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Amateur Space Communications Albert - N4ZFG

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Presentation on theme: "Amateur Space Communications Albert - N4ZFG"— Presentation transcript:


2 Amateur Space Communications Albert - N4ZFG

3 Space Communications Look at Project OSCAR History Operating Modes
Prediction Software How do I get started Who Else Uses Amateur Satellites Future Satellites

4 Russian Sputnik Oct 1957- Sputnik Beacons on 20.003 Mhz and 40.010 Mhz
Near WWV signals Beeping signals only

5 Moon Bounce (EME) First Attempt by Amateurs in Space Communications
W4AO, Ross Bateman; and W3GKP, William L. Smith transmitted signals at the moon and heard the return echoes of their own signal. Proved Space Communications (1953)

6 Balloon Flights 1959- W6TNS Don Stoner proposed to build a spacecraft with a transponder on board in Feb 1961 QST Article Used High Altitude Balloon With 6m input and 2m Output Repeater Payload Onboard

7 PROJECT OSCAR In 1960 a group of radio amateurs in Sunnyvale California read Stoner’s article and created a group called Project OSCAR. The OSCAR stood for Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio. Convince the U.S. Government that amateur satellites provide useful functions in the areas of scientific exploration, disaster communications, and science education.

8 OSCAR 1 The First Satellite Built by the Project OSCAR Group.
It Transmitted a 140mW Beacon Signal on 2 Meters at 145 MHz. The Sent the Signal “…. ..” “HI” in Morse Code . Signal Speed Corresponded Inside Temperature. The Project OSCAR Group Worked with the U.S. Air Force to add the Amateur Satellite as an Auxiliary Payload. (Ballast) The U.S. Air Force Launched OSCAR I as a First Ever Auxiliary Package that was Ejected From the Parent Spacecraft. Ejection Mechanism Subjected to Stress, Thermal, and Vibration Testing and Analysis and was Centered around a $1.15 Spring from Sears and Roebuck. The Air Force Recommended that They (the Commercial Community) Study the OSCAR 1 Satellite.

9 OSCAR 1 RESULTS Reported Contacts in 28 countries, over 570 Amateurs Copied the Signal Remained in Orbit for 22 Days Data Gathered, was used to Study Ionosphere Propagation and Process Orbital Data The Project Demonstrated the Abilities to Design, Build, Coordinate with Government Agencies OSCAR I builders were often asked how much did it cost. Out of pocket expensed for all the materials to build the satellite at about $26.


11 OSCAR II Same Basic Design with the Exception of Different Thermal Coating. Reduced Internal Temperatures Extending Battery Life The Output Power Reduced from mW to 100mW Reducing Power Drain The Life of this Satellite - 18 days, 295 Orbits Before the Telemetry Beacon was Lost.

12 OSCAR III OSCAR III Carried Two Beacon Transmitters
One to Provide Telemetry A Second with a Continuous Carrier for Propagation Studies and Tracking. Also Carried a 50 khz wide transponder Received on 146 mhz Amplified and Retransmitted the signal at about 144 mhz. This Was the First Satellite Allowing Amateurs to Communicate Via a Space Vehicle. Launched in March 1965 in a Higher Orbit than Previous Two Transponder Operated for 18 Days and Approximately 1000 Amateurs in 22 Countries were Heard.

13 Current Popular Satellites
AO – 7 AO – 27 SO - 50 AO - 51 VU - 52 ISS (ARISS Program) PCSAT (US Naval Academy)

14 Transponder Operating Modes And Prediction Software
This installment we will look at the different modes of operation and some of the software packages to allow tracking or better stated, prediction of satellites at your station.

15 Transponder Operating Modes
Analog Voice and CW SSB CW and Voice (Multiple Channel) FM Voice only (Single Channel) Digital Modes Packet (Store and Forward) 1200 baud FSK 9600 baud PSK APRS Transponders (satellites) operate in various modes, voice and digital

16 Analog SSB Mode Single Side Band (FO-29 Inverting)
2m Uplink: – MHz SSB/CW 70cm Downlink: MHz SSB/CW NOTE: Normal – UP/DOWN link Frequencies Track Together Inverting – UP/DOWN link Frequencies Don’t Track Together Single sideband is similar to what you use in HF communications

17 Analog Modes Satellites AO 7 (SSB) Mode B 70cm Up 2m Down
FO 29 (SSB) Mode J 2m Up 70cm Down VU 52 (SSB) Mode V 2m Up Mode U 70cm Down SO 50 (FM) Modes VU AO 51 (FM) Modes VU, LU … AR(ISS) (FM) MHz up MHz Down AO 16 UP 2M (FM) Up 70CM (DSB) Down

18 New Mode Designations Example: Mode V/U VHF Uplink UHF Downlink
Band V 145 MHz U 435 MHz L 1.2 GHz S 2.4 GHZ Example: Mode V/U VHF Uplink UHF Downlink Mode L/U 1.2 GHZ Uplink UHF Downlink

19 Prediction Software Used to Predict Satellite Passes
For Your Station’s Location -AOS Acquisition of Signal -LOS Loss of Signal Azimuth (From North) Elevation (Above Local Horizion) Doppler Shift (Frequency Tuning)

20 Doppler Shift

21 Manual Tracking (Pre PC’s)

22 SatScape

23 Ham Radio Deluxe

24 On-Line Predictions

25 Station Settings

26 Keplerian Elements Describe the Shape of the Satellite’s Orbit
Sample of 2 Line NORAD Format ISS U 98067A AO-51 U 04025K

27 Orbit Shape

28 Low Earth Orbit

29 Molniya Orbit (Elliptical)

30 Pass Predictions

31 Local Horizon View

32 Getting Started Case 1 – Limited Equipment / Funds
Case 2 – Automated Station

33 How Do I Get Started Dual Band HT 2m / 70cm Duplex Mode
Arrow Type Antenna Tune Radio Know When the Satellite will Appear Aim the Antenna Listen for Signal Call Have a Helper Log the Contact!

34 Dual Band HT 2Meter FM 70CM FM Full Duplex Mode Speaker Mike Helpful

35 Arrow Antenna

36 Arrow Antenna & HT

37 Homebrew Your Own

38 Automated Satellite Station

39 System Tasks When Satellite is in Range
Antenna Control Compute Satellite Position Send Azimuth Elevation to controller Steer the Antenna Array During the Pass Radio Control Compute Frequency Uplink Doppler Shift Downlink Doppler Shift Send Data To Radio

40 Automated Station Block Diagram

41 SAEBER Track Antenna Controller

42 Stamp II Micro-Processor
Reads Voltage to Determine Position AZ EL Calculates New Position for Array Turn on/off Proper Relay to Move Array Loop and Do It Again Until Pass is Complete Sample of Program in Stamp II Processor

43 Stamp II Code Sample

44 Field Day Satellite Array

45 Contacts Other Hams Within Same Satellite Foot Print
ISS Crew Members (ARISS Project) Digital Store Forwarding Messaging (Packet) APRS Via Satellite (Automated Position Reporting System)

46 Bill McArthur (KC5ACR) Operating NA1SS Commander ISS Expedition 12

47 Sunita Williams (KD5PLB) ISS School Contact

48 Mike Finche (KE5AIT)

49 Future Satellites “EAGLE” (Built by AMSAT) P3E (Built by AMSAT DL)
High Earth Orbiting (Elliptical Orbit) Software Defined Transponder (Software Defined Radio) Linear Transponders, Digital P3E (Built by AMSAT DL) High Earth Orbit Test Bench for P5A Mars Mission Linear Transponders (Many Bands) Intelsat Geo-Stationary Available full time Full Time Access Emergency / Disaster Communications SuitSat II

50 WEB Links

51 SUMMARY Look at Project OSCAR History Operating Modes
Prediction Software Getting Started Other User of Amateur Satellites Future Projects

52 Questions?

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