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Chapter 1 Human Body An Orientation.

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1 Chapter 1 Human Body An Orientation

2 What is Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy: The study of the structures of body parts and their relationship to one another. Subdivided and studied as Gross or macroscopic Microscopic Developmental Physiology: The study of the function of the body’s structural machinery.

3 Gross or Macroscopic Anatomy
Gross anatomy is studied using both invasive and noninvasive methods with the goal of obtaining information about the macroscopic structure and organization of organs and organ systems. It can be studied with the naked eye. Regional: all structures are in one part of the body (abdomen, leg or hand) Systemic: gross anatomy of the body studied by systems. Surface: study of internal structures as they relate to overlying skin.

4 Gross or Macroscopic Anatomy
Surface Anatomy Regional Anatomy Systemic Anatomy

5 Microscopic Anatomy Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes Subdivided into Cytology: Study of cells Histology: Study of tissue

6 Microscopic Anatomy Cytology Histology

7 Developmental Anatomy
Traces structural changes throughout life Embryology: the study of developmental changes of the body before birth.

8 Specialized Branches of Anatomy
Pathological anatomy: study of structural changes caused by disease. Radiographic anatomy: study of internal structures visualized by specialized scanning procedures such as X-ray, MRI, and CT scans. Molecular Biology: study of anatomical structures at a subcellular level.

9 Pathological anatomy:
Radiographic anatomy: Molecular Biology

10 Physiology Considers the operation of specific organ systems.
Renal (Kidneys) Neurophysiology (Nerves) Cardiovascular ( Heart and blood vessels) Focuses on the function of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level.

11 Understanding physiology also requires a knowledge of physics, which explains
Electrical currents Blood pressure The way muscles use bones for movement

12 Physiology just like anatomy has its own groups of specialization.
Cell physiology: function of the cell Special physiology: physiology of specific organs Systemic physiology: physiology of systems Pathological physiology: effects of diseases on organs and system function.

13 Levels of Structural Organization
Chemical: atoms combine to form molecules Cellular: cells are made of molecules Tissue: consists of similar types of cells Organ: made of different types of tissue Organ system: consists of different organs that work closely together. Organism: made up of the organ systems All are arrange in order from least complex to most complex.

14 Levels of Structural Organization

15 Organ System Overview Integumentary System
Form external body covering Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair and nails. Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D

16 Skeletal System Composed of bone cartilage and ligaments
Protects and supports body organs Provides framework for muscles Site of blood cell formation Stores minerals

17 Muscular System Composed of muscles and tendons
Allows ,manipulation of the environment, locomotion and facial expression Maintains posture Produces heat

18 Nervous System Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves
Is the fast – acting control system of the body Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands. CNS: Central Nervous System PNS: Peripheral Nervous System

19 Nervous System


21 Cardiovascular System
Composed of the heart and blood vessels. The heart pumps blood The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body

22 Lymphatic System Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream Houses white blood cells involved with immunity.

23 Respiratory System Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.

24 Digestive System Composed of the oral cavity (Mouth), esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus and liver Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood Eliminates indigestible foodstuff as feces.

25 Urinary System Renal System
Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body Regulates water and electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood

26 Male Reproductive System
Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus deferens Main function to produce offspring Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones (testosterone, xy) Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract.

27 Female Reproductive System
Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes (fallopian tubes), uterus, and vagina Main function is to produce offspring Ovaries produce eggs and female hormones (estrogen and progesterone, XX) Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus Mammary glands produce milk to nourish newborn

28 Organ Systems Interrelationships
The integumentary system protects the body from the external environment. Digestive and respiratory systems, in contact with the external environment, take in nutrients and oxygen All organ systems within a body are dependent on one another.

29 Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood
Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary system and respiratory systems

30 Necessary Life Functions
Maintaining boundaries – the internal environment remains distinct from the external environment Cellular Level : accomplished by plasma membrane Organism level: accomplished by the skin Movement : locomotion, propulsion, (peristalsis) and contractility

31 Responsiveness: ability to sense change in the environment and respond to them
Digestion: breakdown of ingested foodstuffs Metabolism: all the chemical reactions that occur in the body Excretion: removal of waste from the body Reproduction : cellular and organismal level

32 Cellular: original cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells
Organismal : sperm and egg unite to make whole new person. Growth : increase in size of a body part or of the organism

33 Survival Needs Nutrients : needed for energy and cell building
Oxygen: necessary for metabolic reactions Water: provides the necessary environment for chemical reactions Normal body temperature: necessary for chemical reactions to occur at life – sustaining rates. 98oF or 37oC Atmospheric pressure: required for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs.

34 Homeostasis Homeostasis : ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever – changing outside world The internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium Chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis.

35 Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
Variable produce a change in the body The three interdependent components of control mechanisms Receptor: monitors the environments and responds to the changes (stimuli) Control center : determines the set point at which the variable is maintained Effector: provides the means to respond to stimuli

36 Negative feedback In negative feedback systems, the input shuts off the original stimulus Example: Regulation of room temperature

37 Positive Feedback In positive feedback systems, the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus Example: Regulation of blood clotting

38 Homeostatic Imbalance
Disturbance of homeostasis or the body’s normal equilibrium Overwhelming the usual negative feedback mechanism allows destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over.

39 Anatomical Positions Surface anatomy is divided into regional terms anterior meaning “front” and posterior meaning “back” Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs pointed away from the body.

40 Anterior

41 Posterior

42 Directional Terms Superior and inferior: toward or away from the head. Up or down from the head. Medial lateral and intermediate: toward the midline, away from the midline, and between a more medial and lateral structure. Proximal and distal: closer to and farther from the origin of the body part. Superficial or deep: toward and away from the surface

43 Directional Anatomical Terms

44 Anatomical Landmarks

45 Anterior Landmarks Abdominal: anterior body trunk inferior to ribs
Acromial: point of shoulder Antecubital: anterior surface of elbow Axillary: armpit Brachial: arm Buccal: cheek area Carpal: wrist Cervical: neck region

46 Coxal: hip Crural: leg Digital: finger, toes Femoral: thigh Fibular: lateral part of leg Inguinal area where thigh meets body trunk or groin Nasal: nose area

47 Oral: mouth Orbital: eye area Patellar: anterior knee Pelvic: area overlying the pelvis anteriorly Pubic: genital region Sternal: breastbone area Tarsal: ankle region Thoracic: chest Umbilical: navel

48 Posterior Landmarks Calcaneal: heel of foot Cephalic: head
Deltoid: curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid muscles Femoral: thigh Gluteal: buttock Lumbar: area of back between ribs and hips Occipital: posterior surface of head

49 Olecranal: posterior surface of elbow
Popliteal: posterior surface of the knee area Sacral: area between the hips Scapular: shoulder blade region Sural: the posterior portion of the lower leg, calf Vertebral: area of the spine Plantar: region or sole of foot

50 Body Planes Frontal section is a cut made along a lengthwise plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts this is also called the coronal plane or section. Sagittal is a cut made along the lengthwise or longitudinal plane of the body, dividing it into right and left parts. If the cut is made down the median plane of the body and the right and left parts are equal in size it is called midsagittal plane

51 Coronal or Frontal Plane

52 Sagittal Plane

53 Midsagittal Plane

54 Transverse Plane A transverse section is a cut made along a horizontal plane, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts. It is also called a cross section

55 Transverse Plane

56 Body Cavities Dorsal Body Cavity: Posterior has two subdivisions Cranial cavity which is the space inside the bony skull The second cavity is the Spinal Cavity which extends from the cranial cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral column

57 Dorsal Body Cavities

58 Ventral Body Cavity Ventral body cavity anterior is larger than the dorsal and subdivided. Thoracic Cavity: contains the heart lungs Abdominal cavity: contains the stomach, liver, and intestines. Pelvic cavity: contains the reproductive organs, bladder and rectum

59 Ventral Body Cavity

60 Body Regions There are nine body regions
Umbilical Region: center most region deep and surrounding the naval Epigastic Region: located superior to the umbilicus. “epi” meaning above “gastric” meaning stomach Hypogastric (Pubic) Region: is inferior to umbilical region “hypo” means below

61 Right and left iliac or inguinal region: lateral to the hypogastric region, iliac is the superior part of hip bone Right and left lumbar region: lie lateral to umbilical region “lumbus” meaning loin Right and left hypochondriac Region: flank the epigastric region and contain the lower rib “chondro” means cartilage

62 9 Body Regions

63 Quadrants of the body There are four quadrants of the body that are used to identify location of injury or pain. Right upper quadrant: RUQ Left upper quadrant: LUQ Right Lower quadrant: RLQ Left lower quadrant: LLQ

64 Quadrants of the body

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