Presentation on theme: "Anaphylaxis awareness. Aim To have an understanding of Anaphylaxis To be aware of the variety of anaphylaxis signs and symptoms To be able to support."— Presentation transcript:
Aim To have an understanding of Anaphylaxis To be aware of the variety of anaphylaxis signs and symptoms To be able to support a child having an anaphylactic reaction To feel confident to safely administer an adrenaline auto-injector
Administration of Medicines in Non Health Care Settings Please ensure that you have read the appropriate policy concerning medicines in your area of work.
Asthma and Anaphylaxis Poorly controlled asthma increases the potential severity of an allergic reaction and anaphylaxis. If asthma symptoms occur during an allergic reaction, give the prescribed adrenaline auto injector then give reliever (blue) inhaler. 10 puffs salbutamol (blue) inhaler may be given. Use a spacer if available. If asthma symptoms occur without allergy, treat as asthma.
What is an allergy? Reaction to foreign substances called allergens which trigger an exaggerated immune response Mild reaction Severe reaction
What is Anaphylaxis? An acute, severe, often life threatening, allergic reaction needing immediate treatment. Usually occurs within seconds or minutes of exposure to certain triggers On rare occasions may happen after a few hours
Common allergens Cows milk Eggs Latex Medicines e.g. Penicillin Peanuts Shell fish Tree nuts e.g. Brazil, cashew, almond, pecan, pistachio, hazelnut, walnut Wasp & Bee stings
ABCDE Recognition of Anaphylaxis The whole body is affected, usually within minutes of exposure to the trigger. Symptoms can vary in severity. A irway B reathing C irculation D isability E xposure } } An allergic reaction can be regarded as mild when it only involves the skin or gastrointestinal tract. In these cases it will respond to treatment with antihistamines The most important treatment for a severe, life threatening anaphylactic reaction is the early use of an adrenaline auto injector.
Recognition of Anaphylaxis A-B-C Airway problems Throat and tongue swelling Difficulty swallowing and breathing Hoarse voice Barking cough Breathing problems Shortness of breath with increased rate of breathing Wheeze / noisy breathing Unable to talk in sentences Severe reaction may stop breathing Circulation problems Pale, clammy and complain of feeling faint and dizzy May appear confused, agitated and may express a feeling of impending doom (feeling scared) Possible loss of consciousness
Recognition of Anaphylaxis D-E Disability problems Abdominal pain, vomiting Incontinence Exposure Skin changes – hives, nettle rash, Redness and swelling commonly of the eyelids, lips and sometimes mouth and throat
Recognition of anaphylaxis - Hives
Recognition of anaphylaxis - Swelling
Antihistamines Mild allergic reactions (skin and/or gut symptoms) usually respond to antihistamines Continue to observe the child for improvement or deterioration. Follow Emergency Action Plan for Cetirizine Inform parent/carer
Treatment for Anaphylaxis Adrenaline is the ONLY drug for the treatment of an anaphylactic reaction Give prescribed adrenaline auto injector into thigh muscle, one dose only (unless otherwise specified on Emergency Care Plan) Dial 999 Tell call handler child has anaphylaxis. Contact child’s parents or guardian
Treatment for Anaphylaxis Position child If child is experiencing breathing difficulties, support in a sitting position If feeling faint, lie down and raise legs If breathing difficult and feeling faint, sit supported on floor with feet at 90° to body. (E.g. Against a wall or along a couch) Child to remain in this position until help arrives Keep calm Reassure the child
Adrenaline auto injectors Two commonly used devices Jext (Jext 300, Jext 150) Epipen (Epipen, Epipen Jr) Expiry date is 18months from date of manufacture Dosage according to weight 300 microgrammes (mcg) for children over 30kg (usually years) 150 microgrammes (mcg) for children 15 – 30kg
How to give Jext 1. Make a fist around the Jext with your thumb closest to the yellow cap 2. Remove the yellow cap with your other hand 3. Push the black tip firmly on the outer aspect of the thigh 4. Hold in place for 10 seconds 5. Massage the thigh for 10 seconds
How to give the Epipen 1. Grasp Epipen with thumb closest to blue safety cap. 2. Pull off safety cap with other hand. 3. Hold Epipen about 10cm away from outer thigh. The orange tip should be facing the outer thigh. 4. Jab firmly into outer thigh holding the Epipen at a 90 degree angle to the outer thigh. 5. Hold for 10 seconds before removing the Epipen. 6. Massage site for 10 seconds.
When should you use the adrenaline auto injector? Definite anaphylaxis Throat swelling or breathing is difficult Feeling faint or losing consciousness Dangerous reaction Deterioration/ getting worse If in doubt, use the adrenaline auto injector!
How adrenaline works First line treatment for anaphylaxis. Effective levels in 5-10 minutes. Relaxes the muscles of the airways helping breathing Stimulates the heartbeat Reverses swelling Increases blood sugar level
After the injection Position child in recovery/comfortable position and observe Place used device in appropriate container and give to paramedic/ ambulance staff Complete appropriate report form. Fax completed report form (in school medical policy) to (as per Emergency Action Plan)
Storage and access to the adrenaline auto injector The device should always be with the child, young person OR stored safely but easily accessible Device should accompany student on sports field Kept in its original container at room temperature (DO NOT store in the fridge) Parent’s responsibility to ensure device is within expiry date If you accidentally inject yourself seek medical advice immediately
Reducing risk at meal times Allergy free school meals Packed lunches Discourage sharing food Do Not segregate children from peers Careful disposal of food reduces risk of wasp / bee stings
Things to consider ………. Communication between family and school/nursery setting is vital to child’s well being. Supply teachers, temporary staff, staff new to provider, students, apprentices, volunteer staff After school clubs, breakfast clubs School events e.g. School disco with tuck shop Food technology in school (Cookery) Sports events Day/ residential trips Kissing!
Things to consider ………. Celebrations Lunchtime cover Food tasting Craft activities e.g. bird feeders, food collage Cooking or food decorating activities Discourage using food as treats eg sweets (parents can provide swap boxes with safe treats) Anywhere the child /young person goes their adrenaline auto injector should be accessible (even on a neighbourhood walk)