CHECK ●The scene o Is it safe for YOU to enter? o What can you gather from the surroundings that might help you infer what happened? o Examples of an unsafe scene? ●The victim(s) o Unconscious? Life-threatening condition? Need IMMEDIATE care! Only move a victim if he/she is in direct physical danger Checking an Unconscious Adult and Child (3:36)
CALL ●YOU call or tell someone else at the scene to call - 911!
CARE ●Gain CONSENT from victim if possible. o Child under the the age of 18 - need consent from a parent/guardian o Unconscious victim? - Implied consent ●Good Samaritan Laws o LOOK IT UP! … Book, cell phone, ask your neighbor!
Good Samaritan Laws Statutes that protect rescuers from being sued for giving emergency care.
CARE ●Use Standard (Universal) Precautions Steps taken to prevent the spread of disease through blood and other body fluids when providing first aid or health care. o Any examples? o Sterile gloves, breathing barrier, washing hands
First Aid - Wounds 4 Types of Wounds Abrasion Laceration Puncture Avulsion
Abrasion - Laceration - Puncture - Avulsion 1.Also known as a scrape; Skin is scraped against a hard surface, breaking the surface of the skin. 2. A small, but deep hole caused by a sharp and narrow object. 3. Skin or tissue is partly or completely torn away. Usually require stitches. 4. Caused by a sharp object slicing through layers of skin.
Pair -Share Any memories?? Share a personal story with your neighbor!
First Aid - Bleeding ●Use Standard Precautions ●IF bleeding is severe, call 911 first before taking these next steps: 1.Wash wound thoroughly 2.Raise wounded part above heart level 3.Cover wound with sterile gauze or cloth 4.Put pressure on the gauze- do not stop to check wound 5.Apply more gauze if needed 6.5 min - if wound continues to bleed, call 911
First Aid - Bleeding Caution: Video shows use of fake blood/make- up! Controlling External Bleeding (2:28)
First Aid - Muscles, Bones & Joints Fracture - a break in a bone Dislocation - a separation of a bone from its normal position in a joint R.I.C.E Rest, Immobilize,Cold, Elevate Injuries to Muscles, Bones and Joints (1:41)
First Aid - Burns Caused by HEAT - flame, hot objects, scalding hot water or steam, electricity, certain chemicals or over exposure to the sun Superficial Burn(1st degree) Partial- Thickness Burn(2nd degree) Full-Thickness Burn (3rd degree)
Superficial Burn (1st Degree) ●Minor burns involving only the outer layer of the skin called the epidermis. ●Symptoms o Red skin, possible swelling & pain CARE (All 1st degree & some 2nd degree) 1.Cool the burned area by holding it under cool running water for at least 5 minutes a.If not possible, immerse burn in cool water or wrap in cool cloth b.DO NOT USE ICE! 2.Cover burn loosely with sterile gauze/bandage 3.OTC pain reliever
Partial-Thickness (2nd Degree) ●Burns involving the epidermis and the underlying layers of the skin called the dermis. ●Symptoms o Very red skin, blisters, severe pain and swelling. ●May require medical attention CARE 1.Follow same steps for 1st degree 2.If signs of infection develop (increased pain, redness, fever, swelling or oozing) Seek medical help. 3.If a sever 2nd burn - call 911
Full-Thickness (3rd Degree) ●Severe burns involving all layers of the skin and may penetrate tissue. ●Symptoms o Possible charred black or white and dry skin, possible visible muscle and/or bone. ●Requires medical attention CARE 1.Call 911 2.Cover burned area with a clean moist cloth 3.DO NOT remove burned clothing unless it is still smoldering 4.Do NOT immerse large burned area in cool water - victim can go into shock.
Sudden Illness - Jigsaw Notes Home base group of 6, each group member will choose a number to become an expert on! Experts will meet in a like group to discuss their topic, and will then report back to their home base to teach the rest of the group. You will have 5 minutes in your expert groups! 1.Nose Bleeds 2.Fainting 3.Poisoning 4.Animal & Snake Bites 5.Concussion 6.Unconsciousness
Sudden Illness Quiz 1.When treating a nose bleed how long do you attempt to stop the bleeding before seeking medical help? 2.What are the first aid steps for someone who faints? 3.What is the first step to take in any case of suspected poisoning? 4.What are the basics of treating an animal bite? 5.What exactly is a concussion? 6.If you find someone who is unconscious what are the first three things you should do?
First Aid - Allergic Reactions Allergy - a specific reaction of the immune system to a foreign and frequently harmless substance ●Allergens include (not limited to): o Pollen, certain foods, dust, mold spores, chemicals, insect venom, animal dander and certain medications. ●Common reactions - sneezing/runny nose ●Serious reactions - life-threatening symptoms o Severe hives, itching, swelling of an area, difficulty breathing/swallowing, swelling of tongue/mouth/eyes, sharp drop in blood pressure Anyone know the most common cause of food allergies? NUTS What is the most dangerous reaction to an allergy known as? Anaphylaxis
Epi Pen Demonstration Life-threatening allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) will most likely require the use of an Epi Pen. It is a self-injectable device that contains Epinephrine. Inject into outer thigh - Epinephrine will be delivered through the muscle and into the bloodstream to combat the allergic reaction Epi Pen - 0.3 mg (typically) Epi Pen Jr. - 0.15 mg (typically)
First Aid - Shock A life-threatening condition in which the heart is not delivering an adequate supply of blood to the body. Symptoms Include: ●Cold, Clammy skin, which may appear pale or grayish ●Weak, rapid pulse and altered breathing ●Dull, staring eyes, which may have dilated pupils ●Fainting, weakness, confusion, or loss of consciousness Recognizing & Caring for Shock (1:52)
First Aid - Stroke An acute injury in which blood flow to the brain is interrupted- can be caused by a hemorrhage or a clot Learn how to spot the signs of a stroke - use the acronym F.A.S.T. Face - Ask victim to smile, one side of the face may droop. Arm - Ask victim to raise both arms, one arm may become weak or numb Speech - Ask victim to speak a simple sentence. Speech may be slurred. Time - to call 911, if someone shows any of these symptoms… even if they go away. Note the time when symptoms were first noticed.
First Aid - Choking Choking occurs when an object is stuck in a person’s windpipe, cutting of the flow of oxygen. What is the universal sign for choking? (On the count of 3 demonstrate it …...1,2,3!)
First Aid - Conscious Choking Symptoms/signs of choking include: Difficulty breathing, inability to breathe easily, inability to cough forcefully, face or lips turning blue/purple and possible loss of consciousness. First Aid - ●If the person can cough, encourage them to “keep coughing”. o They may be able to dislodge the item themselves ●If a person is clearly choking and needs assistance, call 911. ●Gain consent from the victim if they are conscious. ●Alternate 5 abdominal thrusts followed by 5 back blows ●If the person loses consciousness, lower them to the ground. ●Continue care for choking with modified CPR. Conscious Choking - Adult & Child (2:25) Conscious Choking - Infant (1:56)
First Aid - Unconscious Choking Adult and Child ●Use modified CPR ●CPR, finger/pinkie sweep for dislodged item after your chest compressions Infant ●Same care as conscious choking ●5 back blows, followed by 5 chest compressions (using 2-3 fingers) What would you do with a pregnant or large individual? Discuss with your neighbor ….
Cardiac Emergencies Cardiac Chain of Survival A sequence of actions that maximize the victim’s chance of survival.
Cardiac Emergencies Occurs when the heart does not function properly, and blood does not reach the brain and vital organs Most common Cardiac Emergencies: Heart Attack (Circulation Issue) Cardiac Arrest (Electrical Issue) The Heart's Electrical System (5:35)
CPR - Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Basic Cycle of CPR: 30 Compressions, 2 Rescue Breaths Recognizing & Caring for Cardiac Emergencies (4:28) CPR - Adult & Child (7:46) Adult Compress at least 2 inches 2 rescue breaths (1sec) Child Compress about 2 inches 2 rescue breaths (1 sec) Infant Compress 1 ½ inches Use 2-3 fingers 2 Rescue breaths (1 sec)
AED - Automated External Defibrillator A device that delivers an electric shock to the heart to restore its normal rhythm Using an AED (4:45)