Presentation on theme: "Osteopathic Medicine John M Lavelle, D.O. Spine Physiatrist."— Presentation transcript:
1Osteopathic MedicineJohn M Lavelle, D.O.Spine Physiatrist
2Andrew Taylor Still, MD Conventional MD, Civil War 3 children died of spinal meningitisDisillusioned with the medical care of the dayNew philosophy of disease preventionUnleash the body’s inherent ability to heal itself“Search for health; anyone can find disease”Studied anatomy and developed techniquesBegan to identify the inter-relationship of structure and function
3Osteopathic MedicineThe body is a unit; the person is a unity of body, mind, and spiritThe body is capable of self-regulation, self-healing, and health maintenanceStructure and function are reciprocally interrelatedRational treatment is based upon an understanding of basic principles of body unity, self-regulation, and the interrelationship of structure and function
41892 Inaugural Class of the American School of Osteopathy (Class included five women)
5Definition of Osteopathic Medicine “A system of medical care with a philosophy that combines the needs of the patient with the current practice of medicine, surgery, and obstetrics, with emphasis on the interrelationships between structure and function, and an appreciation of the body’s ability to heal itself.“ - Glossary of Osteopathic Terminology
6What to Treat?The first question becomes: Does the patient have a significant musculoskeletal component to their problem?To obtain an answer:-You need data from a musculoskeletal evaluation.-You must assess this data in relation to the patient's problem.If you identify musculoskeletal dysfunction (somatic dysfunction, code 739), and conclude that this dysfunction is associated with a patient problem or symptoms, you have established the indication for OMT
7Somatic DysfunctionAn impaired or altered function of related components of the somatic (body framework) system: skin, fascia, muscle, arthrodial, and related vascular, lymphatic, and neural elements.
8Conceptually, somatic dysfunction: is a disturbance of the normal function of somatic structures.possesses characteristics identifiable by means of palpation (TARt).appears to be based on a neurophysiological phenomenon.brings about deleterious effects on health when present.is amenable to improvement by the application of manual forces to the soma in the form of OMT.
9T.A.R.t. Tissue Texture Abnormality What does it feel like? Palpable evidence of physiologic dysfunction.Reflects disturbance in local tissues, related organs, or entire systemFound in skin, fascia, musclesMay reflect physiologic dysfunction of specific spinal segmentsWhat does it feel like?
10Identification of T.A.R.t. ACUTECHRONICTemperatureIncreasedCoolnessTextureBoggy, roughThin, smoothMoistureDryTensionRopey, stringyTendernessGreatestPresent, but lessEdemaYesNoErythema testRedness lastsFades quickly
11T.A.R.t. Asymmetry Visual Palpatory ** Treat dysfunction, not asymmetry.
12T.A.R.t. - Quantitative - Qualitative - The Barrier Concept applies ■ Restriction of motion- Passive vs active motion- QuantitativeHow much does it move?- QualitativeHow well does it move?- The Barrier Concept applies
13T.A.R.t. - palpatory tenderness - subjective - not always reliable - does NOT need to be present for somatic dysfunction diagnosis
14Principles of MotionH.H. Fryette, D.O. (a CCOM grad) first described the principles of physiologic spinal motion in the 1920’s.These are the principles that we use today to describe typical spinal motion--both segmental and groups of segments.The TWO principles he described are Principles I and II.
15Fryette’s Principle IWhen the spine is in neutral (absence of marked flexion or extension), and sidebending is introduced, a group (3 or more) of vertebrae rotate into the produced convexity.Maximum rotation occurs at the APEX.Rotation and sidebending occur to OPPOSITE sides.Group (Type I) mechanics:Rotation left Sidebending right
16Fryette’s Principle II When flexion or extension is sufficient to localize forces to a single segment (non-neutral position), rotation and sidebending occur to the SAME side.The segment rotates into the produced concavity.Single segment (Type II) mechanics.Rotation and sidebending right
17The Barrier Concept “Barrier” defines the limit of motion. The Barrier Concept describes motion in a joint or in tissue in one plane.A neutral point exists along with barriers.The presence of somatic dysfunction will alter normal barriers and produce a pathologic neutral point.
18The Barrier Concept Neutral point (point of maximum ease) Physiological barrier (ACTIVE motion)Anatomical barrier (PASSIVE motion)In the absence of somatic dysfunction.
19The Barrier Concept EX: somatic dysfunction Restrictive barrier—change in range of motion.Pathologic neutral now formed--a new point of ease (in the presence of somatic dysfunction).Direct technique engages the restrictive (pathologic) barrier.Indirect technique moves toward pathologic neutral.
20The Barrier ConceptDescribes the range of motion, or QUANTITY, of tissue motion.The QUALITY, or Endfeel of motion, is perceived as an anatomic or physiologic barrier is approached.Used to describe osteopathic manipulative techniques.
21PalpationMuscles are arranged so that the longest (extrinsic) muscles are the most superficial, the short muscles (intrinsic) are the deepest.Long muscles are involved with postural patterns and group curves, but lack segmental specificity.The deep intersegmental muscles are most involved with segmental dysfunction.
24Somatic DysfunctionFindings may include muscle hypertonicity, skin sensitivity and diffuse severe tenderness.Palpable muscular tension may be related to cycle between inappropriate mechanoreceptor reporting and exaggerated muscular response which can maintain an inappropriate spinal reflex.Local sympathetic hyperactivity exaggerates the muscle spindles response to changes in length3,4. Muscles innervated by these segments are kept in a hypertonic state with subsequent impediment to spinal motion.
25FACILITATIONThe facilitated segment is the physiologic cornerstone of somatic dysfunction. In segmental facilitation, a spinal segment receives exaggerated input from somatic or visceral structures.Facilitation is the maintenance of a pool of neurons (internuncial) in a state of partial or sub-threshold excitation. Facilitation involves the general somatic nerves as well as the autonomics.1, 2, 3
26Spinal FacilitationSomatic dysfunction leads to prolonged inappropriate sympathetic bombardmentThe maintenance of a pool of neurons in a state of partial or subthreshold excitation…less stimulation is required to trigger the discharge of impulses. 1, 2
30Thought ProcessUltimately, you must come to a conclusion regarding the musculoskeletal findings. Are they significant?Are they related to the patient's problem?What was the probable etiology?Are they related to other findings?What are the probable effects of this dysfunction?What is the expected outcome if the musculoskeletal findings are treated with OMT?
31Finally, how do we treat? Direct techniques Indirect techniques Soft TissueMyofascial ReleaseMuscle EnergyHigh Velocity/ Low Amplitude (HVLA)Indirect techniquesCounterstrainFacilitated Positional ReleaseStill TechniqueBalanced Ligamentous Tension
35History Onset of Pain: acute or chronic? Location of Pain: midline, lateralized?Radiation of Pain: down one leg or both legs?Strength: unilateral or bilateral loss of leg strength?Loss of bowel or bladder control?Type of pain: ache, burning, throbbing, Night Time?Intensity of PainParasthesia?
37Palpation Spinous Process Transverse Process Interspinous ligaments SacrumAssociated anatomy of Hip and PelvisParaspinal musculatureAbdominal musculature
38Range of Motion Forward Flexion: 40 to 60 degrees Extension: 20 to 35 degreesLateral Flexion: 15 to 20 degreesRotation: 3 to 18 degrees
39Dermatomes L1: Groin and upper thigh L2: Mid and anterior thigh L3: Lower anterior thighL4: Medial MalleolusL5: Great toe and instepS1: Lateral FootS2: Posterior KneeS3:-S5: Concentric Circles about the anus.
40Reflexes Patellar: L3-L4 Medial Hamstring: L5-S1 Achilles S1-S2 Superficial Abdominal: T7-L1Beevor’s Sign: positive if the umbilicus moves during active quarter sit up.Cremasteric Reflex: T12-L2Anal Wink: S2-S4
43Diagnostics: Straight Leg Raise Goal: To identify neurological impingement in the lumbar spine.Patient Position: supine, with the leg being tested medially rotated and the knee extended.Examiner Position: The examiner then flexes the hip until the patient complains of pain in the back or leg occurs.Positive Findings: If the pain is primarily in the back, disc is more likely herniated centrally. If the patient’s pain is more radicular, the herniated disc is more likely herniated laterally. Also, the range of hip flexion for this condition is found between 35 and 70 degrees of flexion. If the hip is flexed to greater than 70 degrees before pain, then hamstring etiology must be ruled out.
44Diagnostics: Well Leg Raise Goal: To identify neurological impingement in the lumbar spine.Patient Position: supine, with the asymptomatic leg medially rotated and the knee extended.Examiner Position: The examiner then flexes the hip until the patient complains of pain in the back or leg occurs.Positive Findings: Pain recurring in the back or symptomatic leg. This test helps to reinforce a positive straight leg raising test.
45Diagnostics: Bowstring Test Goal: To identify sciatic nerve irritation.Patient Position: Supine, with the affected leg internally rotated.Examiner Position: The examiner flexes the leg until pain is reproduced and then the knee is flexed until the pain is diminished. The examiner then pushes into the popliteal fossa.Positive Finding: pain reproduced with palpation of the sciatic nerve.
46Diagnostics: Hoover Test Goal: To test for malingering.Patient Position: Supine.Examiner Position: The examiner places the hands under both heels. The patient is then instructed to lift ONE leg at a time.Positive Findings: If the patient is attempting to lift one leg, downward pressure is unconsciously applied by the contralateral leg. If no downward pressure is felt, the patient may be malingering.
47Diagnostics: Milgram Goal: to assess for intrathecal pathology Patient Position: supineExaminer Position: The examiner instructs the patient to raise both legs off the table approximately two inches. This position is held for 30 seconds.Positive Findings: Inability to initiate or maintain position, or pain. Indicative of intrathecal or extrathecal pathology, or pressure on the spinal cord.
48Diagnostics: Prone Knee Bending Test Goal: To identify an upper lumbar nerve root lesion and/or femoral nerve root irritation.Patient Position: Prone.Examiner Position: The examiner passively flexes the knee to the buttock. If the patient cannot flex the knee, passive hip extension can be induced.Positive Findings: Pain in the lumbar, buttock or posterior thigh for a upper lumbar lesion. Anterior thigh represents a possible irritation of the femoral nerve.
49Diagnostics: Stork Test Goal: to identify spondylolisthesis and/or facet joint pathology.Patient Position: The patient stands on one leg and then extends the spine. This position is repeated with the other leg.Positive Findings: pain in the back. A unilateral fracture is indicated when pain is localized to one side with standing.
50Diagnostics: Slump Test Goal: to assess for neurodynamic tension.Patient Position: Seated with the legs hanging over the edge of the table, the hips in neutral position, and the hands placed behind the back.. The patient is then put in a sequential series of positions.1: The patient is asked to slump forward into thoracic and lumbar flexion, while the cervical spine is held in a neutral position.2: The examiner pushes down on shoulders to maintain flexion while the patient actively flexes the cervical spine.3: The examiner then applies pressure on the head to maintain cervical flexion while the patient is instructed to actively extend the knee. With the examiners caudad hand, passive dorsiflexion is initiated.The test is repeated with the other leg, and finally, with both legs.Positive Findings: reproduction of pain when the knee is extended, and symptoms are decreased when the cervical spine is extended, or increased symptoms when the patient is positioned are indicative of tension in the neuromeningeal system.
51DIAGNOSTIC TESTINGX-Ray/MRI if Red Flag or if index of suspicion is high enough.MRI or CT if severe neuropathy; when tumor, fracture or infection are strongly suspected or unimproved sciatica > 4 weeks
56References1. Patterson, M.M., “A Model Mechanism For Spinal Segmental Facilitation.” JAOA, Vol. 76, 4-14, 1976.2. Korr, I. M.: “Sustained Sympathicotonia as a Factor in Disease.” In: The Collected Papers of Irvin M. Korr. Edited by Barbara Peterson. Copyright 1979, A.A.O., second printing, 1988, pp3. Passatore M., Grassi C., and Flippi G. M.: “Sympathetically-induced Development of Tension in Jaw Muscles; the Possible Contraction of Intrafusal Muscle Fibers.” Pflugers Arch. 405: , 1985.4.Passatore M., Filippi G. M., Grassi C.: Cervical Sympathetic Nerve Stimulation Can Induce an Intrafusal Muscle Fiber Contraction in the Rabbit. In: The Muscle Spindle (Boyd, I.A. and Gladden, M.H. Eds), , Macmillan, Basingstoke & London, 1985.5.Kuchera M., Kuchera, W., Osteopathic Considerations in Systemic Dysfunction. Kirksville: KCOM Press, 1991.6.King et al. Osteopathic manipulative treatment in prenatal care: a retrospective case control study. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2003; 103(12):