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The Foot Bones Joint Muscles Artery & Nerves. Superficial veins.

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Presentation on theme: "The Foot Bones Joint Muscles Artery & Nerves. Superficial veins."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Foot Bones Joint Muscles Artery & Nerves

2 Superficial veins

3 Great saphenous vein

4 Small saphenous vein

5 Arteries

6 Ant. Tibial Dorsalis pedis artery

7 Ant. Tibial

8 Post. Tibial Medial plantar Crosses over the two tendons long flexor Lateral plantar Deep to flexor digitorum brevis

9 Nerves

10 Fibular n.

11 Medial plantar n. Flexor digitorum brevis Flexor hallucis brevis Abductor hallucis Common plantar digital n.

12 Lateral plantar n. –Flexor accessories –Abductor digiti minimi –Interosseous muscles (deep brunch) –Adductor hallucis (deep brunch) –Flexor digiti minimi brevis (sup. brunch)

13 Surface anatomy of lower limb

14 14

15 Ankle and foot medial and lateral malleolus

16 Tarsal tunnel

17 Tendons

18 Dorsalis pedis a.

19 Plantar arch

20 20 Normal Knee – Anterior, Extended

21 21 Surface Anatomy - Anterior, Extended Patella Hollow Indented

22 22 Normal Knee – Anterior, Flexed

23 23 Surface Anatomy - Anterior, Flexed Head Of Fibula Patella Tibial Tuberosity

24 24 Palpation – Anterior* Patella: Lateral and Medial Patellar Facets Superior And Inferior Patellar Facets Patellar Tendon** Lateral Fat Pad Medial Fat Pat

25 25 Surface Anatomy - Medial Medial Femoral Condyle Patella Joint Line Medial Tibial Condyle Tibial Tuberosity

26 26 Palpation - Medial Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)* Pes anserine bursa** Medial joint line

27 27 Surface Anatomy – Lateral Patella Head Of Fibula Tibial Tuberosity Quadriceps

28 Common fibular nerve

29 Injury to the common peroneal nerve The common fibular nerve may be severed during fracture of the fibula neck. Results in paralysis of all muscles in the anterior and lateral compartments of the leg. The loss of eversion of the foot and dorsiflexion of the ankle causes foot- drop. Foot-drop: the foot drops and the toes drag of the floor when walking.

30 Popliteal fossa

31 PNS Throughout Life Dermatome – an area of skin Innervated by cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve Embryonic muscles migrate to new locations Some skin dermatomes become displaced Muscles and skin always retain their original nerve supply

32 Posterior Map of Dermatomes Anterior

33 Innervation of the Skin: Dermatomes Upper limb – skin is supplied by nerves of the brachial plexus Lower limb: Lumbar nerves – anterior surface Sacral nerves – posterior surface

34 Elsie (L.3 ) is trying to rescue her clumsy man Slim (SI) from a septic tank (SciaTIC nerve), using a rope and a balloon. He has some GLUe (nerves to GLUteus muscles) on his leg. She is pregnant· is FEMale (FEMoral nerve) and has an OBstetric condition (OBturator nerve).

35

36 lumbar disc herniation

37 Disc Level Root Comp. Weakness Reflex Involvement Sensory Loss Pain Distribution L3-L4 L4 quadriceps, tibialis anterior knee jerkmedial knee and shinanterior thigh L4-L5 L5 extension of big toe no significantbig toeback of thigh, lateral calf L5-S1 S1 gastrocnemius (ankle plantar flexion) Achilleslateral foot and heelback of thigh and calf

38 Lower limb dermatomes L1 Dermatome: over trochanter and groin L2 Dermatome: front of thigh to knee L3 Dermatome: upper buttock, anterior thigh and knee, medial lower leg L4 Dermatome: lateral Buttock, lateral thigh, medial leg, dorsum of foot, big toe L5 Dermatome: Buttock, posterior and lateral thigh, lateral aspect of leg, dorsum of foot, medial half of sole, first, second, and third toes S1 Dermatome: Buttock, thigh, and posterior leg S2 Dermatome: Buttock, thigh, and posterior leg S3 Dermatome: Groin, medial thigh to knee S4 Dermatome: Perineum, genitals, lower sacrum


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