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Bellwork 10-8-14 Name as many muscles as you can.

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Presentation on theme: "Bellwork 10-8-14 Name as many muscles as you can."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bellwork Name as many muscles as you can

2 III. Types of movement A.Flexion B.Extension C.Rotation D.Abduction E.Adduction F.Circumduction

3 Flexion A bending movement around a joint in a limb (as the knee or elbow) that decreases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint

4 Extension An unbending movement around a joint in a limb (as the knee or elbow) that increases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint

5 Rotation turning around as on an axis

6 Abduction To draw away from the midline of the body or from an adjacent part or limb

7 Adduction Moving of a body part toward the central axis of the body

8 Abduct – Take away Adduct – Add it to your body

9 Circumduction Movement of a limb or extremity so that the distal end describes a circle while the proximal end remains fixed

10 Seven Golden Rules of Muscle Activity 1.Muscles get smaller as they contract. 2.Muscles cross at least one joint. 3.The bulk of the muscle lies proximal to the joint crossed. 4.All muscles have an insertion and origin. 5.During contraction, the insertion moves toward the origin. 6.Muscles only pull; they never push. 7.Muscles work in pairs.

11 1.Muscles Get ….. Smaller as they Contract. Try it with your bicep!!!

12 2.Muscles Cross at Least One Joint Think drawbridge!! How can muscles effect movement if they don’t cross a joint? Where does the bulk of the muscle lie? 

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15 Muscle Attachment Sites: Origin & Insertion Skeletal muscles produce movements by exerting force on tendons – Tendons pull on bones or other structures such as skin Skeletal muscle contraction pulls one articulating bone towards the other – Origin (usually proximal): attachment of a muscle tendon to the stationary bone – Insertion (usually distal): attachment of the muscle’s other tendon to the movable bone – Action/s: main movements that occur when the muscle contracts

16 All Muscles Have an Insertion and an Origin Insertion = More moveable attachment Origin = Less moveable attachment Insertion is usually distal. Origin is usually proximal. Insertion moves toward origin during muscle contraction.

17 Muscles Only Pull So how do they effect flexion AND extension? Abduction AND Adduction? Because they work in PAIRS!!!! Prime Mover = the muscle with major responsibility for effecting a movement. Antagonist = the opposing muscle responsible for the opposite movement.

18 Naming the Skeletal Muscles Location: example the frontalis is located over frontal bone Shape: example the deltoid (“triangular) is triangular Relative size: maximus, minimus, and longus – Example: gluteus maximus and gluteus minimus Direction of fascicles and muscle fibers: direction that fibers run – Example: rectus (straight or parallel) abdominis and transversus (perpendicular) abdominis Location of attachments: reveals point of origin and insertion – Example: sternocledomastoid = origin on sternum and clavicle with insertion on mastoid Number of origins: two, three, or four origins – Indicated by the words biceps, triceps, and quadriceps Action: part of the muscle’s name indicates muscle movement – Flexor, extensor, adductor, or abductor

19 Bellwork What are two ways in which muscles are named? Give examples?

20 Superficial Muscles of the Body—Anterior View Figure 11.8a

21 Superficial Muscles of the Body—Posterior View Figure 11.8b Neck Gracilis Deltoid Arm Triceps brachii Brachialis Forearm Brachioradialis Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor digitorum Iliotibial tract Leg Gastrocnemius Soleus Fibularis longus Epicranius, occipital belly Sternocleidomastoid Shoulder Hip Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Thigh Biceps femoris Adductor magnus Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Hamstrings: Latissimus dorsi Rhomboid major Triangle of auscultation Infraspinatus Teres major Flexor carpi ulnaris Extensor carpi radialis longus Calcaneal (Achilles) tendon (b) Trapezius

22 Muscle Movements ystem/menu/menu.html

23 Muscles of the Head—Facial Expression Figure 11.9

24 Facial expression Frontalis – Origin: Cranial apneurosis – Insertion: Skin of eyebrows – Raises eyebrows and wrinkles the skin of your forehead Zygomaticus – Origin: Cheekbone – Insertion: Corner of mouth – Extends from corner of the mouth to the cheekbone – Smiling and Laughing

25 Muscles of the Head—Facial Expression Figure 11.9

26 Facial Expression Orbicularis Oculi – Origin/Insertion: Around eye orbital – Fibers that run in circles around the eyes. Allows your eyes, squint, blink, wink Orbicularis Oris – Origin/Insertion: Around lips – Circular muscle of lips. – Closes the mouth – Kissing muscle

27 Muscles of the Head—Facial Expression Figure 11.9

28 Chewing Masseter – Origin: Zygomatic Process – Insertion: Mandible – Covers the angle of the lower jaw as it runs from the zygomatic process – Closes jaw by elevating jaw

29 Exit Survey

30 Trunk Muscles

31 Serratus anterior Pectoralis major Linea alba Tendinous intersection Rectus abdominis Inguinal ligament (formed by free inferior border of the external oblique aponeurosis) Transversus abdominis Internal oblique External oblique Aponeurosis of the external oblique (a) Muscles of the Abdominal Wall Figure 11.14a PLAY A&P Flix: Internal obliques PLAY A&P Flix: External obliques

32 Abdominal wall 3 layers constrict and hold abdominal contents in place External oblique, internal oblique Transversus abdominis Rectus abdominis- abs

33 Trunk Muscles Rectus Abdominis – Origin: Pubic symphysis – Insertion: Rib Cage – Flex vertebral column

34 Trunk Muscles: Obliques

35 Trunk Muscles External Oblique – Origin: Last 8 ribs (External) – Insertion: Ilium Internal Oblique – Origin: Iliac Crest – Insertion: Last 3 ribs (Internal) Both – Flex vertebral column – Rotate trunk and bend it laterally

36 External oblique- lower 8 ribs- iliac crest Internal oblique- crest- lower 3/4 ribs and costal cartilage

37 Trapezius (c) Levator scapulae Supraspinatus Clavicle Spine of scapula Infraspinatus Teres minor Humerus Deltoid Teres major Latissimus dorsi Rhomboid minor Rhomboid major Superficial Muscles of the Posterior Thorax Figure 11.16c

38 Superficial Muscles of the Posterior Thorax Figure 11.16d Levator scapulae (d) Rhomboid minor Rhomboid major Infraspinatus Teres major Teres minor Latissimus dorsi Trapezius Deltoid Teres major Triceps brachii Latissimus dorsi Triangle of auscultation

39 Posterior Muscles Latissimus dorsi Covers lower back Origin: Lower Spine Insertion: Proximal end of humerus Extends, adducts and rotates the arm medially ◦ Swimmer’s muscle Trapezius Kite shaped Origin: Runs from skull down vertebral column Insertion: scapular spine and clavicle Extends the head

40 Posterior Muscles Deltoid Triangle-shaped Origin: clavicle Insertion: proximal humerus Form rounded shape of shoulders Primary movers of arm abduction

41 Muscles of the Extremities

42 Sternocleidomastoid Deltoid Pectoralis major Sternum Biceps brachii (a) Subclavius Clavicle Subscapularis Pectoralis minor Coracobrachialis Serratus anterior Humerus Superficial Muscles of the Anterior Thorax Figure 11.16a

43 Pectoralis major – Origin: Sternum, Shoulder Girdle, First six ribs – Insertion: Proximal End of Humerus – Flexes and adducts the arm

44 Clavicle Deltoid Sternum Pectoralis major Lateral head Long head Medial head Coracobrachialis Triceps brachii Biceps brachii Brachialis Brachio- radialis (a) Anterior view Figure 11.17a Muscles of the Upper Limb

45 Biceps brachii – Origin: Shoulder girdle (scapula) – Insertion: Radius – Flexes arm, forearm, supinates hand Note two origins

46 Muscles of the Upper Limb Triceps Brachii – Origin: shoulder girdle and humerus – Insertion: Ulna – Prime mover of elbow extension Note three origins

47 Muscles of Lower Limb

48 Posterior Muscles – Gluteus maximus Origin: pelvis Insertion: femur Movement of Hip and Thigh in walking (Extends the thigh at the hip). Ex: Climbing stairs and standing up Also helps abduct thigh Figure 11.23c Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Adductor magnus Gracilis Iliotibial tract Long head Semitendinosus Semimembranosu s Short head Biceps femoris (c)

49 Posterior Muscles – Hamstring Group (Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Biceps femoris) Origin: Ischium Insertion: Tibia Flexes knee and extends the thigh at hip

50 Anterior Muscles – Quadriceps Group(Vastus Medialis, Intermedius and Lateralis and Rectus Femoris) – Composed of four muscles Origin: Femur/ Pelvis Insertion: Tibia Extends knee and flexes thigh at hip

51 Moving foot Gastrocnemius (calf muscle)- – Origin: Femur – Insertion: Calcaneus – flexes foot and leg (at knee), supinates foot

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53 Muscles of the Posterior Compartment Superficial muscles: triceps surae (gastrocnemius, soleus) and the plantaris Figure 11.27a, b Plantaris Tendon of gastrocnemius Calcaneal tendon Medial malleolus Medial head Gastroc- nemius Lateral head Lateral malleolus Calcaneus (a) Soleus Tendon of tibialis posterior Tendon of plantaris Fibularis brevis Head of fibula Popliteus Plantaris Gastroc- nemius Lateral head (cut) Medial head (cut) Fibularis longus (b)


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