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PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PART C 6 The Muscular System

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Five Golden Rules of Skeletal Muscle Activity Table 6.2

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles and Body Movements  Movement is attained due to a muscle moving an attached bone  Muscles are attached to at least two points  Origin  Attachment to a moveable bone  Insertion  Attachment to an immovable bone

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles and Body Movements Figure 6.12

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements  Flexion  Decreases the angle of the joint  Brings two bones closer together  Typical of hinge joints like knee and elbow  Extension  Opposite of flexion  Increases angle between two bones

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements Figure 6.13a

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements Figure 6.13b

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements Elbow Joint and Forearm PLAY Wrist Flexion/Extension PLAY Elbow Flexion/Extension PLAY

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements  Rotation  Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis  Common in ball-and-socket joints  Example is when you move atlas around the dens of axis (shake your head “no”)

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements Humerus Rotation PLAY Figure 6.13c

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements  Abduction  Movement of a limb away from the midline  Adduction  Opposite of abduction  Movement of a limb toward the midline

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements Figure 6.13d Humerus Adduction/Abduction PLAY

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements  Circumduction  Combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction  Common in ball-and-socket joints

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Ordinary Body Movements Wrist Circumduction PLAY Humerus Circumduction PLAY Figure 6.13d

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements  Dorsiflexion  Lifting the foot so that the superior surface approaches the shin  Plantar flexion  Depressing the foot (pointing the toes)

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements Figure 6.13e Ankle Dorsiflexion/Plantar Flexion PLAY

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements  Inversion  Turn sole of foot medially  Eversion  Turn sole of foot laterally

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements Ankle Inversion/Eversion PLAY Figure 6.13f

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements  Supination  Forearm rotates laterally so palm faces anteriorly  Pronation  Forearm rotates medially so palm faces posteriorly

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements Figure 6.13g Elbow Pronation/Supination PLAY

21 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements  Opposition  Move thumb to touch the tips of other fingers on the same hand

22 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements Hand Opposition PLAY Figure 6.13h

23 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Muscles  Prime mover—muscle with the major responsibility for a certain movement  Antagonist—muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover  Synergist—muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation  Fixator—stabilizes the origin of a prime mover

24 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Muscles Elbow Joint PLAY Glenohumeral Joint PLAY

25 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Naming Skeletal Muscles  By direction of muscle fibers  Example : Rectus (straight)  By relative size of the muscle  Example : Maximus (largest)

26 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Naming Skeletal Muscles  By location of the muscle  Example : Temporalis (temporal bone)  By number of origins  Example : Triceps (three heads)

27 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Naming Skeletal Muscles  By location of the muscle’s origin and insertion  Example : Sterno (on the sternum)  By shape of the muscle  Example : Deltoid (triangular)  By action of the muscle  Example : Flexor and extensor (flexes or extends a bone)

28 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Arrangement of Fascicles Figure 6.14

29 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Head and Neck Muscles  Facial muscles  Frontalis—raises eyebrows  Orbicularis oculi—closes eyes, squints, blinks, winks  Orbicularis oris—closes mouth and protrudes the lips  Buccinator—flattens the cheek, chews  Zygomaticus—raises corners of the mouth  Chewing muscles  Masseter—closes the jaw and elevates mandible  Temporalis—synergist of the masseter, closes jaw

30 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Head and Neck Muscles  Neck muscles  Platysma—pulls the corners of the mouth inferiorly  Sternocleidomastoid—flexes the neck, rotates the head

31 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Head and Neck Muscles Figure 6.15

32 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of Trunk, Shoulder, Arm  Anterior muscles  Pectoralis major—adducts and flexes the humerus  Intercostal muscles  External intercostals—raise rib cage during inhalation  Internal intercostals—depress the rib cage to move air out of the lungs when you exhale forcibly

33 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anterior Muscles of Trunk, Shoulder, Arm Figure 6.16a

34 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of Trunk, Shoulder, Arm  Muscles of the abdominal girdle  Rectus abdominis—flexes vertebral column and compresses abdominal contents (defecation, childbirth, forced breathing)  External and internal obliques—flex vertebral column; rotate trunk and bend it laterally  Transversus abdominis—compresses abdominal contents

35 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anterior Muscles of Trunk, Shoulder, Arm Figure 6.16b

36 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of Trunk, Shoulder, Arm  Posterior muscles  Trapezius—elevates, depresses, adducts, and stabilizes the scapula  Latissimus dorsi—extends and adducts the humerus  Erector spinae—back extension  Quadratus lumborum—flexes the spine laterally  Deltoid—arm abduction

37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of Posterior Neck, Trunk, Arm Figure 6.17a

38 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of Posterior Neck, Trunk, Arm Figure 6.17b

39 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of the Upper Limb  Biceps brachii—supinates forearm, flexes elbow  Brachialis—elbow flexion  Brachioradialis—weak muscle  Triceps brachii—elbow extension (antagonist to biceps brachii)

40 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anterior Muscles of Trunk, Shoulder, Arm Figure 6.16a

41 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of Posterior Neck, Trunk, Arm Figure 6.17a

42 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of the Lower Limb  Gluteus maximus—hip extension  Gluteus medius—hip abduction, steadies pelvis when walking  Iliopsoas—hip flexion, keeps the upper body from falling backward when standing erect  Adductor muscles—adduct the thighs

43 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of the Pelvis, Hip, Thigh Figure 6.19a

44 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of the Pelvis, Hip, Thigh Figure 6.19c

45 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of the Lower Limb  Muscles causing movement at the knee joint  Hamstring group—thigh extension and knee flexion  Biceps femoris  Semimembranosus  Semitendinosus

46 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of the Pelvis, Hip, Thigh Figure 6.19a

47 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of the Lower Limb  Muscles causing movement at the knee joint  Sartorius—flexes the thigh  Quadriceps group—extends the knee  Rectus femoris  Vastus muscles (three)

48 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of the Pelvis, Hip, Thigh Figure 6.19c

49 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of the Lower Limb  Muscles causing movement at ankle and foot  Tibialis anterior—dorsiflexion and foot inversion  Extensor digitorum longus—toe extension and dorsiflexion of the foot  Fibularis muscles—plantar flexion, everts the foot  Soleus—plantar flexion

50 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of the Lower Leg Figure 6.20a

51 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of the Lower Leg Figure 6.20b

52 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Superficial Muscles: Anterior Figure 6.21

53 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Superficial Muscles: Posterior Figure 6.22

54 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Superficial Anterior Muscles of the Body Table 6.3 (1 of 3)

55 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Superficial Anterior Muscles of the Body Table 6.3 (2 of 3)

56 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Superficial Anterior Muscles of the Body Table 6.3 (3 of 3)

57 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Superficial Posterior Muscles of the Body Table 6.4 (1 of 3)

58 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Superficial Posterior Muscles of the Body Table 6.4 (2 of 3)

59 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Superficial Posterior Muscles of the Body Table 6.4 (3 of 3)

60 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Intramuscular Injection Sites Figure 6.18, 6.19b, d


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