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Joints and Body Movement

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Presentation on theme: "Joints and Body Movement"— Presentation transcript:

1 Joints and Body Movement
Introduction to Muscle

2 Five Golden Rules of Skeletal Muscle Activity
All skeletal muscles cross at least 1 joint. The bulk of a skeletal muscle lies proximal to the joint crossed. All skeletal muscles have at least 2 attachments: origin and insertion. Skeletal muscles can only pull they never push. During contraction, a skeletal muscle insertion moves toward the origin.

3 Muscles and Body Movements
Movement is attained due to a muscle moving an attached bone Muscles are attached to at least two points Origin Attachment to a moveable bone Insertion Attachment to an immovable bone

4 Muscles and Body Movements

5 Joints Definition of joint Two major functions Classification
Area where two bone articulate (come together) Two major functions Hold bones together Allow for mobility – fewer joints produce robot type motion. Classification Functionally – degree of motion allowed Structurally - based on tissue and anatomy of the joint

6 Functional Classification
Synarthrosis no movement (sutures, syndesmosis, gomphosis) Amphiarthrotic Slight degree of movement (sychondrosis, symphsis) Diarthrotic Freely moveable Differ from one another in terms of specific degrees of movement allowed between bony surfaces Six types – Hinge, Pivot, Condyloid, Saddle, Ball and socket, Gliding or plane.

7 Structural Classification - Fibrous
Bones held together by dense collagen fibers with little elasticity and no spaces between bones 3 types Sutures – irregular edges of bone held together by short fibers, not moveable, skull bones Syndesmoses – bones connected by a long fibrous connective tissue which allows for a slight amount of movement – interosseous membrane in arm and leg Gomphosis – tooth attachment to maxilla or mandible – specialized ligaments are strong and cause joint to be immoveable

8 Structural - cartilaginous
Tissue made of collagen which has a gel-like quality making it flexible and strong. A great shock absorber. 2 kinds synchondrosism growth plate between first rib and sternum between manubrium and sternal body Symphyses greater elasticity and flexibility Found between vertebrae – allows movement but keeps bones in place. Also pubic area – pubic symphasis

9 Structural - synovial Articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity which contains synovial fluid Synovial capsule is lined with a smooth connective tissue membrane. Articulating surfaces are covered with hyaline cartilage Articular capsule is reinforced with ligaments Bursa sacs of the tendon sheaths reduce friction where the ligament and muscle cross the bone. All are freely moveable in single or multiple planes

10 Typical synovial joint

11 Types of synovial joints
Hinge Concave surface on a convex surface Elbow , knee Uniaxial movement – usually flexion and extension Pivot One bone rotates on a fixed landmark Atlas and axis, radius and ulna Uniaxial rotation Condyloid Oval condyle of one bone fits into an oval depression in another Mandible on temporal bone, metacarpal on proximal phalange Biaxal –two way movement

12 Types of Synovial Joints
Saddle Articulating bones are saddle shaped Joint between the thumb and trapezium (carpal) bone Movement is biaxial – two planes Gliding or plane 2 semi flat surfaces facing one another Facets of the vertebrae: intercarpal and intertarsal joints Sliding movements Ball and Socket Round sphere fits into a cup Shoulder, hip Movement in all directions

13 Inflammatory Conditions Associated with Joints
Bursitis – inflammation of a bursa; usually caused by a blow or friction Tendonitis – inflammation of the tendon sheaths due to overuse Arthritis – inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints Osteoarthritis – most common chronic form due to normal aging Rheumatoid – autoimmune disease – Immune system attacks joints Gouty arthritis – inflammation of joints is caused by uric acid deposits crystallized from the blood – treated with dietary changes.

14 Types of Body Movements
Flexion Angle between 2 body parts decreases Brings two bones closer together Typical of hinge joints like knee and elbow Extension Angle between 2 body parts increases Hyperextension Excessive increase in angle between 2 body parts Lateral flexion Bending the vertebral column to the right or left of midline

15 Body Movements

16 Body Movements

17 Body Movements Rotation
Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis Common in ball-and-socket joints Example is when you move atlas around the dens of axis (shake your head “no”)

18 Types of Ordinary Body Movements

19 Body Movements Abduction Movement of a limb away from the midline
Adduction Opposite of abduction Movement of a limb toward the midline Circumduction Combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction Extremity moves in a large circle Common in ball-and-socket joints

20 Body Movements

21 Body Movements Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion
Lifting the foot so that the superior surface approaches the shin – pointed skyward Plantar flexion Extend ankle until toes downward – toes to floor

22 Body Movements Inversion Eversion Turn sole of foot medially - inward
Turn sole of foot laterally – to the side

23 Body Movements Supination Pronation
Forearm rotates laterally so palm faces up Pronation Forearm rotates medially so palm faces downward

24 Body Movements Opposition
Move thumb to touch the tips of other fingers on the same hand

25 Body Movements Elevation
to move a body part up like shrugging shoulders. Depression to move body part downward – pushing shoulders down Protraction move body part forward like your jaw Retraction move body part to the back like your jaw

26 Types of Muscles Prime mover—muscle with the major responsibility for a certain movement Antagonist—muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover Synergist—muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation Fixator—stabilizes the origin of a prime mover

27 Naming Skeletal Muscles
By direction of muscle fibers Example: Rectus (straight) By relative size of the muscle Example: Maximus (largest) By location of the muscle Example: Temporalis (temporal bone) By number of origins Example: Triceps (three heads) By action of the muscle Example: flexor or extensor – flexes or extends a bone

28 Naming Skeletal Muscles
By location of the muscle’s origin and insertion Example: Sterno (on the sternum) By shape of the muscle Example: Deltoid (triangular)

29 Arrangement of Fascicles

30 Head and Neck Muscles Frontalis Occipitalis Orbicularis oculi
raises eyebrows Origin – cranial aponeurosis Insertion – Skin of eyebrows and nose Occipitalis Pulls scalp posteriorly Origin – occipital and temporal bone Insertion – cranial aponeurosis Orbicularis oculi closes eyes, squints, blinks, winks Origin – Frontal and maxillary bone Insertion – tissue of eyelids

31 Head and Neck Muscles Orbicularis oris
Action -closes mouth and protrudes the lips Origin – Maxilla and Mandible Insertion – Muscle and skin at angle of mouth Buccinator Action - flattens the cheek, chews Origin – maxilla and mandible Insertion – obicularis oris Zygomaticus Action - raises corners of the mouth Origin – Zygomatic bone Insertion – Skin and muscle at corner of mouth

32 Head and Neck Muscles Masseter
Action - closes the jaw and elevates mandible Origin – Zygomatic process Insertion – Mandible Temporalis Action - synergist of the masseter, closes jaw Origin – Temporal bone Insertion - Mandible Platysma Action -pulls the corners of the mouth inferiorly Origin – Fascia of chest Insertion – Lower edge of mandible

33 Head and Neck Muscles Sternohyoid Sternocleidomastoid
Action - flexes the neck, rotates the head Origin – Sternum and Clavicle Insertion – Mastoid process Sternohyoid Action – depresses larynx and hyoid bone Origin - manubrium Insertion – hyoid bone

34 Head and Neck Muscles


36 Muscles of the Shoulder
Trapezius Action – Extends neck, adducts scapula Origin – Occipital bone, cervical and thoracic vertbrae Insertion – Acromion and spinous process of scapula, clavicle Deltoid Action – arm abduction, flexion, extension and rotation of humerus Origin – clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula Insertion – Deltoid tuberosity of humerus

37 Muscles of the Shoulder
Infraspinatus Action – rotates humerus laterally Origin – scapula Insertion – greater tubercule of humerus Teres minor Teres major Action – Extends, rotates and adducts humerus Insertion – lesser tubercle

38 Shoulder


40 Muscles of Arm Triceps brachii Action – extends lower arm
Origin – glenoid cavity, posterior humerus Insertion – olecranon process of ulna Biceps brachii Action –flexes elbow and supinates forearm Origin – coracoid process of scapula Insertion – Proximal radius Brachialis Action – major arm flexion Origin – anterior surface of distal humerus Insertion – Coronoid process of ulna

41 Muscles of Forearm Pronator teres Brachioradialis
Action – pronates forearm Origin – Distal humerus and coronoid process of ulna Insertion – Radius Brachioradialis Action – Forearm flexion Origin – Distal humerus Insertion – Styloid process of radius Flexor carpi radialis Action – flexes wrist and abducts hand Origin – medial epicondyle of humerus Insertion – Second and third metacarpals

42 Muscles of Forearm Palmaris longus Extensor carpi radialis longus
Action – weak wrist flexor Origin – medial epicondyle of humerus Insertion – fascia of palm Extensor carpi radialis longus Action – extends wrist, abducts wrist Origin – lateral condylar ridge of humerus Insertion – second metacarpal Flexor carpi ulnaris Action – flexes wrist, adducts hand Origin – Distal humerus and posterior ulna Insertion – Fifth metacarpal and carpals

43 Muscles of Forearm Extensor digitorium Extensor carpi ulnaris
Action – extends finger, extends wrist Origin – Lateral epicondyle of humerus Insertion – Distal phalanges of 2-5 finger Extensor carpi ulnaris Action – Extends and adducts wrist Insertion – Fifth metacarpal


45 Thorax Muscles Pectoralis major Serratus anterior
Action – flexes arm, adducts and medially rotates arm Origin – clavicle, sternum, and cartilare of first 6 ribs Insertion – greater tubercle of humerus Serratus anterior Action – Rotates scapula Origin – ribs 1 – 8 Insertion – anterior surface of medial border of scapula


47 Abdominal muscles Rectus abdominus External oblique
Action – Flex and rotate lumbar region of vertebrae Origin – pubic crest and pubic symphysis Insertion – Xiphoid process and costal cartilage of ribs 5-7 External oblique Action – flex vertebral column and compress abdominal wall, trunk rotation and lateral flexion Origin – lower eight ribs Insertion – linea alba, pubic crest, iliac crest

48 Abdominal muscles Internal oblique Transverse abdominus
Action - flex vertebral column and compress abdominal Origin – lumbar fascia Insertion – linea alba, pubic crest, last 3 ribs Transverse abdominus Action – compresses abdominal contents Origin – inguinal ligament, lumbar fascia, cartilages of last 6 ribs, iliac crest Insertion – linea alba, pubic crest


50 Hip Muscles Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus
Action – Abducts, and medially rotates thigh; steadies pelvis while walking Origin – side of illium Insertion – greater trochanter of femur Gluteus maximus Action – hip extender – climbing Origin – Ilium, sacrum and coccyx Insertion – Gluteal tuberosity of femur

51 Back Latissimus dorsi Action – extends arm, adducts arm and rotates arm medially at shoulder Origin – spinous process of thoracic vertebrae 7-12, iliac crest, ribs 8-12 Insertion – intertubercular groove of humerus

52 Muscles of Back

53 Pelvis / Thigh Tensor Fasciae Lata Iliopsas Sartorius
Action – Abducts, flexes, and medially rotates thigh Origin – anterior iliac crest and anterior superior spine Insertion – fascia lata (connective tissue) Iliopsas Action – flexes thigh (bow) and flexes vertebrae laterally Origin – iliac crest and ala of sacrum; lumbar vertebrae Insertion – lesser trochanter Sartorius Action – Flexes and abducts thigh; lateral rotation of leg Origin – above anterior superior iliac spine Insertion – medial side of proximal tibia

54 Pelvis / Thigh Pectineus Adductior longus Gracilis
Action – Adduction, flexion and medial rotation of the hip Origin – Superior pubic ramus Insertion – Lesser trochanter Adductior longus Action – Adduction, flexion and medial rotation of the hip Origin – Pubic body just below crest Insertion – linea aspera (trochanter area of femur) Gracilis Action – Adduction, flexion and medial rotation of hip; also assist with knee flexion (walking) Origin – pubic and ischial ramus Insertion - tibia

55 Pelvis / Thigh - Quads Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis
Action – extends knee, flexes hip Origin – Anterior inferior iliac spine and acetabulum Insertion – patella and tibial tuberosity Vastus lateralis Action- knee extension Origin- greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line and linea aspera of femur Insertion- Patella and tibial tuberosity Vastus medialis Action – knee extension Origin - Femur Insertion – Patella and tibial tuberosity Vastus intermedius – deep muscle

56 Pelvis / Thigh - Hamstrings
Biceps femoris Action – Flex knee and extend hip Origin – ischial tuberosity, linea aspera and femur Insertion – the head of fibula Semitendinosus Action – Extends hip, flexes knee and rotates knee medially Origin – Ischial tuberosity Insertion – medial side of upper tibia Semimembranosus Action – Extends hip, flexes knee, medially rotates knee Insertion – Medial surface of tibia

57 Pelvis / Thigh Adductor magnus
Action – adducts and medially rotates and flexes thigh Origin – ischial and pubic ramus, ischial tuberosity Insertion – linea aspera of femur

58 Leg Fibularis (peroneus) longus Tibialis anterior
Action – Plantar flexion and pronation of foot Origin –fibula Insertion – first meta tarsal and medial cuniform Tibialis anterior Action – dorsiflexion of ankle and supination of foot Origin – body of tibia Insertion – medial cuniform and first metatarsal Extensor digitorum longus Action – Extends the 4 toes, dorsiflexion, and eversion of ankle Origin – Lateral condyle of tibia, interosseous membrane Insertion – Middle and distal phalanges of 4 toes

59 Leg Gastronemius Soleus
Action – Plantar flexion of ankle and flexion of knee Origin – posterior femur condyles Insertion – Achilles tendon to posterior calcaneous Soleus Action – plantar flexion, inversion of foot Origin – fibula and medial border of tibia Insertion – Achilles tendon





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