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Exercise Science The Muscular System.

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Presentation on theme: "Exercise Science The Muscular System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exercise Science The Muscular System

2 Agonist and Antagonist
responsible formain movmenet Antagonist Acts in opposition to specific movements generated by the agonist Returns the limb to initial position Antagonistic pairs Needed in body because muscles can only exert a pulling force and can’t push themselves back in original position


4 Movement Agonist Antagonist Knee Flexion Hamstrings Quadriceps Medial Shoulder Rotation Pectoralis Major Infraspinatus Shoulder Rotation & Elevation Trapezius Lattissimus Dorsi Hip Extension Gluteus Maximus Iliopsoas Trunk Extension Erector Spinae Rectus Abdominus Plantar Flexion Gastrocnemius Tibialis Anterior Wrist Flexion Wrist Flexors Wrist Extensors Forearm Supination Supinator Pronator (teres/quadratus) Dorsi Flexion Shoulder Abduction Anterior Deltoid Latissimus Dorsi Shoulder Adduction/Rotation Deltoid/Trapezius Thigh Flexion Iliacus Hip Extension & Adduction Adductor Magnus Gluetus Medius & Psoas Trunk Rotation External Obliques Adducts/Lateral Rotation of Arm Supraspinatus Retracts Scapula Rhomboids Serratus Anterior Neck Flexion Sternocleidomastoid

5 Principles of Muscle Action
Muscle must cross a joint to act directly on that joint How a muscle crosses a joint will affect the action When muscles shorten, it exerts on equal pull on origin & insertion – whichever offers less resistance is the one which will move

6 Origin = the end that stays fixed
Insertion = the end that moves

7 Muscles of the Neck Sternocleidomastoid Origin: clavicle & sternum
Insertion: mastoid process (temporal bone behind ear) Function: flex & rotate head side to side

8 Spinalis Origin: cerical & thoracic vertebrae
Insertion: cervical and thoracic vertebrae above Function: extend & laterally flex spine

9 Muscles of the Abdomen Rectus Abdominus
Origin: pubic crest & pubic symphysis Insertion: xiphoid process & inferior ribs Function: trunk flexion; also expiration, defecation & childbirth

10 External Obliques/Transverse Abdominus
Origin: lower 8th rib Insertion: iliac crest, linea alba & pubis Function: flex & rotate vertebral column, compress abdomen during forced expiration

11 Muscles Acting on the Upper Limb
Pectoralis Major Origin: clavicle, sternum, coastal cartilage of 1st to 6th rib, external oblique muscle Insertion: intertubercular groove Function: internal rotation, adduction & flexion of arm

12 Latissimus Dorsi Origin: lumbar & 7th thoracic vertebrae, iliac crest, down to the sacrum Insertion: back of humerus at floor of interturbercular groove Function: adductor, extensor and internal rotator of the arm

13 Muscles of the Rotator Cuff
Supraspinatus Origin: posterior scapula Insertion: greater tubercle of humerus Function: stabilize shoulder joint, abducts shoulder Infraspinatus Function: stabilize shoulder joint, laterally rotates shoulder

14 Teres Minor Subscapularis Origin: Lateral border of scapula
Insertion: greater tubercle of humerus Function: stabilzes, laterally rotates shoulder Subscapularis Origin: anterior scapula Insertion: lesser tubercle of humerus Function: stabilize, rotates humerus medialy

15 * S.I.T.S.

16 Muscles that Position the Scapula
Trapezius Origin: occipital bone down to the 12th vertebrae Insertion: spine of the scapula, acromion & clavicle Function: important lateral neck muscles Acting alone: tilt the head side to side Together: neck extension

17 Rhomboid Major and Minor
Origin: T2-T5 (major), C7-T1 (minor) Insertion: scapula (major), scapular spine (minor) Function: adduction & retraction of scapula, downward rotation of scapula

18 Levator Scapulae Origin: 4 upper cervical vertebrae near base of skull
Insertion: scapula Function: elevates & rotates scapula


20 Serratus Anterior Origin: first 8-9 ribs Insertion: scapula
Function: upward rotation & abduction or protraction of scapula

21 Pectoralis Minor Origin: 3rd, 4th, 5th rib Insertion: scapula
Function: elevates ribs, depress & protracts scapula

22 Scapular Muscles that Move Humerus
Deltoid Origin: clavicle, acromion, spine of of scapula Insertion: humerus (deltoid tuberocity) Function: medially rotates shoulder, abducts arm, extends & laterally rotates arm

23 Teres Major Origin: scapula
Insertion: intertubercular groove of humerus Function: medial rotator, adductor, extends humerus at the arm

24 Elbow Flexors and Extensors
Biceps Brachii Origin: scapula (coracoid process & supraglenoid tubercle) Insertion: radial tuberocity Function: forearm supinator, elbow flexion

25 Brachialis Brachioradialis Origin: lower anterior surface of humerus
Insertion: corocoid process of ulna Function: elbow flexion Brachioradialis Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus Insertion: styloid process of radius

26 Triceps Brachii Origin: posterior humerus & infraglenoid tubercle of scapula Insertion: olceranon process of the ulna Function: elbow extension

27 Anconeus Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: olecranon & superior-posterior ulna Function: assists triceps in extending forearm

28 Supination and Pronation
Supinator Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus Insertion: lateral radius Function: supination of forearm

29 Pronator Teres Pronator Quadratus Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: midshaft of radius Function: pronation of forearm Pronator Quadratus Origin: anterior surface of distal ulna Insertion: anterior surface of distal radius

30 Extrinsic Hand Muscles


32 Intrinsic Hand Muscle Thenar Eminence Hypothenar Eminence

33 Muscles of the Hip (Posterior)
Tensor Fasciae Latae Origin: anterior iliac crest Insertion: iliotibial tract (lateral femur) Function: flex, abduct & medially rotate thigh

34 Sartorius Origin: anterior superior iliac spine
Insertion: medial tibia Function: flexion & outward rotation of hip, knee flexion

35 Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus
Origin: illium crest, sacrum, coccyx Insertion: greater trochanter of femur, iliotibial tract Function: hip extension & external rotation Gluteus medius Origin: lateral surface of ilium Insertion: posterior greater trochanter Function: hip abduction & internal rotation Gluteus minimus Origin: lateral surface of ilum Insertion: anterior greater trochanter


37 Muscles of the Hip (Anterior)
Iliopsoas (iliacus + psoas major) Origin: inner ilium Insertion: lesser trochanter of femur Function: hip flexion

38 Hip Adductors Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Adductor Brevis

39 Pectineus Origin: superior ramus of pubis
Insertion: lesser trochanter to linea aspera Function: hip adduction & flexion

40 Gracilis Origin: inferior ramus of pubis
Insertion: medial tibial condyle Function: hip adduction, knee flexion

41 Anterior Thigh (Quadriceps)
Rectus Femoris Origin: anterior inferior iliac spine Insertion: tibial tuberosity Function: knee extension & hip flexion Vastus Lateralis Origin: linea aspera & greater trochanter Function: knee extension

42 Vastus Intermedius Vastus Medialis Origin: anterior shaft of femur
Insertion: tibial tuberosity Function: knee extension Vastus Medialis Origin: medial aspect of linea apsera *Quadriceps = Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis Vastus Intermedius & Vastus Medialis,

43 Posterior Thigh (Hamstring)
Biceps Femoris Origin: ischial tuberosity & linea aspera Insertion: head of fibula Function: knee flexion, hip extension

44 Semimembranosus Semitendinosis Origin: ischial tuberosity
Insertion: medial tibial condyle Function: knee flexion, hip extension Semitendinosis Insertion: proximal part of tibia, below medial condyle Function: knee flexion, hip extension *Hamstrings = Biceps Femoris, Semimembranosus & Semitendinosis

45 Extrinsic Foot Muscles
Anterior Compartment Tibialis Anterior Origin: anterior shaft of tibia Insertion: 1st metatarsal (big toe) Function: dorsi flexion, inversion

46 Posterior Component Gastrocnemius Soleus
*Calf Muscles = Gastrocnemius & Soleus Gastrocnemius Origin: lateral & medial conyles of femur Insertion: calcaneus Function: plantar flexion, knee flexion Soleus Origin: upper tibia & fibula Function: plantar flexion

47 Tibialis Posterior Popliteus
Origin: posterior surface of tibia & fibula Insertion: tuberosity of navicular bone Function: plantar flexion, inversion Popliteus Origin: lateral condyle of femur Insertion: proximal shaft of tibia on posterior side below medial condyle Function: medially rotates leg

48 Posterior Compartment

49 Extensor hallucus longus
Extensor digitorum longus

50 Flexor Digitorum Longus
Flexor Hallucis Longus

51 Intrinsic Foot Muscles
Flexor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Hallucis Brevis Quadratus Plantae

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