to spinal rotationSuperior ArticularProcess
22Regional Characteristic: Cervical Body is oval, but wide side to side C3 - C7Spinous process is short and bifid (split) except in C7Vertebral foramen is triangularTransverse processes contain foramina for blood vessels leading to brain
23Cervical Vertebrae C1Lateral masses articulates with the occipital condyles of the skull
24Cervical Vertebrae C1Body of theVertebrae ismissingInferior articular surface articulates with C2 below
25Cervical Vertebrae C2The axis has the odontoid process or dens is its unique featureThe dens is the missing body of the atlas which fuses with the atlas during embryonic development
27Regional Characteristic: Thoracic Body is larger than cervical; heart shapedSpinous process is long and sharpVertebral foramen is circularTransverse processes project posteriorly and bear facets for ribs
28Regional Characteristic: Lumbar Body is massive and kidney shapedSpinous processes are short and bluntVertebral foramen is triangularTransverse processes are perpendicular to spinous process but has no special features
29Regional Characteristic: Lumbar Spinous process projects posteriorlySuperior facets directed mediallyInferior facets directed laterallyFlexion/extension, some lateral flexion, rotation prevented
30SacralAla are fused remnants of transverse processes that articulate with hip bones to form the sacro iliac joints of the pelvisSacral promontoryCenter of gravity is 1 cm posterior of this pointTransverse line are sites of vertebral fusionSacral foramina transmit blood vessels and nervesAlaSacralpromontory
31SacralOn the posterior aspect median sacral crest are fused spinous processesThe vertebral canal continues inside the sacrum as the sacral canalSacral hiatus is at the inferior end of the sacral canalSuperior articular surface form a joint with the spinal column
33Sternum Located on the anterior midline of the thorax Consists of three fused bones; manubrium, body, and xiphoid processManibrium articulates with clavicle & 2 ribsBody with ribs 2 - 7Xiphoid attachment site for abdominal muscle
35Ribs Ribs are bowed flat bones Long shaft Tear drop shaped with a costal groove on inner surfaceHead of rib has 2 facets to articulate with its vertebrae as well as the one above
36Ribs Tubercle of rib articulates with transverse process Ligaments secure rib to transverse processNote how the transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae are angled posteriorly
37Rib CageThe cone-shaped, flexible rib cage, consists of the thoracic vertebrae,12 paired ribs, costal cartilages, and the sternum.Encloses and protects the thoracic visceraDirectly involved in the mechanics of breathing.
39Pectoral Gridle Two scapulae and two clavicles having only an anterior attachment to the axial skeleton sternoclavicular joint at the sternum.Lacking a posterior attachment to the axial skeleton, the pectoral girdle has a wide range of movement.Function:- To provide attachment areas for the numerous muscles that move the shoulder and elbow joints.
40ClaviculaeLies almost horizontally on each side of the neck, extending from the sternum to the acromion of the scapula
47The radius The bones of forearm The radius is the lateral bone of the two in the forearm. It has a shaft and two ends.The proximal endA head, neck and tuberosity;head is disc-shaped and its upper surface is a shallow cup—articular fovea for articulation with the capitulum of the humerus. Its articular circumference articulates with radial notch of the ulna.Shaft of radius: interosseous borderDistal endUlnar notch, styloid process, carpal articular surface
49The bones of handThree parts: the carpal bones, the metacarpal bones and phalangesThe carpal bonesThere are eight short bones, arranged in two rows of fourProximal row from lateral to medial include:Distal row from lateral to medial include:
54Pelvic GridleFormed by two ossa coxae. together with sacrum and coccyx pelvisUnited anteriorly at the symphysis pubisAttached posteriorly to the sacrum of the vertebral column.Function:- support the weight of the body from the vertebral column (with assosiated ligament)- supports and protects the lower viscera, (urinary bladder, reproductive organs, developing fetus)
58Lower ExtermitasThe lower limb which is similar to the upper, is connected to the trunk by a girdle, the pelvix girdle, the free lower limb is divided into three segements, the thigh, the leg and the foot.FemoralisGenuCrus : - Tibia- FibulaPes