Presentation on theme: "Dr. Banafshe Esmaeilzade, M.S., Ph.D. Deptartment of Anatomy Bushehr Univ. of Medical Sciences Dr. Banafshe Esmaeilzade, M.S., Ph.D. Deptartment of Anatomy."— Presentation transcript:
Parts and regions of the lower limb Gluteal region:between iliac crest superiorly and gluteal fold inferiorly Thigh:between hip and knee Knee:joint between leg and thigh Leg:between knee and foot Ankle Foot
Anterior Region of Thigh Superficial structures:
Lateral cutaneous n. of thigh Anterior cutaneous n. of thigh Cutaneous nerves: medial cutaneous n. of thigh Femoral branch of jenitofemoral n. ilioinguinal n.
Key dermatomes* of the Lower Limb umbilicus - T10 hip crease - L1 great toe - L4 5th toe - S1 *area of skin supplied by a dorsal nerve root
Superficial epigastric v. Superficial External pudendal v. Superficial circumflex iliac v. Great saphenous v. Superficial lateral femoral v. Superficial veins
Superficial inguinal lymph nodes : Horizontal group Vertical group
Superficial inguinal lymph nodes Superior group: Lies just distal to the inguinal ligament Receive lymph from anterior abdominal wall below umbilicus, gluteal region, perineal region, external genital organs Inferior group: Lies vertical along the terminal great saphenous v. Receives all superficial lymphatics of lower limb, except for those from the posterolateral part of calf Efferent vessels drain into the deep inguinal ln. or external iliac ln.
Gluteal Fascia Fascia Lata Crural Fascia Fascia of the Lower Limb
Fascia Lata Fascial Compartments of the Thigh Anterior compartment Medial (adductor) compartment Posterior compartment anterior compartment posterior compartment medial compartment
Deep fascia – fascia lata Iliotibial tract Saphenous hiatus falciform margin cribriform fascia
Muscles of Hip and Thigh Gluteals (posterior pelvis) –Extend thigh –Rotate thigh –Abducts thigh Anterior Compartment Thigh –Flexes thigh at hip –Extends leg at knee Medial/Adductor Compartment –Adducts thigh –Medially rotates thigh Posterior Compartment Thigh –Extends thigh –Flexes leg
Anterior Compartment muscles of Thigh Tensor fascia lata –O: iliac crest, A.S.I.S. – I: iliotibial tract –A: Flex thigh, abduct thigh, medial rotation of thigh – N. : Superior Gluteal n.
Sartorius -O – ASIS -I – superior part of medial surface of tibia -A – flexes, abducts, and external rotates thigh -N. Femoral n.
Iliopsoas -O – sides of T12-L5 vertebrae, iliac crest & fossa -I – lesser trochanter of femur, pectineal line -A – flexing the thigh Femoral n. -N- Femoral n.
Vastus lateralis -O – greater trochanter and lateral lip of linea aspera of femur Vastus medialis -O – intertrochanteric line and medial lip of linea aspera of femur Vastus intermedius -O – anterior and lateral surfaces of body of femur *Same for all 3 -I – base of patella A – helps flex thigh
Femoral triangle This triangle is bounded by: superiorly; the inguinal ligament (base) laterally; the medial border of sartorius Medially; the medial border of adductor longus Inferiorly; the apex of the triangle is continuous with adductor canal. The anterior wall is fascia lata The posterior wall consists of adductor longus, pectineus and iliopsoas, from medial to lateral side.
Contents of the femoral triangle 1. The femoral artery and its branches,the profunda femoris artery,The lateral and medial circumflex arteries,The deep external pudendal. 2. The femoral vein and its tributaries. 3. Three or four deep inguinal lymph nodes lie along the medial side of the femoral vein. 4. The femoral nerve. 5. The femoral canal.
Adductor canal Extends from apex of femoral triangle to adductor hiatus Bounded by : laterally;vastus medialis posteriorly; adductors longus and magmus, anteriorly ;adductor lamina and sartorius Contents – saphenous nerve, femoral a., femoral v., lymphatic vessels, and loose connective tissue
The adductor hiatus is a gap in the distal attachment of adductor magnus to the femur, which permits the femoral vessels to pass from the adductor canal downward into the popliteal space.
Femoral sheath The femoral sheath is a funnel- shaped sheath, derived from transversalis fascia anteriorly and iliac fascia posteriorly. It surroumds the femoral vessels and lymphatic about 2.5cm belower the inguinal ligamemt. Its lower end disappears at the lower margin of the saphenous opening where the sheath fuses with the adventitia of the vessels.
The femoral sheath is divided into three compartments by two fibrous septa. The femoral artery occupies the lateral compartment of the sheath. The femoral vein lies the middle compartment. The medial compartment is small, called the femoral canal.
The femoral canal It is about 1.3cm long, and its upper opening is called the femoral ring. The boundaries of the femoral ring are:, anteriorly; the inguinal ligamentthe medially; lacunar ligament;, posteriorly; the pecten of pubis laterally; the femoral vein, superiorly; covered by femoral septum. The canal contains a little loose fatty tissue, a small lymph node, and some lymph vessels.
Femoral hernia A femoral hernia is common in women than in men (possibly due to a wider pelvis and femoral canal ). If a loop of intestine is forced into the femoral ring, it expands to form a swelling in the upper part of the thigh.
Lacuna musculorum Bounded by: anteriorly; lateral portion of inguinal ligament, posterolaterally; ilium Medially; iliopectinal arch Contents: iliopsoas m, femoral n. and lateral femoral cutaneous n. Iliopectinal arch Femoral n. Iliopsoas Lateral femoral cutaneous n.
Lacuna vasorum Bounded by: anteriorly,medial portion of inguinal ligament posteromedially, pectineal ligament medially,lacunar ligament, Posterolaterally, iliopectinal arch Contents: femoral sheath, femoral a. and v., genital branch of genitofemoral n. and lymphatic vessels, femoral ring Femoral a. Femoral v. Femoral ring
Femoral a. This is the main artery of the lower limb and is directly continuous with the external iliac artery of the abdomen behind the inguinal ligament at the mid- inguinal point. It becomes the popliteal artery by passing through the adductor tendinous opening. Arteries of lower limb
Femoral a. Principal branch: 1. Deep femeral a.: arises from the posterolateral surface of the femoral artery about 4 cm below the inguinal ligament. 2. Descending genicular a. 3. Deep external pudendal a. 4. Superficial branches: –superficial epigastric a. –superficial iliac circumflex a. –external pudendal a.
Profunda femoris Lateral circumflex artery It arises from the profunda near its origin and runs laterally among the branches of the femoral nerve and then deep to rectus femoris. Here it divides into ascending, transverse, and descending branches. Medial circumflex artery arises either from the profunda near its origin or occasionally direct from the femoral artery. Four perforating arteries
Profunda femoral a. Latral circumflex a. Medial circumflex a. Saphenous n.
Femoral nerve It arises from the lumbar plexus in the abdomen, and enters the thigh posterior to the inguinal ligament and lateral to the femoral artery. It ends by dividing into a number of branches 2cm below the inguinal ligament. Muscular branche to: pectineus, sartorius, quadriceps femoris
Cutaneous nerve branches: (1) Anterior cutaneous nerves of the thigh (medial and lateral). (2) Saphenous nerve is the longest branch of the femoral nerve. It accompanies the femoral vessels in the adductor canal, then accompanies the great saphenous vein to the medial side of the leg and food.
Femoral vein This is the direct continuation of the popliteal vein. It begins at the adductor tendinous opening and accompanies the femoral artery to the inguinal ligament behind which it becomes the external iliac vein. The femoral vein contains several valves.
Pectineus -O - Superior ramus of pubis -I - Pectineal line of femur -A – adducts and flexes thigh N: Femoral, obturator
Adductor Brevis –O - Inferior Pubic Ramus –I - Pectineal Line and Linea Aspera –A - adducts, flexes, and medially rotates femur Gracillis –O - pubic Symphysis and inferior pubic ramus –I - medial surface of the tibia –A - adducts thigh, flexes medially and medially rotates thigh, flexes leg –Innervation: Obturator nerve
Adductor Longus –O - med portion of the superior pubic ramus –I - linea aspera of femur –A - adducts, flexes, and medially rotates the femur –Innervation: Obturator nerve
Adductor Magnus –O - ischiopubic ramus and ischial tuberosity –I - linea aspera of the femur; the ischiocondylar part inserts on the adductor tubercle of the femur –A - adducts, flexes, and medially rotates the femur; extends the femur –Innervation: post div of Obturator nerve and tibial n.
Nerve and artery Obturator n. Accessory obturator n. Obturator a. Medial circumflex a. arises either from the profunda near its origin or occasionally direct from the femoral artery.
Obturator Nerve Nerve of Medial Fascial Compartment of the Thigh The posterior division pierces the obturator externus and passes downward behind the adductor brevis and in front of the adductor magnus The anterior division passes downward in front of the obturator externus.