2What is Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy: The study of the structures of body parts and their relationship to one another.Subdivided and studied asGross or macroscopicMicroscopicDevelopmentalPhysiology: The study of the function of the body’s structural machinery.
3Gross or Macroscopic Anatomy Gross anatomy is studied using both invasive and noninvasive methods with the goal of obtaining information about the macroscopic structure and organization of organs and organ systems. It can be studied with the naked eye.Regional: all structures are in one part of the body (abdomen, leg or hand)Systemic: gross anatomy of the body studied by systems.Surface: study of internal structures as they relate to overlying skin.
4Gross or Macroscopic Anatomy Surface AnatomyRegional AnatomySystemic Anatomy
5Microscopic AnatomyMicroscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopesSubdivided intoCytology: Study of cellsHistology: Study of tissue
7Developmental Anatomy Traces structural changes throughout lifeEmbryology: the study of developmental changes of the body before birth.
8Specialized Branches of Anatomy Pathological anatomy: study of structural changes caused by disease.Radiographic anatomy: study of internal structures visualized by specialized scanning procedures such as X-ray, MRI, and CT scans.Molecular Biology: study of anatomical structures at a subcellular level.
10Physiology Considers the operation of specific organ systems. Renal (Kidneys)Neurophysiology (Nerves)Cardiovascular ( Heart and blood vessels)Focuses on the function of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level.
11Understanding physiology also requires a knowledge of physics, which explains Electrical currentsBlood pressureThe way muscles use bones for movement
12Physiology just like anatomy has its own groups of specialization. Cell physiology: function of the cellSpecial physiology: physiology of specific organsSystemic physiology: physiology of systemsPathological physiology: effects of diseases on organs and system function.
13Levels of Structural Organization Chemical: atoms combine to form moleculesCellular: cells are made of moleculesTissue: consists of similar types of cellsOrgan: made of different types of tissueOrgan system: consists of different organs that work closely together.Organism: made up of the organ systemsAll are arrange in order from least complex to most complex.
15Organ System Overview Integumentary System Form external body coveringComposed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair and nails.Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D
16Skeletal System Composed of bone cartilage and ligaments Protects and supports body organsProvides framework for musclesSite of blood cell formationStores minerals
17Muscular System Composed of muscles and tendons Allows ,manipulation of the environment, locomotion and facial expressionMaintains postureProduces heat
18Nervous System Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves Is the fast – acting control system of the bodyResponds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands.CNS: Central Nervous SystemPNS: Peripheral Nervous System
21Cardiovascular System Composed of the heart and blood vessels.The heart pumps bloodThe blood vessels transport blood throughout the body
22Lymphatic SystemComposed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vesselsPicks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to bloodDisposes of debris in the lymphatic streamHouses white blood cells involved with immunity.
23Respiratory SystemComposed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungsKeeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.
24Digestive SystemComposed of the oral cavity (Mouth), esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus and liverBreaks down food into absorbable units that enter the bloodEliminates indigestible foodstuff as feces.
25Urinary System Renal System Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethraEliminates nitrogenous wastes from the bodyRegulates water and electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood
26Male Reproductive System Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus deferensMain function to produce offspringTestes produce sperm and male sex hormones (testosterone, xy)Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract.
27Female Reproductive System Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes (fallopian tubes), uterus, and vaginaMain function is to produce offspringOvaries produce eggs and female hormones (estrogen and progesterone, XX)Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetusMammary glands produce milk to nourish newborn
28Organ Systems Interrelationships The integumentary system protects the body from the external environment.Digestive and respiratory systems, in contact with the external environment, take in nutrients and oxygenAll organ systems within a body are dependent on one another.
29Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary system and respiratory systems
30Necessary Life Functions Maintaining boundaries – the internal environment remains distinct from the external environmentCellular Level : accomplished by plasma membraneOrganism level: accomplished by the skinMovement : locomotion, propulsion, (peristalsis) and contractility
31Responsiveness: ability to sense change in the environment and respond to them Digestion: breakdown of ingested foodstuffsMetabolism: all the chemical reactions that occur in the bodyExcretion: removal of waste from the bodyReproduction : cellular and organismal level
32Cellular: original cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells Organismal : sperm and egg unite to make whole new person.Growth : increase in size of a body part or of the organism
33Survival Needs Nutrients : needed for energy and cell building Oxygen: necessary for metabolic reactionsWater: provides the necessary environment for chemical reactionsNormal body temperature: necessary for chemical reactions to occur at life – sustaining rates. 98oF or 37oCAtmospheric pressure: required for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs.
34HomeostasisHomeostasis : ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever – changing outside worldThe internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibriumChemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis.
35Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Variable produce a change in the bodyThe three interdependent components of control mechanismsReceptor: monitors the environments and responds to the changes (stimuli)Control center : determines the set point at which the variable is maintainedEffector: provides the means to respond to stimuli
36Negative feedbackIn negative feedback systems, the input shuts off the original stimulusExample: Regulation of room temperature
37Positive FeedbackIn positive feedback systems, the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulusExample: Regulation of blood clotting
38Homeostatic Imbalance Disturbance of homeostasis or the body’s normal equilibriumOverwhelming the usual negative feedback mechanism allows destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over.
39Anatomical PositionsSurface anatomy is divided into regional terms anterior meaning “front” and posterior meaning “back”Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs pointed away from the body.
42Directional TermsSuperior and inferior: toward or away from the head. Up or down from the head.Medial lateral and intermediate: toward the midline, away from the midline, and between a more medial and lateral structure.Proximal and distal: closer to and farther from the origin of the body part.Superficial or deep: toward and away from the surface
45Anterior Landmarks Abdominal: anterior body trunk inferior to ribs Acromial: point of shoulderAntecubital: anterior surface of elbowAxillary: armpitBrachial: armBuccal: cheek areaCarpal: wristCervical: neck region
46Coxal: hipCrural: legDigital: finger, toesFemoral: thighFibular: lateral part of legInguinal area where thigh meets body trunk or groinNasal: nose area
47Oral: mouthOrbital: eye areaPatellar: anterior kneePelvic: area overlying the pelvis anteriorlyPubic: genital regionSternal: breastbone areaTarsal: ankle regionThoracic: chestUmbilical: navel
48Posterior Landmarks Calcaneal: heel of foot Cephalic: head Deltoid: curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid musclesFemoral: thighGluteal: buttockLumbar: area of back between ribs and hipsOccipital: posterior surface of head
49Olecranal: posterior surface of elbow Popliteal: posterior surface of the knee areaSacral: area between the hipsScapular: shoulder blade regionSural: the posterior portion of the lower leg, calfVertebral: area of the spinePlantar: region or sole of foot
50Body PlanesFrontal section is a cut made along a lengthwise plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts this is also called the coronal plane or section.Sagittal is a cut made along the lengthwise or longitudinal plane of the body, dividing it into right and left parts. If the cut is made down the median plane of the body and the right and left parts are equal in size it is called midsagittal plane
56Body CavitiesDorsal Body Cavity: Posterior has two subdivisions Cranial cavity which is the space inside the bony skullThe second cavity is the Spinal Cavity which extends from the cranial cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral column
58Ventral Body CavityVentral body cavity anterior is larger than the dorsal and subdivided.Thoracic Cavity: contains the heart lungsAbdominal cavity: contains the stomach, liver, and intestines.Pelvic cavity: contains the reproductive organs, bladder and rectum
60Body Regions There are nine body regions Umbilical Region: center most region deep and surrounding the navalEpigastic Region: located superior to the umbilicus. “epi” meaning above “gastric” meaning stomachHypogastric (Pubic) Region: is inferior to umbilical region “hypo” means below
61Right and left iliac or inguinal region: lateral to the hypogastric region, iliac is the superior part of hip boneRight and left lumbar region: lie lateral to umbilical region “lumbus” meaning loinRight and left hypochondriac Region: flank the epigastric region and contain the lower rib “chondro” means cartilage
63Quadrants of the bodyThere are four quadrants of the body that are used to identify location of injury or pain.Right upper quadrant: RUQLeft upper quadrant: LUQRight Lower quadrant: RLQLeft lower quadrant: LLQ