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Water framework directive Kari Nygaard, NIVA. 2 Main goal Document the environmental status for all European waters – freshwater and coastal Stop degradation.

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Presentation on theme: "Water framework directive Kari Nygaard, NIVA. 2 Main goal Document the environmental status for all European waters – freshwater and coastal Stop degradation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water framework directive Kari Nygaard, NIVA

2 2 Main goal Document the environmental status for all European waters – freshwater and coastal Stop degradation of the environment Identify environmental goals for all water bodies that fails to achive good environmental status Produce action plans for all water bodies Implement measures, monitor and document the effects

3 3 Time scale Preoperational phase – water districts, national and regional laws to be adapted to the WFD 2000-2003 Characterisation (Analysis of pressure and impacts for water districts) 2003-2004 Develop classifications system 2003-2006 Intercalibration and establish environmental goals 2005- 2006 Develop monitoring programs 2004-2006 Monitoring programmes to be operational 2006 Action and management plan (monitoring) 2005-2009 River Basin Management plans presented to the public 2008 Publishing first River Basin Management Plans 2009 Plan of measures 2009-2012 ”lag phase for measures to work” 2013-2015 Waters to meet ”good status” 2015 6-y RBWMP

4 4 Challenges Typology – what is a body of marine nature that can be given an uniform reference value? Characterisation – how do we classify the status of this waterbody? Monitoring – how do we handle, choose and follow up a representative area for the waterbodies? Abatement strategies – where, when and how?

5 5 TYPOLOGY Why is it so important? Basic in the WFD is the theory that: –Physical and chemical (salinity) factors set the limits for biological production in a waterbody –Similar physio-chemical conditions within a biogeographic region will, in principle, contain the same species and similar communities –if not any disturbing, pollution factors affect the environment –The reference conditions can be set independent of country borders

6 6 Marine characterization Obligatory typology factors EcoregionsBarents Sea - Norwegian Sea - North Sea - Skagerrak Tidal range Macro tidal >5m - meso tidal 1-5m - micro tidal 30ppt) -poly (30-18) -meso (18-5) -oligo (5-0,5) -fresh ( 50m) - intermediate (30-50m) - shallow (<30m) Mixing of water columnFully mixed - partially stratified - permanently stratified Residence time Short (days) - moderate (weeks) - long (months-years (~100 years) Current velocity Weak ( 3 knots) SubstratumHard bottom - Sand/gravel - Mud-silt Intertidal areaSmall 50% Duration of ice coverIrregular - short ( 150d)

7 7 North Sea (6 types) Euhaline, Micro tidal V-exposed Open coast Exposed Archipelago Sheltered fjords Sheltered, Long Residence time Sheltered, Polyhaline Sheltered, Mesohaline Norwegian Sea (7 types) Euhaline, Mesotidal X-exposed Open coast Exposed Archipelago Sheltered fjord Sheltered, Long Residence time Sheltered, Polyhaline (<30) Sheltered, Mesohaline (<18) Strong Current Straits Barents Sea (5 types) Euhaline, Meso tidalX-exposed Open coast Exposed Archipelago Sheltered fjord Sheltered, Polyhaline (<30) Strong Current Straits Skagerrak (6 types) Polyhaline (<30), Micro tidal Exposed open coast Mod.exp. archipelago Sheltered fjords Sheltered and Long Residence time Sheltered, Mesohaline (<18) Very sheltered meso/oligohaline

8 8 Marine characterization – is the basic for classification Classification gives the status for any given waterbody The status given, rules what kind of monitoring is needed Which again should lead to abatement strategies if the status is less than Good

9 9 Classification in WFD is based on the biological elements: Phytoplankton – species composition, biomass, frequency of the blooming Macroalgae and flowering water plants – species composition, covering degree, sensitive spp. Benthic animals – species comp., biomass, individual number Characterization of quality elements

10 10 To support the biological elements, physical and chemical elements should be used to support the given status class: General variables: Nutrients (tot-N, NO3, NH4, tot P, PO4) Oxygen concentrations (deep water) Secchi depth Thermal pollution Specific pollution compounds: Pollution class with toxic compounds of high priority Pollution class with indicated toxic compounds

11 11 WFD - the normative classification for the biological elements can be summarized as: high ≈ no or only minor deviations; good ≈ low levels of disturbance, but deviate only slightly; moderate ≈ moderate deviations and significant effects; poor ≈ major biological alterations and substantial deviation; bad ≈ severe biological alterations and large deviation.

12 12 A major challenge is to link the normative definitions to physical and chemical elements – how does it influence the biology Physical and chemical supporting elements such as nutrients, oxygen etc. - and also decide level and effect of physical changes to the waterbody

13 HIGH GOOD MODERATE POOR BAD Ecological status No or minimal { Slight { Moderate { Major { Severe { Non-deterioration Restoration Intercalibration of biological monitoring results Courtesy Peter Pollard, Scottish Environment Protection Agency Impact Intercalibration

14 14 GIGs - KYST Fremskaffe egnete grenseverdier vannkvalitet for hvert av de biologiske elementene. Benytte normative definisjoner IC skal foretas innen GIGs IC skal utføres for alle vedtatte vanntyper (må ha felles vanntype med minst en annen nasjon) IC kan utføres på 3 måter.

15 15 Interkalibrering - i NEA-GIG (CW) IDTypeBDKFDIRNLNPESUK NEA1 Eksponert NEA26 Beskyttet NEA34 Modifisert NEA7 Dyp - Fjord NEA8 Skagerrak Beskyttet indre NEA9 Skagerrak Eksponert midtre, grunne NEA10 Skagerrak dyp Eksponert ytre

16 16 ”One out – all out” If EQR-value for one biological element in a water body falls in a lower cathegory than good status – the whole waterbody is classified as ”bad”

17 17 Milford Haven 94 High 33 Mod 54 Good Increasing:High 65 Good 54 Good Green Macro: Good S.TownsendiPoor Green Macro Absent: High Phytoplankton, nuts & turbidity: High/Good

18 18 Water Framework Directive State of implementation November 2006

19 19 First analysis shows that a high number of water bodies are at risk: 1.Hydromorphological alterations (inter alia from navigation, pressures of land use in urban and rural areas, hydropower, flood defences) are a common concern across Europe. 2.In several parts of Europe non-delivery on tasks already due (waste water treatment, nitrates pollution from agriculture) plays a considerable role in shaping our waters ‘at risk’. It is unjustified to attribute costs to the WFD, if in fact they are related to old obligations not complied with … 3.Over-abstraction is a problem in some regions. Full Commission report to be published March 2007. First analysis of article 5 reports The analysis is demonstrating your achievements as well as non-achievements …

20 20 Transparency: all WFD environmental assessments available on the Internet Contact address

21 21 Daughter Directive Priority Substances “Combined approach” set out in article 10 Water Framework Directive pollution control measures set in a range of EU legislation (emission and process controls; marketing and use restrictions; and waste treatment and disposal measures): inter alia on existing chemical substances, plant protection products, industrial and other waste water emissions and the proposed REACH legislation water quality standards detailing “good chemical status” to be set for substances / parameters of EU-wide relevance by EU legislation (WFD Daughter Directives) for other substances / parameters at national / river basin level (within the river basin management plans) - under criteria set out in the WFD and taking into account local and regional characteristics environmental quality standards pollution control

22 22 WFD – one coherent management frame; streamlining water legislation Sampling and Analysis Directive 1979 Shellfish Water Directive 1979 Groundwater Directive 1980 Surface Water Directive 1975 Dangerous Substances Directive 1976 Nitrates Directive 1991 Urban Waste Water Directive 1991 Exchange of Information Decision 1977 Fishwater Directive 1978 Drinking Water Directive 1998 X X X X X X X X DS Daughter Directives 1981-1986 X X repealed by 2007; X repealed by 2013; X repealed together with adoption of WFD Daughter Directive on Priority Substances IPPC Directive 1996 WFD Priority Substances Directive 2007 Groundwater Directive 2006 Floods Directive 2007 Bathing Water Directive 1976 / 2006

23 23 Usefull guidelines available Typology Classification Monitoring

24 24 That’s it!

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