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Exercise Science The Muscular System. Agonist and Antagonist Agonist – responsible formain movmenet Antagonist – Acts in opposition to specific movements.

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Presentation on theme: "Exercise Science The Muscular System. Agonist and Antagonist Agonist – responsible formain movmenet Antagonist – Acts in opposition to specific movements."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exercise Science The Muscular System

2 Agonist and Antagonist Agonist – responsible formain movmenet Antagonist – Acts in opposition to specific movements generated by the agonist – Returns the limb to initial position Antagonistic pairs – Needed in body because muscles can only exert a pulling force and can’t push themselves back in original position

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4 MovementAgonistAntagonist Knee FlexionHamstringsQuadriceps Medial Shoulder RotationPectoralis MajorInfraspinatus Shoulder Rotation & ElevationTrapeziusLattissimus Dorsi Hip ExtensionGluteus MaximusIliopsoas Trunk ExtensionErector SpinaeRectus Abdominus Plantar FlexionGastrocnemiusTibialis Anterior Wrist FlexionWrist FlexorsWrist Extensors Forearm SupinationSupinatorPronator (teres/quadratus) Dorsi FlexionTibialis AnteriorGastrocnemius Shoulder AbductionAnterior DeltoidLatissimus Dorsi Shoulder Adduction/RotationLatissimus DorsiDeltoid/Trapezius Thigh FlexionIliacusGluteus Maximus Hip Extension & AdductionAdductor MagnusGluetus Medius & Psoas Trunk RotationExternal ObliquesRectus Abdominus Adducts/Lateral Rotation of ArmInfraspinatusSupraspinatus Retracts ScapulaRhomboidsSerratus Anterior Neck FlexionSternocleidomastoidTrapezius

5 Principles of Muscle Action 1.Muscle must cross a joint to act directly on that joint 2.How a muscle crosses a joint will affect the action 3.When muscles shorten, it exerts on equal pull on origin & insertion – whichever offers less resistance is the one which will move

6 Origin = the end that stays fixed Insertion = the end that moves

7 Muscles of the Neck Sternocleidomastoid – Origin: clavicle & sternum – Insertion: mastoid process (temporal bone behind ear) – Function: flex & rotate head side to side

8 Spinalis – Origin: cerical & thoracic vertebrae – Insertion: cervical and thoracic vertebrae above – Function: extend & laterally flex spine

9 Muscles of the Abdomen Rectus Abdominus – Origin: pubic crest & pubic symphysis – Insertion: xiphoid process & inferior ribs – Function: trunk flexion; also expiration, defecation & childbirth

10 External Obliques/Transverse Abdominus – Origin: lower 8 th rib – Insertion: iliac crest, linea alba & pubis – Function: flex & rotate vertebral column, compress abdomen during forced expiration

11 Muscles Acting on the Upper Limb Pectoralis Major – Origin: clavicle, sternum, coastal cartilage of 1 st to 6 th rib, external oblique muscle – Insertion: intertubercular groove – Function: internal rotation, adduction & flexion of arm

12 Latissimus Dorsi – Origin: lumbar & 7 th thoracic vertebrae, iliac crest, down to the sacrum – Insertion: back of humerus at floor of interturbercular groove – Function: adductor, extensor and internal rotator of the arm

13 Muscles of the Rotator Cuff Supraspinatus – Origin: posterior scapula – Insertion: greater tubercle of humerus – Function: stabilize shoulder joint, abducts shoulder Infraspinatus – Origin: posterior scapula – Insertion: greater tubercle of humerus – Function: stabilize shoulder joint, laterally rotates shoulder

14 Teres Minor – Origin: Lateral border of scapula – Insertion: greater tubercle of humerus – Function: stabilzes, laterally rotates shoulder Subscapularis – Origin: anterior scapula – Insertion: lesser tubercle of humerus – Function: stabilize, rotates humerus medialy

15 * S.I.T.S.

16 Muscles that Position the Scapula Trapezius – Origin: occipital bone down to the 12 th vertebrae – Insertion: spine of the scapula, acromion & clavicle – Function: important lateral neck muscles Acting alone: tilt the head side to side Together: neck extension

17 Rhomboid Major and Minor – Origin: T2-T5 (major), C7-T1 (minor) – Insertion: scapula (major), scapular spine (minor) – Function: adduction & retraction of scapula, downward rotation of scapula

18 Levator Scapulae – Origin: 4 upper cervical vertebrae near base of skull – Insertion: scapula – Function: elevates & rotates scapula

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20 Serratus Anterior – Origin: first 8-9 ribs – Insertion: scapula – Function: upward rotation & abduction or protraction of scapula

21 Pectoralis Minor – Origin: 3 rd, 4 th, 5 th rib – Insertion: scapula – Function: elevates ribs, depress & protracts scapula

22 Scapular Muscles that Move Humerus Deltoid – Origin: clavicle, acromion, spine of of scapula – Insertion: humerus (deltoid tuberocity) – Function: medially rotates shoulder, abducts arm, extends & laterally rotates arm

23 Teres Major – Origin: scapula – Insertion: intertubercular groove of humerus – Function: medial rotator, adductor, extends humerus at the arm

24 Elbow Flexors and Extensors Biceps Brachii – Origin: scapula (coracoid process & supraglenoid tubercle) – Insertion: radial tuberocity – Function: forearm supinator, elbow flexion

25 Brachialis – Origin: lower anterior surface of humerus – Insertion: corocoid process of ulna – Function: elbow flexion Brachioradialis – Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus – Insertion: styloid process of radius – Function: elbow flexion

26 Triceps Brachii – Origin: posterior humerus & infraglenoid tubercle of scapula – Insertion: olceranon process of the ulna – Function: elbow extension

27 Anconeus – Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus – Insertion: olecranon & superior-posterior ulna – Function: assists triceps in extending forearm

28 Supination and Pronation Supinator – Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus – Insertion: lateral radius – Function: supination of forearm

29 Pronator Teres – Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus – Insertion: midshaft of radius – Function: pronation of forearm Pronator Quadratus – Origin: anterior surface of distal ulna – Insertion: anterior surface of distal radius – Function: pronation of forearm

30 Extrinsic Hand Muscles ANTERIOR VIEW

31 POSTERIOR VIEW

32 Intrinsic Hand Muscle Thenar Eminence Hypothenar Eminence

33 Muscles of the Hip (Posterior) Tensor Fasciae Latae – Origin: anterior iliac crest – Insertion: iliotibial tract (lateral femur) – Function: flex, abduct & medially rotate thigh

34 Sartorius – Origin: anterior superior iliac spine – Insertion: medial tibia – Function: flexion & outward rotation of hip, knee flexion

35 Gluteus maximus – Origin: illium crest, sacrum, coccyx – Insertion: greater trochanter of femur, iliotibial tract – Function: hip extension & external rotation Gluteus medius – Origin: lateral surface of ilium – Insertion: posterior greater trochanter – Function: hip abduction & internal rotation Gluteus minimus – Origin: lateral surface of ilum – Insertion: anterior greater trochanter – Function: hip abduction & internal rotation

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37 Muscles of the Hip (Anterior) Iliopsoas (iliacus + psoas major) – Origin: inner ilium – Insertion: lesser trochanter of femur – Function: hip flexion

38 Hip Adductors Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Adductor Brevis

39 Pectineus – Origin: superior ramus of pubis – Insertion: lesser trochanter to linea aspera – Function: hip adduction & flexion

40 Gracilis – Origin: inferior ramus of pubis – Insertion: medial tibial condyle – Function: hip adduction, knee flexion

41 Anterior Thigh (Quadriceps) Rectus Femoris – Origin: anterior inferior iliac spine – Insertion: tibial tuberosity – Function: knee extension & hip flexion Vastus Lateralis – Origin: linea aspera & greater trochanter – Insertion: tibial tuberosity – Function: knee extension

42 Vastus Intermedius – Origin: anterior shaft of femur – Insertion: tibial tuberosity – Function: knee extension Vastus Medialis – Origin: medial aspect of linea apsera – Insertion: tibial tuberosity – Function: knee extension *Quadriceps = Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis Vastus Intermedius & Vastus Medialis,

43 Posterior Thigh (Hamstring) Biceps Femoris – Origin: ischial tuberosity & linea aspera – Insertion: head of fibula – Function: knee flexion, hip extension

44 Semimembranosus – Origin: ischial tuberosity – Insertion: medial tibial condyle – Function: knee flexion, hip extension Semitendinosis – Origin: ischial tuberosity – Insertion: proximal part of tibia, below medial condyle – Function: knee flexion, hip extension *Hamstrings = Biceps Femoris, Semimembranosus & Semitendinosis

45 Extrinsic Foot Muscles Tibialis Anterior – Origin: anterior shaft of tibia – Insertion: 1 st metatarsal (big toe) – Function: dorsi flexion, inversion Anterior Compartment

46 Posterior Component Gastrocnemius – Origin: lateral & medial conyles of femur – Insertion: calcaneus – Function: plantar flexion, knee flexion Soleus – Origin: upper tibia & fibula – Insertion: calcaneus – Function: plantar flexion *Calf Muscles = Gastrocnemius & Soleus

47 Tibialis Posterior – Origin: posterior surface of tibia & fibula – Insertion: tuberosity of navicular bone – Function: plantar flexion, inversion Popliteus – Origin: lateral condyle of femur – Insertion: proximal shaft of tibia on posterior side below medial condyle – Function: medially rotates leg

48 Posterior Compartment

49 Extensor hallucus longus Extensor digitorum longus

50 Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Hallucis Longus

51 Intrinsic Foot Muscles Flexor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Hallucis Brevis Quadratus Plantae


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