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Designing a Portable Shader Library for Current and Future API's David Gosselin 3D Application Research Group.

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Presentation on theme: "Designing a Portable Shader Library for Current and Future API's David Gosselin 3D Application Research Group."— Presentation transcript:

1 Designing a Portable Shader Library for Current and Future API's David Gosselin 3D Application Research Group

2 2 Outline Introduction & Motivation Demos Case Study: ATI’s demo shader format – Design Goals – Artist’s Interface – Texture Definitions – Vertex and Index Buffers – Sub-shaders and Passes – Vertex and Pixel Shaders Converting from D3D ASM to HLSL Example

3 3 Motivation Share the lessons learned from our shader library – Shaders in general – Moving from D3D ASM to HLSL Show some advantages to being shader-centric Show ways to include fallback paths Show cross platform generalizations Would like to see more games use shaders and not just target the least common denominator for graphics

4 4 Why Shaders? Direction of the Industry – Hardware very shader driven – Will continue down this path – Modern engines need to be shader aware High level shader languages (HLSL and OpenGL) make shaders easier to write Visual flexibility Less engine churn

5 5 What is a Shader Library? Library in the sense of a linkable.lib file or collection of source code – Not a collection of shaders Abstracts Graphics API – Render States – Constant Binding – Shader Binding – Etc. Manages Shaders Integrates with preprocessing/export

6 6 Engine Block Diagram Maya 3DS Max Exporter Material Plug-ins Preprocessor Runtime Engine Shader Library File IO D3DOGL Shader/State Management Parsing Shader Files

7 7 What is in a Shader File? Contains all the state and definitions needed to render a piece of geometry. Includes – Artist Instructions – Preprocessing Directives – Texture Definitions – Constant / Variable Definitions – Stream Definitions (Vertex/Index buffers) – Fixed Function States (Alpha, Stencil, Z, etc.) – Vertex Shader – Pixel Shader Potentially multiple LOD/# light variants

8 8 Demos Showing the Necessity of a Shader Library

9 9 Shader File Design Goals Cross platform / cross API Reduce the frequency of redesigning graphics engine Expandable to future shader languages and API’s Drive preprocessing (optimal VB/IB) Fallback shaders LOD shaders Ability to target a wide range of graphics hardware Artist interaction to runtime execution

10 10 Artists Point-of-View To the RIGHT are our Maya and 3DS MAX plug-ins Artists associate a shader with a material within the art tool Art tool plug-in pulls instructions from the file for the artists

11 11 Artist Notes StartArtNotes Supports: - 3 Fast RT lights - 3 Object Ambient Lights Requirements: - Base = RGB texture - Bump = RGB normal map EndArtNotes

12 12 Describe maximum number of lights supported Describe textures needed Any special instructions – Artist editable variables – Special scene geometry – Etc. Art Notes

13 13 Texture Placement Texture tBase 2D DXT1("Base", RGB, Box) DefTexture tBase Trilinear Texture tBump 2D RGBX("Bump", RGB, Box) DefTexture tBump Trilinear

14 14 Texture Declaration How to preprocess textures – Output format – Input Format – Mipmap Generation – Separate RGB and alpha textures Texture tBase 2D DXT1 ("Base", RGB, KaiserGamma) Texture tFurShellTexture 2D RGBA (“T1", RGB, Kaiser, “T2", GRAY,Kaiser) Texture tBump 2D DXT5 ("Bump", HEIGHT,Box, “Opacity",GRAY,Box) Texture tAnisoLookup 2D RGBA (“T5", RGB, Box, “T6", GRAY,Box) Texture tNormCube CM RGBX ("Base3", RGB, Box) Texture tEnvMap CMAuto // Engine generated cubemap Texture tWater Renderable("WaterReflection")

15 15 Artist Editable Variables Vector vColor(.7,.7,.7, 0.0) Editable(color) Vector vReflectionColor (1, 1, 1, 1.0) Editable(Color) Float vSpecularExp (16.0) Editable(Slider, 0, 512)

16 16 Variables Standard types: Float, Vector, Matrix Can be bound to render state Can be bound to engine state Constant Can be artist editable (from within tool) Matrix wvp(MATRIX_WVP) Vector osCamPos(CAMERA_POSITION, OBJECT_SPACE) Vector osLightPos(LIGHT_POSITION,OBJECT_SPACE, 0) Vector time(0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0) AppUpdate(“Time”) Vector furFadeScaleBias(0.5, 0.5, 0.0, 0.0) Float furHeight(4.0) EDITABLE

17 17 Vertex and Index Buffers How to preprocess vertex/index buffers One IB per unique stream map StartStream sPosNorm (Normal) float3 POSITION0 Position float3 NORMAL0 VertexNormal EndStream StartStream sTexCoords (Normal) float2 TEX0 UV0 // BaseTexU, BaseTexV float3 TEX1 Tangent0 EndStream StartStream sFurFins (FurFins) // Different geometry than above 2 streams float3 POSITION0 Position float3 NORMAL0 VertexNormal float4 TEX0 FinFaceData0 // FinTexU, FinTexV, BaseTexUVDist, RandOffset float3 TEX2 FaceNormal EndStream StreamMap smBasePass (sPosNorm, sTexCoords) StreamMap smShellPass (sPosNorm, sTexCoords) StreamMap smFinsPass (sFurFins)

18 18 Sub-Shaders Single shader file with multiple sub- shaders – Fallbacks – LOD – Split-screens – Different number of lights Controlled via a property string First in file (top to bottom) with unique properties that validates Can contain multiple passes

19 19 Sub-Shader Example // StartShader //For vs.2.0 and ps.2.0 minimum Property “Normal” // Can be anything “Wire frame”, // “Invincible”, “One Light”, etc. StartPass … EndPass EndShader // StartShader //For vs.1.1 and ps.1.4 Property “Normal” StartPass … EndPass StartPass … EndPass EndShader

20 20 Falling Back Determine which shaders validate before loading vertex buffers, index buffers and textures. Vertex/Index Buffers – May need single stream vertex buffers for older hardware – All potential vertex streams defined in shader – Load only those required for shaders which validate – Extra data stored on disk, but optimal for runtime Textures – Many fallback shaders won’t require all the defined textures – Only load textures required for validated shaders

21 21 Pass Each pass has a Stream Mapping, unique set of render state and textures, and vertex and pixel shader code. Within a sub-shader, state is sticky between passes. StartPass //Set Stream Map //Set Textures //Set Render State //Set Vertex Shader Constants //Vertex Shader Code //Set Pixel Shader Constants //Pixel Shader Code EndPass

22 22 Common Graphics Concepts Graphics hardware is very similar despite differences in API’s Hardware is functionally identical: – Setting texture state – Vertex/index buffers, stream maps – Draw calls – Alpha blending & testing – Shader constant setup – Z state – Stencil state – Renderable textures – etc.

23 23 Common State Keywords Clipping TRUE Cull CW FillMode Solid ShadeMode Gouraud SetTexture 0 NULL CoordIndex(0) Transform(0) Linear LODBias(0.0) Clamp(www) Border(0x ) SetBlender 0 Color(SelectArg1, Diffuse, Diffuse) Alpha(SelectArg1, Diffuse, Diffuse) Fog FALSE Table(None) Vertex(None) Color(0) Start(0.0) End(1.0) Density(1.0) AlphaTest FALSE Blend FALSE Src(One) Dest(Zero) Op(Add) ColorWriteEnable (R, G, B, A) MultiSampleAntiAlias TRUE MultiSampleMask 0xffffffff DitherEnable FALSE Z TRUE Write(TRUE) Func(LessEqual) Bias(0.0) SlopeScale(0.0) Stencil FALSE Pass(Keep) Fail(Keep) ZFail(Keep) Func(Always) Ref(0xFFFFFFFF) StencilCCW FALSE Pass(Keep) Fail(Keep) ZFail(Keep) Func(Always)

24 24 Shader Languages DirectX fixed function DirectX assembly shaders DirectX HLSL OpenGL fixed function OpenGL assembly shaders (ARB_vertex_program, ARB_fragment_program) The OpenGL Shading Language (ARB_shading_language_100 ) GameCube PS2

25 25 D3D ASM Shaders VS/PS code embedded Can also come from an external file. VsConst 0 mWvp // Matrix takes up 4 constants VsConst 4 vTimeConst VsConst 5 (0.0, 0.1, 2.0, 5.0) StartVertexShader vs.1.1 dcl_position v0 dcl_color0 v5 dcl_texcoord0 v7 m4x4 oPos, v0, c0 // Transform position mov oT0, v7 // Base texture coordinates mov oD0, v5 // Pass vertex light to PS EndVertexShader

26 26 HLSL Support Design Goals Build on our existing framework Avoid explicit constant declarations Allow HLSL include files to reference common functions – Includes can contain their own variables and textures Hidden from outside the shader library

27 27 VsConst 0 mWvp //Takes up 4 constants VsConst 4 vTime VsConst 5 (0.0, 0.1, 2.0, 5.0) StartVertexShader vs.1.1 dcl_position v0 dcl_color0 v5 dcl_texcoord0 v7 m4x4 oPos, v0, c0 //Transform mov oT0, v7 //Base tex coords mov oD0, v5 //Vertex light EndVertexShader Basic HLSL Shader Matrix mWvp(MATRIX_WVP) Vector vTime AppUpdate(“Time”) StartVertexShader(HLSL) float4x4 mWvp; float4 vTimeConst; struct VS_OUTPUT { float4 Pos : POSITION; float4 Diffuse : COLOR0; float2 TCoord0 : TEXCOORD0; }; VS_OUTPUT main (float4 aPosition : POSITION, float4 aDiffuse : COLOR0, float2 aTC0 : TEXCOORD0) { VS_OUTPUT outV = (VS_OUTPUT) 0; outV.Pos = mul (mWvp, aPosition); // Transform position outV.TCoord0 = vTC0; // Pass texture coordinates outV.Diffuse = vDiffuse; // Pass vertex light return outV; } EndVertexShaderHLSL New HLSL token Constants by name

28 28 HLSL Pixel Shader Texture tBaseTexture 2D DXT1("Base", RGB, KaiserGamma) StartPixelShader(HLSL) sampler tBaseTexture; struct PsInput { float2 texCoord : TEXCOORD0; float3 vertexLight : COLOR0; }; float4 main (PsInput i) : COLOR { // Sample base texture float3 cBase = tex2D (tBaseTexture, i.texCoord); float4 o; o.rgb = cBase * i.vertexLight; //Final lighting o.a = 1.0f; return o; } EndPixelShader

29 29 Matching Names D3DXCompileShader() returns a constant table when a shader is compiled. ID3DXConstantTable has a member function GetConstantDesc() which allows you to get: – Name – Register Index – Type/Size Our shader library matches names to registers to send to SetPixelShaderConstantF() and SetVertexShaderConstantF()

30 30 Handling HLSL Includes Didn’t use HLSL’s #include Variables and textures in includes need to be interpreted by shader library Our parser concatenates the include files with the embedded shader code Shader author needs no knowledge about the contents of the include file other than the function declaration

31 31 Using an Include file StartHLSL #define SI_SKINNING_MAX_BONES 40 EndHLSL … VsInclude this VsInclude "SiSkinning.shl" StartVertexShader(HLSL) float4x4 mVP; struct VsInput { float4 pos : POSITION0; float4 weights : BLENDWEIGHT0; int4 indices : BLENDINDICES0; float3 normal : NORMAL0; }; … VsOutput main (VsInput i) { // Skin position float4 pos = SiSkin4x4 (i.pos, i.weights, i.indices); o.pos = mul (pos, mVP); … } EndVertexShader

32 32 HLSL Include Example #replicate ($i, 0, 100, 1) Matrix mSiWorld$i AppUpdate(world$imat) #endreplicate StartHLSL float4x4 mSiWorld[SI_SKINNING_MAX_BONES]; float4 SiSkin4x4 (float4 aVec, float4 aWeights, float4 aIndices) { float4 vec = (float4)0; for(int bone = 0; bone < 4; bone++) vec += (aWeights[bone] * (mul (aVec, mSiWorld[aIndices[bone]])); return vec; }... EndHLSL

33 33 VsInclude "SiSkinning.shl" float4x4 mVP; struct VsInput { float4 pos : POSITION0; float4 weights : BLENDWEIGHT0; int4 indices : BLENDINDICES0; float3 normal : NORMAL0; }; VsOutput main (VsInput i) { float4 pos = SiSkin4x4 (i.pos, i.weights, i.indices); o.pos = mul (pos, mVP); } StartVertexShader(HLSL) EndVertexShader float4x4 mSiWorld[SI_SKINNING_MAX_BONES]; float4 SiSkin4x4 (float4 aVec, float4 aWeights, float4 aIndices) { float4 vec = (float4)0; for(int bone = 0; bone < 4; bone++) vec += (aWeights[bone] * (mul (aVec, mSiWorld[aIndices[bone]])); return vec; } #replicate ($i, 0, 100, 1) Matrix mSiWorld$i AppUpdate(world$imat) #endreplicate StartHLSL EndHLSL #define SI_SKINNING_MAX_BONES 40 Matrix mVP mWvp(MATRIX_WVP) StartHLSL EndHLSL Concatenation of Files Shader Library D3DX Compiler

34 34 Debugging Concatenated files means line numbers will not be accurate Added a special tag to dump out the concatenated code: Outputs the concatenated file to the given file name StartPixelShader(HLSL) HLSLDebugOutput(“dbg.hlsl”)

35 35 Textures in HLSL Includes Including an HLSL pixel shader also requires implicitly binding textures to texture stages In non-HLSL pixel shaders, we had: SetTexture 0 tBaseTexture Trilinear Since we can’t specify the stage to bind the texture to explicitly: DefTexture tBaseTexture Trilinear HLSL compiler returns table for matching our DefTextures names with stages

36 36 Texture Lookup in an Include StartArtNotes * Anisotropic Strand Lighting map on T2 (24 bit) EndArtNotes Texture tSiStrandLighting 2D DXT1("T2", RGB, Box) DefTexture tSiStrandLighting Linear Clamp(cc) StartHLSL sampler tSiStrandLighting; struct SiStrandPair { float diffuse; float specular; }; // Compute Wolfgang Heidrich's Anisotropic lighting SiStrandPair SiComputeStrandLight (float3 normal, float3 light, float3 view, float3 dirAniso) { SiStrandPair sPair;

37 37 Texture Lookup Continued float LdA = dot(light, dirAniso); float VdA = dot(view, dirAniso); float2 fnLookup = tex2D(tSiStrandLighting, (float2(LdA, VdA) * 0.5) + (float2)0.5); float spec = fnLookup.y * fnLookup.y; float diff = fnLookup.x; float selfShadow = saturate(dot(normal, light)); sPair.diffuse = diff * selfShadow; sPair.specular = spec * selfShadow; return(sPair); } EndHLSL

38 38 Default Shader Defines all default state for your engine within a shader file. You don’t need to rely on D3D’s or OpenGL’s default state since you override it with what is most useful to your app. This also helps reduce overall state change. Necessary for cross API development since different API’s have different default state Your shaders ultimately have less redundancy since you can rely on the defaults you set.

39 39 A Full Example: Environment Mapped Bumps StartArtNotes Supports: - 3 Fast RT lights - 3 Object Ambient Lights - Per-Pixel Specular Exponent - Gloss Map - Environment map cube map - Bump map Requirements: - Color = Set Editable Color (vBaseColor) - Bump = RGB normal map - Gloss = GRAY Texture (Gloss Map) - SpecularExp = GRAY Texture (Specular Exponent Map) - T2 = RGB Cube Map (Environment Map) EndArtNotes StartMisc Animation Skinned(40) NumFastRTLights 3 EndMisc

40 40 Example Continued // TEXTURES Texture tGloss 2D GRAY("Gloss", GRAY, Box) Texture tSpec 2D GRAY("SpecularExp", GRAY, Box) Texture tEnv CM RGB("T2", RGB, Box) Texture tBump 2D RGB("Bump", RGB, Box) DefTexture tBump Trilinear DefTexture tSpec Trilinear DefTexture tGloss Trilinear DefTexture tEnv Trilinear // VARIABLES Matrix mVP(VP) Vector worldCamPos(CameraPosition, WorldSpace) Vector vBaseColor(.8,.8,.8, 0) Editable(color)

41 41 Example Continued // STREAMS StartStream s1 Normal float3 POSITION Position float4 BLENDWEIGHT BlendWeight ubyte4 BLENDINDICES BlendIndex float3 NORMAL Normal float3 TANGENT0 Tangent("Bump") float3 BINORMAL0 Binormal("Bump") float2 TEX0 UV("Bump") EndStream StreamMap sm1(s1) // Global HLSL block StartHLSL #define SI_SKINNING_MAX_BONES 40 #define NUM_OBJECT_AMBIENT_LIGHTS 3 #define SPECULAR_K_MIN 16 #define SPECULAR_K_MAX 256 EndHLSL

42 42 Example Continued StartShader "NormalFastRT1" Property "Normal" Property "FastRT1" StartPass "Pass1" SetStreamMap sm1 VsInclude this VsInclude "SiRTLight.shl"(VS) VsInclude "SiObjAmbLight.shl" VsInclude "SiSkinning.shl" VsInclude "SiMath.shl"(Misc) StartVertexShader(HLSL) float4x4 mVP; float3 worldCamPos;

43 43 Example Continued struct VsInput { float4 pos : POSITION0; float4 weights : BLENDWEIGHT0; float4 indices : BLENDINDICES0; float3 normal : NORMAL0; float3 tangent : TANGENT0; float3 binormal : BINORMAL0; float2 texCoord : TEXCOORD0; }; struct VsOutput { float4 pos : POSITION0; float2 texCoord : TEXCOORD0; float3 lightVec0TS : TEXCOORD1; float3 lightSpacePos0 : TEXCOORD2; float3 viewVecTS : TEXCOORD3; float3 invNormal : TEXCOORD4; float3 invTangent : TEXCOORD5; float3 invBinormal : TEXCOORD6; float3 vertexLight : COLOR0; };

44 44 Example Continued VsOutput main (VsInput i) { VsOutput o; o.texCoord = i.texCoord; float3x3 mTangent = 0; // Skin float4 pos = SiSkin4x4 (i.pos, i.weights, i.indices); o.pos = mul (pos, mVP); mTangent[0] = SiSkin3x3 (i.tangent, i.weights, i.indices); mTangent[1] = SiSkin3x3 (i.binormal, i.weights, i.indices); mTangent[2] = SiSkin3x3 (i.normal, i.weights, i.indices); // Invert tangent space float3x3 mInvTangent = transpose(mTangent); o.invTangent = mInvTangent[0]; o.invBinormal = mInvTangent[1]; o.invNormal = mInvTangent[2]; // Compute View Vector float3 viewVec = worldCamPos - i.pos; viewVec = normalize (viewVec); o.viewVecTS = mul (mTangent, viewVec);

45 45 Example Continued // Compute ambient lighting float3 vertexLight = 0.0f; for (int idx = 0; idx < NUM_OBJECT_AMBIENT_LIGHTS; idx++) { vertexLight += SiComputeObjectAmbientLight (pos, mTangent[2], idx); } o.vertexLight = vertexLight; // Compute runtime light vectors for RT1 o.lightSpacePos0 = SiComputeRTLightSpacePosition (pos, 0); float3 lightVec0 = SiComputeRTLightVectorNormalized (pos,0); o.lightVec0TS = mul (mTangent, lightVec0); return o; } EndVertexShader

46 46 Example Continued PsInclude this PsInclude "SiRTLight.shl"(PS) PsInclude "SiMath.shl"(Misc) StartPixelShader(HLSL) sampler tBump; sampler tGloss; sampler tEnv; sampler tSpec; float4 vBaseColor; struct PsInput { float2 texCoord : TEXCOORD0; float3 lightVec0TS : TEXCOORD1; float3 lightSpacePos0 : TEXCOORD2; float3 viewVecTS : TEXCOORD3; float3 invNormal : TEXCOORD4; float3 invTangent : TEXCOORD5; float3 invBinormal : TEXCOORD6; float3 vertexLight : COLOR0; };

47 47 Example Continued float4 main (PsInput i) : COLOR { // Create arrays of light vectors and positions #define NUM_RT_LIGHTS 1 float3 vLightVec[NUM_RT_LIGHTS] = {i.lightVec0TS}; float3 vLightPos[NUM_RT_LIGHTS] = {i.lightSpacePos0}; // Sample normal map float3 vNormal = tex2D (tBump, i.texCoord); vNormal = SiConvertColorToVector (vNormal); // Compute reflection vector float3 reflectionVec = SiReflect (i.viewVecTS, vNormal); // Sample Exponent and Gloss Map float exponent = tex2D (tSpec, i.texCoord); float gloss = tex2D (tGloss, i.texCoord);

48 48 Example Continued // Loop over runtime lights computing light contributions float3 diffuse = i.vertexLight * vNormal.z; float3 specular = 0; for (int idx = 0; idx < NUM_RT_LIGHTS; idx++) { float3 colorIntensity = SiComputeRTLightColorIntensity (vLightPos[idx], lightIdx); float diffuseNdotL = SiDot3Clamp (vNormal, vLightVec[idx]); diffuse += colorIntensity * diffuseNdotL; float specularRdotL = SiComputeSpecular (reflectionVec, vLightVec[idx], exponent, SPECULAR_K_MIN, SPECULAR_K_MAX); specular += colorIntensity * specularRdotL; }

49 49 Example Continued // Rotate reflection vector to object space float3x3 mInvTangent = {i.invTangent, i.invBinormal, i.invNormal}; float3 reflectionVecOS = mul (mInvTangent, reflectionVec); // sample environment map float3 cEnv = texCUBE (tEnv, reflectionVecOS); // Scale env map by fresnel and add to specular contribution float fresnel = SiComputeFresnelApprox (vNormal, i.viewVecTS); float specularEnv = cEnv * fresnel * gloss; specular *= gloss; // Compute final color float4 o; o.rgb = (vBaseColor * diffuse)+ (specular + specularEnv); o.a = 0.0; return o; } EndPixelShader EndPass EndShader

50 50 Summary Why a shader library is needed Goals of designing a shader library Case study: ATI’s demo shader format Modifications for HLSL (it wasn’t that painful)

51 51 Questions?


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