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The Pelvic Girdle.  The many names for this region ◦ Pelvis: composed of 2 innominate bones and the sacrum ◦ Innominate (or Os Coxae): each half of the.

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Presentation on theme: "The Pelvic Girdle.  The many names for this region ◦ Pelvis: composed of 2 innominate bones and the sacrum ◦ Innominate (or Os Coxae): each half of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Pelvic Girdle

2  The many names for this region ◦ Pelvis: composed of 2 innominate bones and the sacrum ◦ Innominate (or Os Coxae): each half of the “pelvic bowl” formed by the fusion of  Ilium  Ischium  Pubis

3  ILIUM – most superior of the 3 the blade  ISCHIUM - most inferior of the 3 the ‘sit bone’  PUBIS – most anterior of the 3 forms the symphysis

4  FUNCTIONS: ◦ Support internal organs ◦ Changes in the human pelvis allow for bipedal locomotion

5 Each innominate articulates with *sacrum (at the auricular surface) *one femur (at the acetabulum) *the other innominate (at pubic symph)

6  The ilium: medially - ◦ Iliac crest – superior rim ◦ Iliac fossa – superior depression under rim ◦ ASIS and AIIS ◦ Arcuate line – midline inferior ridge ◦ Iliac tuberosity – posterior rugosity ◦ Auricular surface - posterior (art.w/ sacrum) ◦ Preauricular sulcus

7  The ilium: laterally – ◦ Iliac crest ◦ Iliac pillar – ridge on midline of blade ◦ PSIS and PIIS ◦ Greater sciatic notch ◦ Acetabulum (actually the point where all three bones fuse together, art. w/femur)

8  The ischium and pubis – medially ◦ Pubic ramus: anterior/superior, twists ◦ Pubic symphysis: most anterior point ◦ Ischiopubic ramus: flat ◦ Obturator foramen: big hole  The ischium and pubis – laterally ◦ Ischial spine: most inferior/posterior ◦ Lesser sciatic notch: inferior ◦ Ischial tuberosity: very thick ◦ Pubic tubercle: anterior, above symph

9  Orient ilium (crest and blade) superior  Orient the pubic symphysis anteriorly and medially, ischium posterior and inferior  The acetabulum is on the side of origin (lateral)

10  Ischiopubic ramus; 5-8 years  Acetabululm; years  Ischial tuberosity; years  Iliac crest; years

11  The pelvis is best for sex – due to changes in the pelvis for childbirth, there are numerous, easy to distinguish features that help differentiate males from females in both the PUBIS and the ILIUM  ALSO, well developed methods for aging adults based on changes in the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS

12 TO RECAP:  SEX: PUBIS AND ILIUM  AGE: FUSIONS, AURICULAR SURFACES, PUBIC SYMPHYSIS

13  Large, wedge-shaped  Composed of 5 sacral vertebrae – fused  Articulates with L5, both innominates  Characteristics ◦ Large bodies ◦ Reduced spinous processes

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16  Superiorly ◦ Sacral promontory (sup/ant): central, superior border of S1 ◦ Superior articular facets: articulation of L5-S1 ◦ Spinal canal ◦ Ala (wings)  Laterally ◦ Auricular surface ◦ Spinous processes  Posteriorly – ◦ Posterior sacral foramina  Anteriorly ◦ Anterior sacral foramina ◦ Transverse line of fusion

17  Male vs female ◦ Males sacrum curved ◦ Females sacrum straight (WHY?)  Age ◦ Transverse line between S1 – S2 closes mid twenties

18  Coccyx – group of fused bones vs coccygeal vertebra (individual bone)  Usually 4 segments fused – variation 3-5  CV1 had transverse processes and horns (cornua)  CV2+ are variable, small, frequently lost  Typically all fuse together and frequently to sacrum

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