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Bellwork 10-8-14 Name as many muscles as you can.

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Presentation on theme: "Bellwork 10-8-14 Name as many muscles as you can."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bellwork Name as many muscles as you can

2 III. Types of movement Flexion Extension Rotation Abduction Adduction

3 Flexion A bending movement around a joint in a limb (as the knee or elbow) that decreases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint

4 Extension An unbending movement around a joint in a limb (as the knee or elbow) that increases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint

5 Rotation turning around as on an axis

6 Abduction To draw away from the midline of the body or from an adjacent part or limb

7 Adduction Moving of a body part toward the central axis of the body

8 Abduct – Take away Adduct – Add it to your body

9 Circumduction Movement of a limb or extremity so that the distal end describes a circle while the proximal end remains fixed

10 Seven Golden Rules of Muscle Activity
Muscles get smaller as they contract. Muscles cross at least one joint. The bulk of the muscle lies proximal to the joint crossed. All muscles have an insertion and origin. During contraction, the insertion moves toward the origin. Muscles only pull; they never push. Muscles work in pairs.

11 Smaller as they Contract.
1.Muscles Get ….. Smaller as they Contract. Try it with your bicep!!!

12 2.Muscles Cross at Least One Joint
Think drawbridge!! How can muscles effect movement if they don’t cross a joint? Where does the bulk of the muscle lie? 



15 Muscle Attachment Sites: Origin & Insertion
Skeletal muscles produce movements by exerting force on tendons Tendons pull on bones or other structures such as skin Skeletal muscle contraction pulls one articulating bone towards the other Origin (usually proximal): attachment of a muscle tendon to the stationary bone Insertion (usually distal): attachment of the muscle’s other tendon to the movable bone Action/s: main movements that occur when the muscle contracts

16 All Muscles Have an Insertion and an Origin
Insertion = More moveable attachment Origin = Less moveable attachment Insertion is usually distal. Origin is usually proximal. Insertion moves toward origin during muscle contraction.

17 Because they work in PAIRS!!!!
Muscles Only Pull So how do they effect flexion AND extension? Abduction AND Adduction? Because they work in PAIRS!!!! Prime Mover = the muscle with major responsibility for effecting a movement. Antagonist = the opposing muscle responsible for the opposite movement.

18 Naming the Skeletal Muscles
Location: example the frontalis is located over frontal bone Shape: example the deltoid (“triangular) is triangular Relative size: maximus, minimus, and longus Example: gluteus maximus and gluteus minimus Direction of fascicles and muscle fibers: direction that fibers run Example: rectus (straight or parallel) abdominis and transversus (perpendicular) abdominis Location of attachments: reveals point of origin and insertion Example: sternocledomastoid = origin on sternum and clavicle with insertion on mastoid Number of origins: two, three, or four origins Indicated by the words biceps, triceps, and quadriceps Action: part of the muscle’s name indicates muscle movement Flexor, extensor, adductor, or abductor

19 Bellwork What are two ways in which muscles are named? Give examples?

20 Superficial Muscles of the Body—Anterior View
Trapezius Shoulder Deltoid Arm Triceps brachii Biceps brachii Brachialis Forearm Pronator teres Brachioradialis Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Pelvis/thigh Iliopsoas Pectineus Thigh Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Leg Fibularis longus Extensor digitorum longus Tibialis anterior Head Facial Temporalis Epicranius, frontal belly Orbicularis oculi Zygomaticus Orbicularis oris Neck Sternohyoid Sternocleidomastoid Thorax Pectoralis major Pectoralis minor Serratus anterior Intercostals Abdomen External oblique Rectus abdominis Internal oblique Transversus abdominis Sartorius Tensor fasciae latae Adductor longus Gracilis Gastrocnemius Soleus Masseter Platysma (a) Figure 11.8a

21 Superficial Muscles of the Body—Posterior View
Neck Epicranius, occipital belly Arm Sternocleidomastoid Triceps brachii Trapezius Brachialis Shoulder Deltoid Forearm Infraspinatus Brachioradialis Teres major Extensor carpi radialis longus Rhomboid major Triangle of auscultation Flexor carpi ulnaris Latissimus dorsi Extensor carpi ulnaris Hip Extensor digitorum Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Iliotibial tract Thigh Adductor magnus Gracilis Hamstrings: Biceps femoris Leg Semitendinosus Gastrocnemius Semimembranosus Soleus Fibularis longus Calcaneal (Achilles) tendon (b) Figure 11.8b

22 Muscle Movements

23 Muscles of the Head—Facial Expression
Figure 11.9

24 Facial expression Frontalis Zygomaticus Origin: Cranial apneurosis
Insertion: Skin of eyebrows Raises eyebrows and wrinkles the skin of your forehead Zygomaticus Origin: Cheekbone Insertion: Corner of mouth Extends from corner of the mouth to the cheekbone Smiling and Laughing

25 Muscles of the Head—Facial Expression
Figure 11.9

26 Facial Expression Orbicularis Oculi Orbicularis Oris
Origin/Insertion: Around eye orbital Fibers that run in circles around the eyes. Allows your eyes, squint, blink, wink Orbicularis Oris Origin/Insertion: Around lips Circular muscle of lips. Closes the mouth Kissing muscle

27 Muscles of the Head—Facial Expression
Figure 11.9

28 Chewing Masseter Origin: Zygomatic Process Insertion: Mandible
Covers the angle of the lower jaw as it runs from the zygomatic process Closes jaw by elevating jaw

29 Exit Survey

30 Trunk Muscles

31 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall
Serratus anterior Pectoralis major Linea alba Tendinous intersection Rectus abdominis Inguinal ligament (formed by free inferior border of the external oblique aponeurosis) Transversus Internal oblique External oblique Aponeurosis of the external (a) PLAY A&P Flix: Internal obliques PLAY A&P Flix: External obliques Figure 11.14a

32 Abdominal wall 3 layers constrict and hold abdominal contents in place
External oblique, internal oblique Transversus abdominis Rectus abdominis- abs

33 Trunk Muscles Rectus Abdominis Origin: Pubic symphysis
Insertion: Rib Cage Flex vertebral column

34 Trunk Muscles: Obliques

35 Trunk Muscles External Oblique Internal Oblique Both
Origin: Last 8 ribs (External) Insertion: Ilium Internal Oblique Origin: Iliac Crest Insertion: Last 3 ribs (Internal) Both Flex vertebral column Rotate trunk and bend it laterally

36 External oblique- lower 8 ribs- iliac crest
Internal oblique- crest- lower 3/4 ribs and costal cartilage

37 Superficial Muscles of the Posterior Thorax
Trapezius (c) Levator scapulae Supraspinatus Clavicle Spine of scapula Infraspinatus Teres minor Humerus Deltoid Teres major Latissimus dorsi Rhomboid minor Figure 11.16c

38 Superficial Muscles of the Posterior Thorax
Levator scapulae (d) Rhomboid minor major Infraspinatus Teres major Teres minor Latissimus dorsi Trapezius Deltoid Triceps brachii Triangle of auscultation Figure 11.16d

39 Posterior Muscles Latissimus dorsi Trapezius Covers lower back
Origin: Lower Spine Insertion: Proximal end of humerus Extends, adducts and rotates the arm medially Swimmer’s muscle Trapezius Kite shaped Origin: Runs from skull down vertebral column Insertion: scapular spine and clavicle Extends the head

40 Posterior Muscles Deltoid Triangle-shaped Origin: clavicle
Insertion: proximal humerus Form rounded shape of shoulders Primary movers of arm abduction

41 Muscles of the Extremities

42 Superficial Muscles of the Anterior Thorax
Sternocleidomastoid Deltoid Pectoralis major Sternum Biceps brachii (a) Subclavius Clavicle Subscapularis minor Coracobrachialis Serratus anterior Humerus Figure 11.16a

43 Pectoralis major Origin: Sternum, Shoulder Girdle, First six ribs
Insertion: Proximal End of Humerus Flexes and adducts the arm

44 Muscles of the Upper Limb
Clavicle Deltoid Sternum Pectoralis major Lateral head Long head Medial head Coracobrachialis Triceps brachii Biceps brachii Brachialis Brachio- radialis (a) Anterior view Figure 11.17a

45 Muscles of the Upper Limb
Biceps brachii Origin: Shoulder girdle (scapula) Insertion: Radius Flexes arm, forearm, supinates hand Note two origins

46 Muscles of the Upper Limb
Triceps Brachii Origin: shoulder girdle and humerus Insertion: Ulna Prime mover of elbow extension Note three origins

47 Muscles of Lower Limb

48 Posterior Muscles Gluteus maximus Origin: pelvis Insertion: femur
Movement of Hip and Thigh in walking (Extends the thigh at the hip). Ex: Climbing stairs and standing up Also helps abduct thigh Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Adductor magnus Gracilis Iliotibial tract Long head Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Short head Biceps femoris (c) Figure 11.23c

49 Posterior Muscles Hamstring Group (Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Biceps femoris) Origin: Ischium Insertion: Tibia Flexes knee and extends the thigh at hip

50 Anterior Muscles Quadriceps Group(Vastus Medialis, Intermedius and Lateralis and Rectus Femoris) Composed of four muscles Origin: Femur/ Pelvis Insertion: Tibia Extends knee and flexes thigh at hip

51 Moving foot Gastrocnemius (calf muscle)- Origin: Femur
Insertion: Calcaneus flexes foot and leg (at knee), supinates foot


53 Muscles of the Posterior Compartment
Superficial muscles: triceps surae (gastrocnemius, soleus) and the plantaris Plantaris Tendon of gastrocnemius Calcaneal tendon Medial malleolus Medial head Gastroc- nemius Lateral head Lateral Calcaneus (a) Soleus Tendon of tibialis posterior Tendon of plantaris Fibularis brevis Head of fibula Popliteus Plantaris Gastroc- nemius Lateral head (cut) Medial head Fibularis longus (b) Figure 11.27a, b

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