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Muscular System. Essential Question How does the muscular system support human life?

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Presentation on theme: "Muscular System. Essential Question How does the muscular system support human life?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Muscular System

2 Essential Question How does the muscular system support human life?

3 Muscular System Muscles are responsible for all types of body movement. There are more than 600 individual muscles. Together muscles are about 40 % of our weight. Muscles are responsible for all types of body movement. There are more than 600 individual muscles. Together muscles are about 40 % of our weight.

4 Muscular System Three types of muscle –Skeletal –Smooth –Cardiac Three types of muscle –Skeletal –Smooth –Cardiac

5 Skeletal Muscles Generally attached to bone by tendon Voluntary Muscle ~ controlled by choice Produce movement Maintain body posture Stabilize joints Produce heat ~ thus help to maintain body temperature Generally attached to bone by tendon Voluntary Muscle ~ controlled by choice Produce movement Maintain body posture Stabilize joints Produce heat ~ thus help to maintain body temperature

6 Skeletal Muscles Cell structure: –Long –Shaped like cylinders or tubes –Composed of proteins arranged to make the muscle appear striped or striated. Contraction ~ tightening of muscles to induce movement Contraction can be slow or fast with no rhythm Cell structure: –Long –Shaped like cylinders or tubes –Composed of proteins arranged to make the muscle appear striped or striated. Contraction ~ tightening of muscles to induce movement Contraction can be slow or fast with no rhythm

7 Smooth Muscle Found mainly in the walls of the viscera ~ hollow organs Often called visceral muscle Functions automatically ~ involuntary muscle Governs movement of respiration, urination and digestion Nonstriated ~ does not appear striped Found mainly in the walls of the viscera ~ hollow organs Often called visceral muscle Functions automatically ~ involuntary muscle Governs movement of respiration, urination and digestion Nonstriated ~ does not appear striped

8 Smooth Muscle Smooth muscle contraction slower and more rhythmic than skeletal muscle Smooth muscle more stretchy than skeletal muscle –Allows for uterus, bladder and stomach to expand Smooth muscle has a better capacity for regeneration than does skeletal muscle. Smooth muscle contraction slower and more rhythmic than skeletal muscle Smooth muscle more stretchy than skeletal muscle –Allows for uterus, bladder and stomach to expand Smooth muscle has a better capacity for regeneration than does skeletal muscle.

9 Cardiac Muscle Found only in the heart Cell structure –Cells are long branching and fit together tightly at junctions. –Classified as striated. Found only in the heart Cell structure –Cells are long branching and fit together tightly at junctions. –Classified as striated.

10 Cardiac Muscle Involuntary contractions Contracts to pump blood throughout the body. Contractions are slow Have no capacity for regeneration Involuntary contractions Contracts to pump blood throughout the body. Contractions are slow Have no capacity for regeneration

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12 How muscles contract Muscles can only pull, not push! To pull, muscles contract. When muscles contract they shorten. Muscles shorten because the muscles fibers slide past each other. –The sliding is like a trombone Muscles can only pull, not push! To pull, muscles contract. When muscles contract they shorten. Muscles shorten because the muscles fibers slide past each other. –The sliding is like a trombone

13 Handout How a Muscle Works Muscle Contraction

14 Muscle Terms Origin and Insertion ~ refer to the sites of muscle attachment When muscles contract across a joint, one bone remains relatively stationary or immovable. The ORIGIN attaches to the stationary bone The INSERTION attaches to the more moveable bone. Origin and Insertion ~ refer to the sites of muscle attachment When muscles contract across a joint, one bone remains relatively stationary or immovable. The ORIGIN attaches to the stationary bone The INSERTION attaches to the more moveable bone.

15 Muscle Terms Hypertrophy ~ increase in size of a muscle –Due to overuse –Purposely done by athletes Atrophy ~ decrease in size of a muscle –Wasting away –Lack of exercise : broken leg –Normal aging process Delayed with exercise Hypertrophy ~ increase in size of a muscle –Due to overuse –Purposely done by athletes Atrophy ~ decrease in size of a muscle –Wasting away –Lack of exercise : broken leg –Normal aging process Delayed with exercise

16 Muscle Terms Contracture ~ an abnormal formation of fibrous tissue within the muscle. –Occurs when a muscle is immobilized for a prolonged period of time. –“Freezes the muscle in a flexed position and severely restricts joint mobility Contracture ~ an abnormal formation of fibrous tissue within the muscle. –Occurs when a muscle is immobilized for a prolonged period of time. –“Freezes the muscle in a flexed position and severely restricts joint mobility

17 Muscle Terms Most movement is performed by groups of muscles working together; however, a single muscle is generally responsible for MOST of the movement. Prime mover ~ Chief muscle (responsible for movement) Snyergist ~ helper muscles Antagonists ~ oppose the action of another muscle Muscle pairs Most movement is performed by groups of muscles working together; however, a single muscle is generally responsible for MOST of the movement. Prime mover ~ Chief muscle (responsible for movement) Snyergist ~ helper muscles Antagonists ~ oppose the action of another muscle Muscle pairs

18 Flashcards Smooth Muscle Prime mover Cardiac Muscle Snyergist Skeletal Muscle Antagonist Hypertrophy Atrophy Contracture Smooth Muscle Prime mover Cardiac Muscle Snyergist Skeletal Muscle Antagonist Hypertrophy Atrophy Contracture

19 Types of Muscle/Joint Movement Movements at freely movable joints occur when the muscles that lie across the joints contract and exert pressure on the attached bone.

20 Skeletal Muscle Movement Flexion ~ Bending of a joint that decreases the angle between the bones. –Bending of a leg at the knee Extension ~ Straightening of a joint so that the angle between the bones increases. –Straightening the leg at the knee Flexion ~ Bending of a joint that decreases the angle between the bones. –Bending of a leg at the knee Extension ~ Straightening of a joint so that the angle between the bones increases. –Straightening the leg at the knee

21 Skeletal Muscle Movement Plantar Flexion ~ Bending the foot down –Toe dancing Dorsiflexion ~ Bending to the foot up towards the leg Hyperextention ~ Overextending the joint beyond its normally straightened position. –Bending the wrist back Plantar Flexion ~ Bending the foot down –Toe dancing Dorsiflexion ~ Bending to the foot up towards the leg Hyperextention ~ Overextending the joint beyond its normally straightened position. –Bending the wrist back

22 Skeletal Muscle Movement Abduction ~ movement away from the midline of the body. –Move leg sideways Adduction ~ movement toward the midline of the body –Move leg toward your body Inversion ~ turning the sole of the foot inward so it faces the opposite foot. Abduction ~ movement away from the midline of the body. –Move leg sideways Adduction ~ movement toward the midline of the body –Move leg toward your body Inversion ~ turning the sole of the foot inward so it faces the opposite foot.

23 Skeletal Muscle Movement Eversion ~ turning the sole of the foot outward. Supination ~ turning the hand so that the palm faces upward Pronation ~ turning the hand so that the palm faces downward Rotation ~ rotate or move around an axis Circumduction ~ combination of movements performed by extremities in a circular motion. Eversion ~ turning the sole of the foot outward. Supination ~ turning the hand so that the palm faces upward Pronation ~ turning the hand so that the palm faces downward Rotation ~ rotate or move around an axis Circumduction ~ combination of movements performed by extremities in a circular motion.

24 How Skeletal Muscles are Named Skeletal muscles are generally named for one of the following characteristics. –Size –Shape –Direction of fibers –Location –Number of origins –Origin and insertion –Muscle action Skeletal muscles are generally named for one of the following characteristics. –Size –Shape –Direction of fibers –Location –Number of origins –Origin and insertion –Muscle action

25 Size Vastus ~ huge Maximus ~ large Longus ~ long Minimus ~ small Brevis ~ short Vastus ~ huge Maximus ~ large Longus ~ long Minimus ~ small Brevis ~ short

26 Shape Deltoid ~ triangular Latissimus ~ wide Trapezius ~ trapezoid Rhomboideus ~ rhomboid Teres ~ round Deltoid ~ triangular Latissimus ~ wide Trapezius ~ trapezoid Rhomboideus ~ rhomboid Teres ~ round

27 Directions of Fibers Fibers are oriented or lined up, in several directions Rectus ~ straight Oblique ~ diagonal Transverse ~ across Circularis ~ circular Fibers are oriented or lined up, in several directions Rectus ~ straight Oblique ~ diagonal Transverse ~ across Circularis ~ circular

28 Location Pectoralis ~ chest Gluteus ~ buttock Branchii ~ arm Supra ~ above Infra ~ below Sub ~ underneath Lateralis ~ lateral Pectoralis ~ chest Gluteus ~ buttock Branchii ~ arm Supra ~ above Infra ~ below Sub ~ underneath Lateralis ~ lateral

29 Number of Origins Muscles can be named according to the number of sites to which it is anchored. –Biceps –Triceps –Quadriceps Muscles can be named according to the number of sites to which it is anchored. –Biceps –Triceps –Quadriceps

30 Origin and Insertion Named for sites of attachment both at their origin and insertion –Sternocleidomatoid ~ origin on the sternum and clavicle…..insertion on the mastoid process of the temporal bone Named for sites of attachment both at their origin and insertion –Sternocleidomatoid ~ origin on the sternum and clavicle…..insertion on the mastoid process of the temporal bone

31 Muscle Action How the muscle moves the body Abductor ~ moves the limb away from the midline Flexor ~ causes flexion Levator ~ elevates How the muscle moves the body Abductor ~ moves the limb away from the midline Flexor ~ causes flexion Levator ~ elevates

32 The Facial Muscles Inserted directly into the soft tissue of the skin and other muscles of the face. Contraction pulls on the soft tissue –Responsible for our facial expressions Inserted directly into the soft tissue of the skin and other muscles of the face. Contraction pulls on the soft tissue –Responsible for our facial expressions

33 Facial Muscles Frontalis ~ covers the frontal bone –Contraction raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead Frontalis ~ covers the frontal bone –Contraction raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead

34 Facial Muscles Orbicularis oculi ~ sphincter muscle that encircles the eyes. –Sphincter ~ a ring-shaped muscle that controls the size of an opening –Contraction closes the eye, winking, blinking Orbicularis oculi ~ sphincter muscle that encircles the eyes. –Sphincter ~ a ring-shaped muscle that controls the size of an opening –Contraction closes the eye, winking, blinking

35 Facial Muscles Orbicularis oris ~ sphincter muscle that encircles the mouth. –Contraction assists in closing the mouth, forming words and pursing the lips –Sometimes called the kissing muscle Orbicularis oris ~ sphincter muscle that encircles the mouth. –Contraction assists in closing the mouth, forming words and pursing the lips –Sometimes called the kissing muscle

36 Facial Muscles Buccinator ~ origin is the mandible and maxilla. Inserts on the orbicularis oris. –Used in sucking, whistling and playing the trumpet Buccinator ~ origin is the mandible and maxilla. Inserts on the orbicularis oris. –Used in sucking, whistling and playing the trumpet

37 Facial Muscles Zygomaticus ~ extends from the corners of the mouth to the cheekbones –Smiling muscle Zygomaticus ~ extends from the corners of the mouth to the cheekbones –Smiling muscle

38 Facial Muscle Platysma ~ Originates in the fascia of the shoulder and inserts on the mandible –Fascia ~ fibrous tissue enclosing a muscle Responsible for pouting and opening your mouth wide. Platysma ~ Originates in the fascia of the shoulder and inserts on the mandible –Fascia ~ fibrous tissue enclosing a muscle Responsible for pouting and opening your mouth wide.

39 Chewing Muscles Muscles of mastication ~ chewing All are inserted on the mandible Some are the strongest muscles of the body Muscles of mastication ~ chewing All are inserted on the mandible Some are the strongest muscles of the body

40 Chewing Muscles Masseter ~ origin on the temporal bone –Contraction closes the jaw Masseter ~ origin on the temporal bone –Contraction closes the jaw

41 Muscles of the Neck Sternocleidomastoid ~ extends from sternum and clavicle to the mastoid process of the temporal bone –Contraction causes flexion of the head Praying muscle Sternocleidomastoid ~ extends from sternum and clavicle to the mastoid process of the temporal bone –Contraction causes flexion of the head Praying muscle

42 Muscles of the Trunk Involved in breathing Form the abdominal wall Move the vertebral column Form the pelvic region Involved in breathing Form the abdominal wall Move the vertebral column Form the pelvic region

43 Muscles for Breathing Intercostal Muscles ~ located between the ribs –Origin and insertion on the ribs –Responsible for raising and lowering the rib cage during breathing Intercostal Muscles ~ located between the ribs –Origin and insertion on the ribs –Responsible for raising and lowering the rib cage during breathing

44 Muscles for Breathing Diaphragm ~ dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity –Chief muscle of inhalation Diaphragm ~ dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity –Chief muscle of inhalation

45 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall Consists of 4 muscles Muscles are layered at different depths –Fibers of these muscles run in different directions Contain, support and protect abdominal organs Contraction causes flexion and rotation of vertebral column, urination, defecation, and childbirth. Consists of 4 muscles Muscles are layered at different depths –Fibers of these muscles run in different directions Contain, support and protect abdominal organs Contraction causes flexion and rotation of vertebral column, urination, defecation, and childbirth.

46 Abdominal Muscles Rectus abdominis ~ fibers run up and down –Contraction flexes the vertebrae –Increases intra-abdominal pressure Rectus abdominis ~ fibers run up and down –Contraction flexes the vertebrae –Increases intra-abdominal pressure

47 Abdominal Wall Muscles External oblique ~ lateral walls of the abdomen –Fibers run obliquely (slanted) –Aids rectus abdominus (trunk rotation/lateral flexion) External oblique ~ lateral walls of the abdomen –Fibers run obliquely (slanted) –Aids rectus abdominus (trunk rotation/lateral flexion)

48 Abdominal Wall Muscles Internal oblique ~ add strength to the external oblique (crisscross with them)

49 Abdominal Wall Muscles Transversus abdominis ~ fibers run horizontally –Innermost layer of the abdominal muscles –Responsible for compression Transversus abdominis ~ fibers run horizontally –Innermost layer of the abdominal muscles –Responsible for compression

50 Muscles of the Vertebral Column Attach to the vertebrae Move the vertebral column in numerous directions Numerous muscles….will not discuss in detail. Attach to the vertebrae Move the vertebral column in numerous directions Numerous muscles….will not discuss in detail.

51 Muscles of the Pelvic Floor Assist in expelling contents from the urinary bladder and rectum Will not be discussed in detail Assist in expelling contents from the urinary bladder and rectum Will not be discussed in detail

52 Muscles of the Shoulder Trapezius ~ origin in bases of the occipital bone and inserts on the scapula and clavicle –Hyperextends head –Contraction allows for shrugging and rotating movement –Right and left trapezius form the shape of a trapezoid Trapezius ~ origin in bases of the occipital bone and inserts on the scapula and clavicle –Hyperextends head –Contraction allows for shrugging and rotating movement –Right and left trapezius form the shape of a trapezoid

53 Muscles of the Shoulder Pectoralis Major ~ forms the anterior chest wall –Connects the humerus with the clavicle and sternum –Contraction moves the arm across the chest Adducts the arm Pectoralis Major ~ forms the anterior chest wall –Connects the humerus with the clavicle and sternum –Contraction moves the arm across the chest Adducts the arm

54 Muscles of the Shoulder Deltoid ~ forms the rounded portion of your shoulder (shoulder pad) –Contraction abducts the arm Deltoid ~ forms the rounded portion of your shoulder (shoulder pad) –Contraction abducts the arm

55 Muscles of the Shoulder Latissimus dorsi ~ Broad muscle located in the middle and lower back region. Origin vertebrae, insertion humerus Adducts shoulders and extends arm back. “Swimmers muscle” Latissimus dorsi ~ Broad muscle located in the middle and lower back region. Origin vertebrae, insertion humerus Adducts shoulders and extends arm back. “Swimmers muscle”

56 Muscles that Move the Forearm Most are located along the humerus Triceps brachii ~ located on the posterior surface of the humerus. –Prime mover of extension of the forearm –Supports weight for push-ups –Boxer muscle ~ packs the greatest punch Most are located along the humerus Triceps brachii ~ located on the posterior surface of the humerus. –Prime mover of extension of the forearm –Supports weight for push-ups –Boxer muscle ~ packs the greatest punch

57 Muscles that Move the Forearm Biceps brachii ~ located along the anterior surface of the humerus. Flexes the forearm “Make a muscle” Biceps brachii ~ located along the anterior surface of the humerus. Flexes the forearm “Make a muscle”

58 Muscles that Move the Forearm Branchioradialis ~ synergist of biceps branchii Origin on humerus, Inserts on radius Flexes forearm at elbow Branchioradialis ~ synergist of biceps branchii Origin on humerus, Inserts on radius Flexes forearm at elbow

59 Muscles that Move the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers More than 20 muscles Small which makes for delicate movement Generally located along the forearm The tendons of these muscles pass through the wrist into the hand and fingers. More than 20 muscles Small which makes for delicate movement Generally located along the forearm The tendons of these muscles pass through the wrist into the hand and fingers.

60 Muscles that Move the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers Flexor digitorum ~ flexes fingers –Anterior muscle Flexor digitorum ~ flexes fingers –Anterior muscle

61 Muscles that Move the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers Extensor digitorum ~ extends fingers –Posterior muscle Extensor digitorum ~ extends fingers –Posterior muscle

62 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

63 Muscles that Move the Thigh, Leg, and Foot Some of the largest and strongest muscles of the body Move the lower extremities Help maintain posture Some of the largest and strongest muscles of the body Move the lower extremities Help maintain posture

64 Muscles that Move the Femur (thighbone) All attach to some part of the pelvic girdle (coxal bones) and the femur. Contraction of these muscles moves the hip joint All attach to some part of the pelvic girdle (coxal bones) and the femur. Contraction of these muscles moves the hip joint

65 Gluteal Muscles Located on the posterior surface Gluteus maximus ~ forms the area of the buttocks –Largest muscle of the body –Rotates the thigh laterally and extends the thigh at the hip (walking, stair climbing) Located on the posterior surface Gluteus maximus ~ forms the area of the buttocks –Largest muscle of the body –Rotates the thigh laterally and extends the thigh at the hip (walking, stair climbing)

66 Gluteal Muscles Gluteus medius ~ abduct and rotate the thigh medially at the hip

67 Muscles that Move the Leg Located on the thigh Extensor muscles lie along the anterior and lateral surfaces. Flexors lie along the posterior and medial surfaces Located on the thigh Extensor muscles lie along the anterior and lateral surfaces. Flexors lie along the posterior and medial surfaces

68 Muscles that Move the Leg Quadriceps Femoris ~ located on the anterior thigh –Most powerful muscle in the body –Contain four different parts Vastus lateralis Vastus intermedius Vastus medialis Rectus femoris –All four parts cause extension of the leg at the knee Quadriceps Femoris ~ located on the anterior thigh –Most powerful muscle in the body –Contain four different parts Vastus lateralis Vastus intermedius Vastus medialis Rectus femoris –All four parts cause extension of the leg at the knee

69 Quadriceps Femoris Vastus lateralis

70 Quadriceps Femoris Vastus intermedius ~ sits directly below the rectus femoris

71 Quadriceps Femoris Vastus medialis

72 Muscles that Move the Leg Sartorius ~ crosses over anterior thigh –Allows you to sit in cross leg position –Laterally rotates thigh at hip Sartorius ~ crosses over anterior thigh –Allows you to sit in cross leg position –Laterally rotates thigh at hip

73 Muscles that Move the Leg Hamstrings ~ located on the posterior surface of the thigh –Contain three different parts Biceps femoris Semimembranosus semitendinosus Hamstrings ~ located on the posterior surface of the thigh –Contain three different parts Biceps femoris Semimembranosus semitendinosus

74 Hamstrings –Flex the leg at the knee –Extend the thigh –Strong tendons of these muscles can be felt behind the knee –Flex the leg at the knee –Extend the thigh –Strong tendons of these muscles can be felt behind the knee

75 Hamstrings Biceps femoris

76 Hamstrings Semimembranosus

77 Hamstrings Semitendinosus

78 Muscles that Move the Foot Located on the anterior, lateral, and posterior surfaces of the leg Tibialis anterior ~ located on anterior surface –Causes dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot Located on the anterior, lateral, and posterior surfaces of the leg Tibialis anterior ~ located on anterior surface –Causes dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot

79 Muscles that Move the Foot Gastronemius ~ forms the calf of the leg –Attach to the heel bone by the Achilles tendon Strongest tendon in the body –Causes plantar flexion –Toe dancer muscle Gastronemius ~ forms the calf of the leg –Attach to the heel bone by the Achilles tendon Strongest tendon in the body –Causes plantar flexion –Toe dancer muscle


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