Presentation on theme: "Muscles of the Lower Appendage (Thigh, Leg, & Foot)"— Presentation transcript:
1Muscles of the Lower Appendage (Thigh, Leg, & Foot) Nestor T. Hilvano, M.D., M.P.H.
2Learning Objectives You should be able to: Identify the principal muscles of the pelvis and lower limbs and indicate their origin, insertion, action, and innervation.Compare the major functional differences between these muscles.Solve common anatomic and physiologic problems based on what you have learned on this topic.
3Muscles that move/acting on the Thigh Iliopsoas musclecrosses anterior surface of hip joint and inserts on femuriliacus portion arises from iliac fossapsoas portion arises from lumbar vertebraemajor hip flexor
4Muscles that move the Thigh Gluteus maximusforms mass of the buttockAction: prime hip extensor and lateral rotation at hipprovides most of lift when you climb stairsIliotibial bandband of fascia lata and inserts on the tibiaAction: laterally brace the knee___ Which of the following is important when balancing on one foot?iliopsoas b. gluteus maximusc. sartorius d. iliotibial tract
5Deep Gluteal Muscles Most laterally rotate the hip - pyriformis, superior and gemellus (superior and inferior), obturator internus, quadratus femorisExcept: Gluteus medius and Gluteus minimus medially rotates
6Muscles Acting on the Knee Hamstring Muscle- consists of:1. Biceps femoris2. SemitendinosusSemimembranosus- Action: flexors of knee and hip extension- Injured in running and kicking ball sports.Sartorius- from ASIS to medial surface of tibia- Action: flexion of knee and lateral rotation of hip (crossing your legs)____ What is the longest muscle of the body?a. Hamstring muscle b. Sartorius muscle c. quadriceps femoris
7Muscles Acting on the Knee Anterior thigh muscles-extends knee jointQuadriceps femoris tendon insert to tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament; consists of:1.vastus lateralis2. rectus femoris3. vastus intermedius4. vastus medialisrectus femoris also flexes hip jointAnterior compartment syndrome (shin splint injury) is commonly caused by ___.a. jogging b. runningc. strain groins d. soccer game
8Anterior Compartment of Leg Tibialis anterior = flexion (dorsiflexion) at ankle and inverts footExtensor hallucis longus = extension of big toeExtensor digitorum longus = extension of toes 2- 5
9Posterior Compartment of Leg Superficial group of plantar flexors:Gastrocnemius = extension (plantar flexion) at ankleSoleus = extension (plantar flexion) at ankleCalcaneal tendon = attaches these muscles to heel boneDeep group of plantar flexors:Flexor digitorum longus (2nd-5th toes), Tibialis posterior, and Flexor hallucis longus (big toe) are plantar flexors.Popliteus unlocks the knee joint for knee flexion.
10Lateral Compartment of the Leg Fibularis longus and brevisBoth plantar flex and evert the footProvides lift and forward thrust
11Intrinsic Muscles of Sole Four muscle layersSupport for archesAbduct and adduct, flex the toesOne dorsal muscle – extensor digitorum brevis extends toes
12Homework (Self Review) Compare the hamstring muscles and quadriceps femoris muscles as to components and primary actions.Give the actions of the muscles below:___ pyriformis & obturator internus a. adduction of the hip___ gracilis b. lateral rotation of the hip___ gluteus medius c. maintain longitudinal arch___ intrinsic muscles of sole d. medial rotation of the hipName the muscle that corresponds to the following actions:___ crossing your legs a. gluteus maximus___ dorsiflexion of ankle b. iliopsoas___ plantar flexion of ankle c. extensor digitorum brevis___ major hip extensor d. tibialis anterior___ extend toes e. sartorius___ major hip flexor f. calf muscles