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Muscular System 2012-2013. Vocab development Calat- something inserted Erg- work Fasc- bundle -gram- something written Hyper- over, more inter;- between.

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Presentation on theme: "Muscular System 2012-2013. Vocab development Calat- something inserted Erg- work Fasc- bundle -gram- something written Hyper- over, more inter;- between."— Presentation transcript:

1 Muscular System 2012-2013

2 Vocab development Calat- something inserted Erg- work Fasc- bundle -gram- something written Hyper- over, more inter;- between Iso-equal Laten- hidden Myo- muscle Reticul- a net Sarco- flesh Syn- together Tetan- stiff -tonic- stretched -troph- well fed Voluntar- of one’s free will

3 Introduction Muscles are organs made of cells that use chemical energy stored in nutrients to exert a force on the structures they are attached to. Muscle actions provide: – Muscle tone – Propel body fluids and food – Generate the heartbeat – Distribute heat

4 Introduction 3 types of muscle – Skeletal – Smooth – Cardiac

5 Structure of Skeletal Muscle Composed mostly of skeletal muscle tissue, nervous tissue, blood, and other connective tissues Layers of connective tissue enclose and separate all parts of a skeletal muscle allowing the parts to move somewhat independently.

6 Skeletal Muscle: Connective Tissue Coverings Fascia – Separates a muscle from its adjacent muscles; covers the whole muscle Tendon – Connect a muscle to a bone Aponeuroses – connects muscle to bone and other muscles

7 Skeletal Muscle: Connective Tissue Coverings Epimysium – Closely surrounds a skeletal muscle Perimysium – Extends inward from epimysium & separates the muscle tissue into small sections called fascicles Endomysium – Each muscle fiber within a fascicle is covered by this

8 Skeletal Muscle Fibers Each muscle fiber forms from many undifferentiated cells that fuse together Each muscle fiber is multinucleate Shaped like a long, thin cylinder with rounded ends Sarcolemma- just beneath the muscle cell membrane Sarcoplasm- cytoplasm of the fiber

9 Skeletal Muscle Fibers Myofibrils – Bundles of threadlike structures found within muscle fibers – Fundamental in the muscle contraction mechanism – Consist of 2 types of proteins Myosin- thick filaments Actin- thin filaments – Alternating of the myosin & actin causes the striations found in skeletal muscle Sarcomeres- repeating patterns of striations along each muscle fiber

10 Skeletal Muscle Fibers

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12 Sarcoplasmic reticulum – Within the sarcoplasm of a muscle fiber – Network of channels that surrounds each myofibril

13 Skeletal Muscle Contraction Complex interaction of cellular and chemical pieces The result is movement within the myofibrils where the filaments of actin and myosin slide past each other causing the sarcomere to shorten

14 Skeletal Muscle Contraction Energy Sources – ATP Muscle fiber only has enough ATP to contract briefly so it must be able to regenerate ATP – Creatine Phosphate Initial source of energy to regenerate ATP Much more abundant in muscle fibers than ATP, but it cannot supply energy directly to the cell – Cellular Respiration

15 Skeletal Muscle Contraction 10 steps to muscle contraction 1. An action potential is conducted down a motor neuron axon 2. The motor neuron terminal releases the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) 3. ACh binds to ACh receptors on the muscle fiber 4. The sarcolemma is stimulated, an action potential is generated, and the impulse is conducted over the surface of the muscle fiber and deep into the fiber through the transverse tubules.

16 Skeletal Muscle Contraction 5. The impulse reaches the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and calcium channels open. 6. Calcium ions diffuse from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcoplasm and bind to tropin molecules. 7. Tropomyosin molecules move and expose specific sites on actin. 8. Actin and myosin link, forming cross-bridges. 9. Thin (actin) filaments are pulled toward the center of the sarcomere by myosin cross-bridges increasing the overlap of the thin and thick filaments. 10. The muscle fiber contracts.

17 Skeletal Muscle Relaxation 1. Acetylcholinesterase decomposes acetylcholine, and the muscle fiber membrane is no longer stimulated. 2. Calcium ions are actively transported into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. ATP breaks linkages between actin and myosin filaments without breakdown of ATP itself 4. Breakdown of ATP “cocks” the myosin heads. 5. Troponin and tropomyosin molecules inhibit the interaction between myosin and actin filaments. 6. Muscle fiber remains relaxed until it is stimulated again.

18 Muscle Fatigue Caused by – Decreased blood flow – Ion imbalances due to repeated stimulation – Psychological loss of desire to continue – Lactic acid accumulation – Oxygen debt Lactic acid accumulation – Accumulates in the muscles when ATP production goes from aerobic to anaerobic

19 Muscular Responses Threshold Stimulus – A muscle fiber remains unresponsive until a certain strength of stimulation is reached, once this is reached an action potential is generated and the process of muscle contraction begins

20 Muscular Responses Recording a Muscle Contraction

21 Muscular Responses Summation –

22 Muscular Responses Types of Contractions – Isotonic Contractions (equal force –change in length)—allow you to move things Concentric-muscle contracts with greater force than resistance and shortens Eccentric- muscle contracts with less force than resistance and lengthens – Isometric Contractions – (equal length- change in force) – allow you to sit and hold your posture

23 Muscular Responses Fast & Slow Twitch Muscle Fibers – 3 types Slow twitch fibers (red fibers) – Produce ATP from oxygen making them more resistant to fatigue – These fibers can contract for long periods of time without fatigue Fast twitch fibers (white fibers) – Produce ATP primarily through glycolysis – Can contract rapidly but also fatigue rapidly as lactic acid accumulates in them Intermediate Fibers (white fibers) – Can contract rapidly and also have a larger respiratory capacity so they don’t fatigue like fast-twitch fibers

24 Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles lack striations Cells have only one nucleus 2 major types of smooth muscles – Multiunit – Visceral

25 Smooth Muscles Multiunit Smooth Muscle – Muscle fibers function as separate units – Found in the irises of the eyes & walls of large blood vessels – Contract after stimulation by neurons or certain hormones

26 Smooth Muscles Visceral Smooth Muscle – Fibers respond as a single unit – Found in the walls of hollow organs (intestines, stomach, bladder, uterus) – Two features- conduction of impulses and rythmicity produce peristalsis Peristalsis- wavelike motion of contraction – Peristalsis is what help your body move food from organ in the digestive system to the next – Vascular smooth muscle Found in the walls of small blood vessels where it helps control blood pressure and blood flow

27 Cardiac Muscle Found only in the heart Composed of striated cells joined end to end Opposite ends of cardiac cells are connected by intercalated discs – Help join cells, transmit the force of contraction, & diffuse ions from cell to cell

28 Skeletal Muscle Actions Skeletal action depends on – Type of joint it is associated with – The way the muscle is attached on either side of the joint

29 Skeletal Muscle Actions Body Movement – When a body part moves bones and muscles interact as a lever – 3 types of levers 1 st class- resistance-fulcrum, force (seesaw; when the arm straightens at the elbow) 2 nd class- fulcrum- resistance- force (wheelbarrow; when you chew something up) 3 rd class- resistance-force-fulcrum (tweezers- when the arm bends at the elbow)

30 Skeletal Muscle Actions Origin and Insertion – Origin- less moveable end of the muscle – Insertion- more moveable end of the muscle – When a muscle contracts Insertion is pulled toward its origin Head of the muscle is the part closest to its origin

31 Skeletal Muscle Action

32 Skeletal Muscle Actions Interaction of Skeletal Muscles – Agonist- muscle that causes an action – Synergists- muscles that work together – Prime mover- muscle that does most of the work during an action – Antagonists- muscle that opposes action

33 Major Skeletal Muscles Muscles of Facial Expression – Innervated by the facial nerve (CN VII) – Lack of symmetry in facial expression may indicate nerve damage

34 Muscles of Facial Expression Orbicularis oculi – orbicular= circular – Oculi= eye – Origin: orbital rim, frontal & maxillary bones – Insertion: lateral region of eye, some encircle the eye – Action: closing the eyelid – Expression: form’s crows feet

35 Muscles of Facial Expression Corrugator – Origin: frontal bone – Insertion: eyebrow – Action: draws eyebrow medially & inferiorly – Expression: frowning & suffering

36 Muscles of Facial Expression Procerus – Origin: fascia covering the lower nasal bone & upper lateral nasal cartilage – Insertion: skin between and above the eyebrows – Action: causes transverse wrinkles over the bridge of the nose – Expression: squinting

37 Muscles of Facial Expression Nasalis – Circles the opening of the nostrils – Has 2 parts: Dilator naris Compressor naris – Action: dilates & compresses nostrils Wiggles your nostrils

38 Muscles of Facial Expression Epicranius – Origin: occipital bone – Insertion: skin around the eye & orbicularis oculi – Action: elevates eyebrows, moves scalp forward & backward – Expression: surprise

39 Muscles of Facial Expression Orbicularis Oris – Oribicular= circle – oris = mouth – Origin: encircles mouth – Insertion: angle of mouth – Action: encloses & protrudes up; helps keep food on occlusal surfaces during chewing – Expression: closing or pursing lips

40 Muscles of Facial Expression Quadratus Labii Superioris – 4 muscles of the upper lip Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi Levator labii superioris Zygomaticus minor Zygomaticus major – Allow you to frown and smile

41 Muscles of Facial Expression Quadratus Labii Superioris cont… – Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi Origin: maxilla Insertion: nose Action: dilates nostrils & raises upper lip

42 Muscles of Facial Expression Quadratus Labii Superioris – Levator labii superioris Origin: maxilla Insertion: upper lip Action: raises upper lip Expression: scorn

43 Muscles of Facial Expresssion Quadratus Labii Superioris Cont… – Zygomaticus minor Origin: zygomatic bone Insertion: upper lip Action: raises upper lip Expression: scorn – Zygomaticus major Origin: zygomatic bone Insertion: angle of mouth Action: elevates the corner of the mouth Expression: smiling

44 Muscles of Facial Expression Levator Anguli Oris – Origin: canine fossa (on the maxilla) – Insertion: orbicularis oris – Action: elevates the angle of the mouth – Expression: smiling (laughing)

45 Muscles of Facial Expression Smiling – Produced by the contraction of 2 facial muscles: Zygomaticus major Oribicularis oculi

46 Muscles of Facial Expression Risorius – Origin: fasica superficial to masseter muscle – Insertion: angle of the mouth – Action: pulls angle of the mouth laterally – Expression: smiling widely; grinning

47 Muscles of Facial Expression Depressor labii inferioris – Origin: mandible – Insertion: lower lip – Action: depresses the angle of the mouth – Expression: sadness; grief

48 Muscles of Facial Expression Depressor Anguli Oris – A.K.A triagularis – Origin: mandible – Insertion: angle of the mouth – Action: depresses angle of the mouth – Expression: frowning

49 Muscles of Facial Expression Mentalis – Origin: mandible near the incisive fossa – Insertion: skin of the chin – Action: pulls skin of chin upward; protrudes lower lip; raise lower lip – Expression: doubt; disdain

50 Muscles of Facial Expression Buccinator – 2 origins: Pterygomandibular raphe Alveolar process of the mandible & maxilla – Insertion: orbicularis oris – Action: draws the corners of the lips laterally, compresses cheek, helps keep food on occlusal surface during chewing – Plays and important role in chewing – Makes up the musculature of the cheek

51 Muscles of Facial Expresion Laughter – Muscle that form the core of the laughter of exhilartion: Zygomatic major Oribicularis oculi – Muscles used to enhance laughter: Levator labii superioris Risorius Mentalis Depressor anguli oris Orbicularis oris

52 Muscles of Facial Expression Auriculares – 3 small muscles around the auricle of the ear – Not well developed in man – Allow you to wiggle your ears

53 Muscles of Facial Expression Platysma – Broad, thin, superficial muscle – Origin: fascia below clavicle – Insertion: lower border of mandible from canine to second molar – Action: depresses angle of the mouth, wrinkles the skin of the neck & upper chest – Expression: dejection, horror, grimacing

54 Muscles of Mastication 4 pairs of muscles attached to the mandible – 3 pairs close the lower jaw – 1 pair lowers the jaw & allows side to side movement

55 Muscles of Mastication Masseter – Origin: zygomatic arch – Insertion: lateral surface of the mandible – Action: elevates the mandible

56 Muscles of Mastication Temporalis – Origin: temporal fossa – Insertion: coronoid fossa of the mandible – Action: elevates the mandible; retraction

57 Muscles of Mastication Lateral Pterygoid – Origin: sphenoid bone – Insertion: mandibular condyle – Action: depresses & protracts mandible

58 Muscles of Mastication Medial Pterygoid – Origin: sphenoid, palatine, & maxilla – Insertion: medial surface of the mandible – Action: elevates mandible; moves it from side to side

59 Muscles That Move the Head and Vertebral Column Sternocleidomastoid – Origin:sternum & collar bone – Insertion: temporal bone – Action: pulls head to one side, flexes neck or elevates the sternum

60 Muscles That Move the Head & Vertebral Column Splenis Capitis – Origin: spinous process of lower cervical & upper thoracic vertebrae – Insertion: occipital bone – Action: rotates head, bends head to one side, or extends neck

61 Muscles That Move the Head & Vertebral Column Semispinalis capitis – Origin: processes of lower cervical & upper thoracic vertebrae – Insertion: occipital bone – Action: elevates head & rotates the head

62 Muscles that Move the Head & Vertebral Column Quadratus lumborum – Origin: iliac crest – Insertion: upper lumbar vertebrae & twelfth rib – Action: aids in breathing, extends lumbar region of vertebral column

63 Muscles That Move the Head & Vertebral Column Erector Spinae – Origin & Insertion at many locations on the axial skeleton – Action: extend & rotate the head & maintain the erect position of the vertebral column

64 Muscles That Move the Pectoral Girdle Work closely with the muscles that move the arm Connect the scapula to near by bones & help move the scapula up, down, forward, & backward

65 Muscles That Move the Pectoral Girdle Trapezius – Origin: occipital bone & spines of the cervical & thoracic vertebrae – Insertion: clavicle, spine, & acromion process of scapula – Action: rotates scapula; shrugs shoulders

66 Muscles That Move the Pectoral Girdle Rhomboid Major – Origin: spines of upper thoracic vertebrae – Insertion: medial border of the scapula – Action: retracts, elevates, & rotates the scapula

67 Muscles That Move the Pectoral Girdle Rhomboid Minor – Origin: spines of the lower cervical vertebrae – Insertion: medial border of the scapula – Action: retracts & elevates the scapula

68 Muscles That Move the Pectoral Girdle Levator Scapulae – Origin: transverse process of the cervical vertebrae – Insertion: medial margin of the scapula – Action: elevates scapula

69 Muscles That Move the Pectoral Girdle Serratus Anterior – Origin: outer surfaces of upper ribs – Insertion: ventral surface of scapula – Action: pulls scapula anteriorly & downward

70 Muscles That Move the Pectoral Girdle Pectoralis Minor – Origin: sternal ends of upper ribs – Insertion: coracoid process of scapula – Action: pulls scapula forward and downward to raise ribs

71 Muscles That Move the Forearm Most forearm muscle movements are produced by muscles that connect the radius or ulna to the humerus or pectoral girdle. Muscles that move the forearm are grouped into three categories: – Flexors- – Extensors – Rotators

72 Muscles That Move the Forearm Flexor: – Biceps Brachii Origin: above the glenoid cavity of the scapula Insertion: radius Action: flexes elbow & rotates the hand laterally (turning a doorknob or screw driver)

73 Muscles That Move the Forearm Flexor – Brachialis Origin: anterior shaft of the humerus Insertion: coronoid process of ulna Action: Flexes elbow – Strongest flexor of the elbow

74 Muscles That Move the Forearm Flexor: – Brachioradialis Origin: distal lateral end of humerus Insertion: lateral surface of the radius above the styloid process Action: flexes elbow

75 Muscles That Move the Forearm Extensor – Triceps Brachii Origin: below glenoid cavity & lateral & medial surfaces of the humerus Insertion: olecranon process of the ulna Action: extends elbow This is the only muscle on the back of the arm.

76 Muscles That Move the Forearm Rotators: – Supinator Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus & ulna Insertion: lateral surface of radius Action: rotates forearm laterally and supinates the hand (palm facing upward)

77 Muscles That Move the Forearm Rotators: – Pronator teres Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus and the ulna Insertion: lateral surface of radius Action: rotates forearm medially and pronates the hand

78 Muscles That Move the Forearm Rotator: – Pronator Quadratus Origin: anterior distal end of ulna Insertion: anterior distal end of radius Action: rotates forearm medially and pronates hand

79 Muscles That Move the Hand Movements of the hand include movements of the wrist and fingers. 2 major groups of muscles – Flexors- on anterior side of the forearm – Extensors- on the posterior side of the forearm

80 Muscles That Move the Hand Flexors – Flexor carpi radialis Origin: medial epicondyle of the humerus Insertion: base of the 2 nd & 3 rd metacarpals Action: flexes wrist & abducts hand

81 Muscles That Move the Hand Flexor – Flexor carpi ulnaris Origin: medial epicondyle of the humerus Insertion: carpals & metacarpals Action: flexes the wrist & adducts the hand

82 Muscles that Move the Hand Flexors – Palmaris longus Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus Insertion: fascia of the palm Action: flexes wrist; like you are telling someone to come here

83 Muscles That Move the Hand Flexors – Flexor Digitorum Profundus Origin: anterior surface of the ulna Insertion: bases of distal phalanges in fingers 2-5 Action: flexes distal joints of fingers

84 Muscles that Move the Hand Flexor – Flexor digitorum superficialis Origin: humerus Insertion: tendons of fingers Action: flexes the fingers and wrist

85 Muscles that Move the Hand Extensor – Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Origin: distal end of the humerus Insertion: base of 2 nd metacarpal Action: extends wrist and abducts the hand

86 Muscles that Move the Hand Extensor – Extensor carpi radialis brevis Origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus Insertion: base of 2 nd & 3 rd metacarpals Action: extends wrist & abducts hand

87 Muscles that Move the Hand Extensors – Extensor carpi ulnaris Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus Insertion: base of the 5 th metacarpal Action: extends wrist & adducts hand

88 Muscles that Move the Hand Extensor – Extensor Digitorum Origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus Insertion: posterior surface of phalanges in fingers 2-5 Action: extends fingers

89 Muscles that Move the Arm Flexors – Coracobrachialis Origin: coracoid process of the scapula Insertion: shaft of the humerus Action: flexes & adducts the arm

90 Muscles that Move the Arm Flexor – Pectoralis major Origin: clavicle, sternum, & costal cartilages of upper ribs Insertion: humerus Action: flexes, adducts, and rotates arm medially

91 Muscles that Move the Arm Extensor – Teres Major Origin: lateral border of scapula Insertion: humerus Action: extends, adducts, and rotates the arm medially

92 Muscles that Move the Arm Extensor – Latissimus Dorsi Origin: spines of scral, lumbar, & lower thoracic vertebrae, iliac crest, & lower ribs Insertion: humerus Action: extends, adducts, and rotates the arm medially, or pulls the should downward & back

93 Muscles that Move the Arm Abductors – Supraspinatus Origin: posterior surface of scapula above spine Insertion: humerus Action: abducts the arm

94 Muscles that Move the Arm Abductors – Deltoid Origin: acromion process, spine of the scapula, & clavicle Insertion: humerus Action: abducts, extends, & flexes the arm

95 Muscles that Move the Arm Rotators – Subscapularis Origin: Anterior surface of scapula Insertion: humerus Action: rotates arm medially

96 Muscles that Move the Arm Rotators – Infraspinatus Origin: posterior surface of scapula below spine Insertion: humerus Action: rotates arm laterally

97 Muscles that Move the Arm Rotators – Teres Minor Origin: lateral border of scapula Insertion: humerus Action: rotates arm laterally

98 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall Muscles of the abdominal wall connect the rib cage & vertebral column to the pelvic girdle Linea alba- band of tough connective tissue that extends from the xiphoid process of the sternum to the pubic symphysis & provides attachment for some of the abdominal muscles Contraction of these muscles helps move air out of the lungs during forceful exhalation & other everyday functions of the body

99 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall External oblique – Origin- outer surfaces of the lower ribs – Insertion- Outer lip of iliac crest & linea alba – Action- Tenses abdominal wall & compresses abdominal contents

100 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall Internal Oblique – Origin- crest of ilium & inguinal ligament – Insertion- cartilages of the lower ribs, linea alba, & crest of the pubis – Action- Tenses abdominal wall & compresses abdominal contents

101 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall Transversus abdominis – Origin- costal cartilages of the lower ribs, processes of the lumbar vertebrae, lip of iliac crest, & inguinal ligament – Insertion- linea alba & crest of pubis – Action- tenses abdominal wall & compresses abdominal contents

102 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall Rectus Abdominis – Origin- Crest of the pubis & pubic symphysis – Insertion- xiphoid process of sternum & costal cartilage – Action- tenses the abdominal wall & compresses abdominal contents & also flexes the vertebral column

103 Muscles that Move the Thigh Muscles that move the thigh are attached to the femur & to part of the pelvic girdle – Important exceptions: sartorius & rectus femoris Muscles can be separated into 2 groups: – Anterior- primarily flexes the thigh; advance the lower limb when walking – Posterior- primarily extends, abducts, or rotates the thigh

104 Muscles that Move the Thigh: Anterior Group Psoas major – Origin: lumbar intervertebral discs; bodies and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae – Insertion: lesser trochanter of the femur – Action: flexes the thigh

105 Muscles that Move the Thigh: Anterior Group Iliacus – Origin: Illiac fossa of ilium – Insertion: lesser trochanter of the femur – Action: Flexes thigh

106 Muscles that Move the Thigh: Posterior Group Gluteus maximus – Origin: sacrum, coccyx, & posterior surface of the ilium – Insertion: posterior surface of the femur & fascia of the thigh – Action: extends hip; helps straighten the lower limb at the hip when you walk, run, or climb

107 Muscles that Move the Thigh: Posterior Group Gluteus minimus – Origin: lateral surface of the ilium – Insertion: greater trochanter of the femur – Action: abducts & rotates the thigh medially

108 Muscles that Move the Thigh: Posterior Group Gluteus medius – Origin: lateral surface of the ilium – Insertion: greater trochanter of the femur – Action: abducts & rotates thigh medially

109 Muscles that Move the Thigh: Posterior Group Piriformis – Origin: anterior surface of the sacrum – Insertion: greater trochanter of the femur – Action: abducts & rotates the thigh medially ; stabilizes the hip

110 Muscles that Move the Thigh: Posterior Group Tensor fasciae latae – Origin: anterior iliac crest – Insertion: greater trochanter of the femur – Action: abducts, flexes, & rotates thigh medially

111 Muscles that Move the Thigh: Adductors Pectineus – Origin: spine of the pubis – Insertion: femur distal to lesser trochanter – Action: Flexes & adducts thigh

112 Muscles that Move the Thigh: Adductors Adductor brevis – Origin: pubic bone – Insertion: posterior surface of femur – Action: adducts & flexes thigh

113 Muscles that Move the Thigh: Adductors Adductor longus – Origin: pubic bone near the pubic symphysis – Insertion: posterior surface of the femur – Action: adducts & flexes the thigh

114 Muscles that Move the Thigh: Adductors Adductor magnus – Origin: Ischial tuberosity – Insertion: posterior surface of the femur – Action: adducts thigh, posterior portion extends & anterior portion flexes thigh

115 Muscles that Move the Thigh: Adductors Gracilis – Origin: Lower edge of pubic symphysis – Insertion: medial surface of the tibia – Action: adducts thigh & flexes knee

116 Muscles that Move the Leg Connect the tibia or fibula to the femur or pelvic girdle. Two major groups: – Flexors – Extensors

117 Muscles that Move the Leg Hamstring Group – Biceps femoris Origin: ischial tuberosity & linea aspera Insertion: head of fibula & lateral condyle of tibia Action: flexes knee, rotates leg laterally & extends thigh

118 Muscles that Move the Leg Hamstring Group – Semitendinosus Origin: ischial tuberosity Insertion: medial surface of the tibia Action: flexes knee, rotates leg medially & extends thigh

119 Muscles that Move the Leg Hamstring Group – Semimembranosus Origin: ischial tuberosity Insertion: medial condyle of tibia Action: Flexes the knee, rotates the leg medially & extends the thigh

120 Muscles that Move the Leg Sartorius – Origin: anterior superior iliac spine – Insertion: medial surface of tibia – Action: flexes knee & hip, abducts & rotates thigh laterally

121 Muscles that Move the Leg Quadriceps Group – Rectus Femoris Origin: spine of the illium & margin of the acetabulum Insertion: patella by tendon, which continues as the patellar ligament to the tibia Action: extends knee, flexes thigh

122 Muscles that Move the Leg Quadriceps Group – Vastus Lateralis Origin: greater trochanter & posterior surface of the femur Insertion: patella by tendon, which continues as patellar ligament to the tibia Action: extends knee

123 Muscles that Move the Leg Quadriceps Group – Vastus medialis Origin: medial surface of the femur Insertion: patella by tendon, which continues as patellar ligament to the tibia Action: extends knee

124 Muscles that Move the Leg Quadriceps Group – Vastus intermedius Origin: anterior & lateral surfaces of femur Insertion: patella by tendon, which continues as patellar ligament to the tibia Action: extends knee

125 Muscles that Move the Foot Movements of the foot include movements of the ankle & toes Attach to the femur, tibia, & fibula to bones of the foot Move the foot upward (dorsiflexion) or downward (plantar flexion) and turn the foot so the plantar surface faces medially (inversion) or laterally (eversion) 4 types: dorsal flexors, plantar flexors, invertor, evertor

126 Muscles that Move the Foot Dorsal Flexor – Tibialis Anterior Origin: lateral condyle & lateral surface of the tibia Insertion: tarsal bone & first metatarsal Action: dorsiflexion & inversion of foot

127 Muscles that Move the Foot Dorsal Flexor – Fibularis Tertius Origin: anterior surface of the tibia Insertion: dorsal surface of the 5 th metatarsal Action: dorsiflexion & eversion of the foot

128 Muscles that Move the Foot Dorsal Flexor – Extensor Digitorum Longus Origin: lateral condyle of tibia & anterior surface of the fibula Insertion: dorsal surfaces of 2 nd & 3 rd phalanges of the 4 lateral toes Action: dorsiflexion & eversion of the foot, extends toes

129 Muscles that Move the Foot Dorsal Flexor – Extensor Hallucis Longus Origin: anterior surface of the fibula Insertion: distal phalanx of the big toe Action: extends big toe, dorsiflexion & inversion of foot

130 Muscle that Move the Foot Plantar Flexor – Gastrocnemius Origin: lateral & medial condyles of femur Insertion: posterior surface of calcaneus Action: plantar flexion of foot, flexes knee

131 Muscles that Move the Foot Plantar Flexor – Soleus Origin: head & shaft of fibula & posterior surface of the tibia Insertion: posterior surface of the calcaneus Action: plantar flexion of the foot

132 Muscles that Move the Foot Plantar Flexion – Plantaris Origin: femur Insertion: calcaneus Action: plantar flexion of foot, flexes knee

133 Muscles that Move the Foot Plantar Flexor – Flexor Digitorum Longus Origin: posterior surface of the tibia Insertion: distal phalanges of four lateral toes Action: plantar flexion & inversion of foot, flexes four lateral toes

134 Muscles that Move the Foot Invertor – Tibialis Posterior Origin: lateral condyle & posterior surface of tibia & posterior surface of fibula Insertion: tarsal & metatarsal bones Action: plantar flexion & inversion of foot

135 Muscles that Move the Foot Evertor – Fibularis Longus Origin: lateral condyle of tibia & head & shaft of the fibula Insertion: Tarsal & metatarsal bones Action: plantar flexion & eversion of foot, supports arch


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