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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings C h a p t e r 11 The Muscular System PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings C h a p t e r 11 The Muscular System PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings C h a p t e r 11 The Muscular System PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared by Jason LaPres Lone Star College - North Harris Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings An Introduction to the Muscular System  The Muscular System  Consists only of skeletal muscles  Muscle Organization and Function  Muscle organization affects power, range, and speed of muscle movement  Fascicles  Muscle cells (fibers) are organized in bundles (fascicles)

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fascicle Arrangement  Classification of Skeletal Muscles  By the way fascicles are organized  By relationships of fascicles to tendons

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fascicle Arrangement  Organization of Skeletal Muscle Fibers  Four patterns of fascicle organization  Parallel  Convergent  Pennate  Circular

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fascicle Arrangement  Parallel Muscles  Fibers parallel to the long axis of muscle  For example, biceps brachii  Directly relates to cross section of muscle

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fascicle Arrangement  Convergent Muscles  A broad area converges on attachment site (tendon, aponeurosis, or raphe)  Muscle fibers pull in different directions, depending on stimulation  For example, pectoralis muscles

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fascicle Arrangement  Pennate Muscles  Form an angle with the tendon  Do not move as far as parallel muscles Develop more tension than parallel muscles

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fascicle Arrangement  Pennate Muscles  Unipennate  Fibers on one side of tendon  For example, extensor digitorum  Bipennate  Fibers on both sides of tendon  For example, rectus femoris  Multipennate  Tendon branches within muscle  For example, deltoid

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fascicle Arrangement  Circular Muscles  Also called sphincters  Open and close to guard entrances of body  For example, orbicularis oris muscle of the mouth

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Levers  Skeletal Motion  Skeletal muscles attach to skeleton, produce motion  Type of muscle attachment affects power, range, and speed of muscle movement

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Muscle Attachments to Other Tissues  Origins and Insertions  Muscles have one fixed point of attachment (origin) and one moving point of attachment (insertion)  Most muscles originate or insert on the skeleton  Origin is usually proximal to insertion

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Muscle Attachments to Other Tissues  Actions  Movements produced by muscle contraction - All muscles pull; no muscles push  Body movements  For example, flexion, extension, adduction, etc.  Described in terms of bone, joint, or region

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements - From chapter 9  Angular Motion  Flexion  Angular motion  Anterior–posterior plane  Reduces angle between elements  Extension  Angular motion  Anterior–posterior plane  Increases angle between elements

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements  Angular Motion  Hyperextension  Angular motion  Extension past anatomical position Angular Movements

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements  Angular Motion  Abduction  Angular motion  Frontal plane  Moves away from longitudinal axis  Adduction  Angular motion  Frontal plane  Moves toward longitudinal axis

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements  Angular Motion  Circumduction  Circular motion without rotation  Angular motion

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements  Types of Movement  Rotation  Direction of rotation from anatomical position  Relative to longitudinal axis of body  Left or right rotation  Medial rotation (inward rotation): –rotates toward axis  Lateral rotation (outward rotation): –rotates away from axis

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements  Types of Movements  Rotation  Pronation: –rotates forearm, radius over ulna  Supination: –forearm in anatomical position

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements  Types of Movements  Special movements  Inversion: –twists sole of foot medially  Eversion: –twists sole of foot laterally  Dorsiflexion: –flexion at ankle (lifting toes)  Plantar flexion: –extension at ankle (pointing toes)

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements  Special Movements  Opposition  Thumb movement toward fingers or palm (grasping)  Protraction  Moves anteriorly  In the horizontal plane (pushing forward)  Retraction  Opposite of protraction  Moving posteriorly (pulling back)

21 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements  Special Movements  Elevation  Moves in superior direction (up)  Depression  Moves in inferior direction (down)  Lateral flexion  Bends vertebral column from side to side

22 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Muscle Attachments to Other Tissues - chpt 11  Muscle Interactions  Muscles work in groups to maximize efficiency  Smaller muscles reach maximum tension first, followed by larger, primary muscles

23 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Muscle Attachments to Other Tissues  Muscle Terminology Based on Function  Agonist (or prime mover)  Produces a particular movement  Antagonist  Opposes movement of a particular agonist  Synergist  A smaller muscle that assists a larger agonist  Helps start motion or stabilize origin of agonist (fixator)

24 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Muscle Attachments to Other Tissues  Muscle Opposition  Agonists and antagonists work in pairs:  When one contracts, the other stretches  Such as flexors–extensors, abductors–adductors, etc.

25 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Naming Skeletal Muscles  Descriptive Names for Skeletal Muscles  Location in the body  Origin and insertion  Fascicle organization  Relative position  Structural characteristics  Action

26 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Naming Skeletal Muscles  Location in the Body  Identifies body regions  For example, temporalis muscle  Origin and Insertion  First part of name indicates origin  Second part of name indicates insertion  For example, genioglossus muscle

27 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Naming Skeletal Muscles  Fascicle Organization  Describes fascicle orientation within muscle  i.e., rectus (straight), transversus, oblique

28 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Naming Skeletal Muscles  Relative Position  Externus (superficialis)  Visible at body surface  Internus (profundus)  Deep muscles  Extrinsic  Muscles outside an organ  Intrinsic  Muscles inside an organ

29 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Naming Skeletal Muscles  Structural Characteristics  Number of tendons  bi = 2, tri = 3  Shape  Trapezius, deltoid, rhomboid  Size  Many terms refer to muscle size

30 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Naming Skeletal Muscles  Descriptive Terms for Muscle Size  Longus = long  Longissimus = longest  Teres = long and round  Brevis = short  Magnus = large  Major = larger  Maximus = largest  Minor = small  Minimus = smallest

31 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Naming Skeletal Muscles  Action  Movements  For example, flexor, extensor, retractor  Occupations or habits  For example, risor = laughter

32 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Muscular System Overview  Divisions of the Muscular System  Axial muscles  Position head and spinal column  Move rib cage  60% of skeletal muscles  Appendicular muscles  Support pectoral and pelvic girdles  Support limbs  40% of skeletal muscles

33 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Axial Musculature  The Axial Muscles  Divisions based on location and function  Muscles of head and neck  Muscles of vertebral column  Oblique and rectus muscles  Muscles of pelvic floor

34 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Axial Musculature  Muscles of Facial Expression  Orbicularis oris: constricts the mouth opening  Muscles of the epicranium (scalp) Buccinator

35 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Axial Musculature  Muscles of Facial Expression  Muscles of the epicranium (scalp)  Temporoparietalis  Occipitofrontalis –Frontal and occipital bellies –Separated by epicranial aponeurosis  Platysma –Covers anterior surface of neck

36 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Axial Musculature  Muscles of Mastication  Masseter  The strongest jaw muscle  prime mover  Temporalis  Helps lift the mandible  synergist with the masseter MasseterTemporalis

37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Axial Musculature  Anterior Muscles of the Neck  Sternocleidomastoid  From clavicle and sternum to mastoid  aka “the prayer muscle”

38 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Axial Musculature  Oblique and Rectus Muscles  Lie within the body wall  Oblique muscles  Compress underlying structures  Rotate vertebral column  Rectus muscles  Flex vertebral column

39 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Axial Musculature  Oblique Muscles  Thoracic region  Intercostal muscles (external and internal) –Respiratory movements of ribs Internal Intercostals External Intercostals

40 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Axial Musculature  Oblique Muscles  Abdominopelvic region (same pattern as thoracic)  External oblique muscles  Internal oblique muscles  Transversus abdominis Transversus Abdominis Internal Obliques External Obliques

41 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Axial Musculature  Rectus Muscles  Rectus abdominis  Between xiphoid process and pubic symphysis  Divided longitudinally by linea alba  Divided transversely by tendinous inscriptions  Diaphragmatic muscle or diaphragm  Divides thoracic and abdominal cavities  Performs respiration Rectus Abdominis

42 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Position and stabilize pectoral and pelvic girdles  Move upper and lower limbs  Divisions of Appendicular Muscles  Muscles of the shoulders and upper limbs  Muscles of the pelvis and lower limbs

43 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Muscles of the Shoulders and Upper Limbs  Position the pectoral girdle  Move the arm  Move the forearm and hand  Move the hand and fingers

44 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle  Trapezius  Superficial  Covers back and neck to base of skull  Inserts on clavicles and scapular spines Trapezius

45 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle  Serratus anterior  On the chest  Originates along ribs  Inserts on anterior scapular margin Serratus Anterior

46 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle Pectoralis minor  Attaches to scapula Pectoralis Minor

47 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Muscles That Move the Arm  Deltoid  The major abductor  prime mover Supraspinatus

48 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Muscles That Move the Arm  Pectoralis major  Between anterior chest and greater tubercle of humerus  Produces flexion at shoulder joint  prime mover  Latissimus dorsi  Between thoracic vertebrae and humerus  Produces extension at shoulder joint Pectoralis MajorLatissimus Dorsi

49 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  The Rotator Cuff  Muscles involved in shoulder rotation  Supraspinatus, subscapularis, infraspinatus, teres minor, and their tendons Teres Minor

50 Appendicular Musculature

51

52 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand  Extensors  Mainly on posterior and lateral surfaces of arm  Flexors  Mainly on anterior and medial surfaces

53 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Flexors of the Elbow  Biceps brachii  Flexes elbow  Stabilizes shoulder joint  Originates on scapula  Inserts on radial tuberosity  Brachialis and brachioradialis  Flex elbow Biceps Brachii

54 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Extensors of the Elbow  Triceps brachii  Extends elbow  prime mover  Originates on scapula  Inserts on olecranon  aka “the boxer’s muscle” Triceps Brachii

55 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Muscles of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs  Pelvic girdle is tightly bound to axial skeleton  Permits little movement  Has few muscles

56 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Muscles That Position the Lower Limbs  Muscles that move the thigh  Muscles that move the leg  Muscles that move the foot and toes

57 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Muscles That Move the Thigh  Gluteal muscles  Lateral rotators  Adductors 3D Peel-Away of Muscles of the Thigh

58 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Muscles That Move the Thigh: Gluteal Muscles  Cover lateral surfaces of ilia  Gluteus maximus - prime mover  Largest, most posterior gluteal muscle  Produces extension and lateral rotation at hip  Tensor fasciae latae  works with gluteus maximus  Stabilizes iliotibial tract  Gluteus medius and gluteus minimus  Originate anterior to gluteus maximus  Insert on trochanter

59 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Muscles That Move the Thigh: Adductors  Gracilis  Hip flexion and adduction

60 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Muscles That Move the Leg  Flexors of the knee  Originate on the pelvic girdle  Extensors of the knee  Originate on the femoral surface  Insert on the patella

61 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Flexors of the Knee  Hamstrings  Biceps femoris  Semimembranosus  Semitendinosus  Sartorius - aka “the tailor’s muscle”  Originates superior to the acetabulum

62 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Muscles That Move the Leg  Extensors of the knee  Four muscles of the quadriceps femoris –Three vastus muscles –Rectus femoris muscle

63 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Muscles That Produce Extension (plantar flexion) at the Ankle  Gastrocnemius - aka “the toe-dancer’s muscle”  Soleus 3D Peel-Away of Muscles of the Leg and Foot

64 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature The Achilles Tendon  The calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon) –Shared by the gastrocnemius and soleus –NOT A Muscle; therefore incapable of contracting to produce movement

65 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Appendicular Musculature  Muscles That Produce Flexion (Dorsiflexsion) at the Ankle  Tibialis anterior  Antagonist of the gastrocnemius

66 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Effects of Aging on the Muscular System  Skeletal muscle fibers become smaller in diameter  Skeletal muscles become less elastic  Develop increasing amounts of fibrous tissue (fibrosis)  Decreased tolerance for exercise  Decreased ability to recover from muscular injuries


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