Industries and Cities Grow Better transportation – Increase in R.R.’s – Cities like Mobile, Nashville, and Atlanta grow as a result. – Growth of shipping ports help New Orleans grow. New industries spread – Investments in iron-, coal-, and steel-processing – New crops increase: grain, fruit, tobacco grown
Southern Economy Lags Even though the South witnessed an economic transformation, it was still plagued by the C.W. and the damages it had caused. There were not many willing to invest their money in the economy of the South nor were there enough laborers due to poor wages. Few southern banks remained after the C.W. Northern banks were depended upon.
Southern Farmers’ Hard Times Lots of cotton and few buyers low prices. The Bowl Weevil destroyed many cotton crops. Dependence on one crop was too risky. The Farmers’ Alliance- Wanted the gov’t to lower train costs to leave more room for farmers’ profits.
Black Southerners Opportunities for education after the C.W. Political involvement A.A.’s in the Military However, groups like the KKK and local southern gov’ts sought to reverse the advances that A.A.’s had made during Reconstruction.
Manifest Destiny John Gast American Progress ca. 1872
Nature vs. Progress Conflict among N.A.’s and whites stems from a difference in ideology. N.A.’s see land/nature as a precious gift that must be cared for. Whites see land/nature as something to make $$ off of.
Native Americans were “in the way of progress” Big question: What to do with them?? Under President Jackson (1830’s), they were moved to the Plains (aka Great American Desert).
Native Americans cont’d Now white settlers wanted to move further west in hopes of striking gold or staking a claim of land. This meant breaking land promises to the N.A. tribes. N.A.’s eventually put onto reservations
Native Americans Fight Back Battle of Little Big Horn- Gold discovered in Sioux lands white prospectors come Sioux tried to run them away. Fed. Gov’t sends Gen. Custer and men to fight the Sioux, but they are outnumbered. The Sioux win.
Native Americans Fight Back (cont’d) Nez Perce Tribe Leader, Chief Joseph They had assimilated into white society (Christians, Sedentary). In 1877, Feds wanted to move them to smaller reservations for more room for settlers. Chief Joseph and followers tried to hide from troops. Later, they were found and sent to OK.
N.A.’s Fight Back (cont’d) Wounded Knee- US gov’t attempts to end a sacred “ghost dance” which the N.A.’s believe would keep settlers from their lands.
Assimilation for N.A.’s Boarding schools such as Carlisle (in Carlisle, PA) and Haskell Indian Nations (in Lawrence KS) were est. in order to help the process of assimilation. Dawes Act- passed in 1887. N.A.’s were no longer treated as tribal people, but as individuals. Each N.A. family was allotted 160- acre plots of land to farm.
Driving Cattle to Market · After the Civil War, growing cities in the East increased their demand for beef. · Texas ranchers began to drive herds of longhorns hundreds of miles north to the railroads, where they were shipped east.
The Cowhand’s Life Cowhand – responsible for driving the cattle north to the railroads
Cowhands learned their trade from Spanish vaqueros.
· Cowhands had to worry about stampedes, cattle thieves, and the dry, hot weather.
· Cow towns developed near the railroads, offering cowhands hotels, saloons, and restaurants. Abilene, Kansas (late 1800’s)
Dodge City, Kansas, 1874 "Kansas has but one Dodge City, with a broad expanse of territory sufficiently vast for an empire; we have only room for one Dodge City; Dodge, a synonym for all that is wild, reckless, and violent; Hell on the Plains." -- A Kansas Newspaper in the 1870's
Cattle Boom · Cattle roamed free on the plains. Cowboys at the end of an 1897 roundup in Ward County, Texas, pose with their herd of almost 2,000 cattle.
Cow hands were no longer able to drive their herds openly through homesteaders lands. The frontier became sectioned off. In addition, harsh weather in the 1880’s and low prices for beef (b/c of high quantity) ended the cattle driving boom.
The Homesteaders People who moved to the Plains to live and farm. Little House on the Prairie Homestead Act
Life on the Homestead OK, KS, NE, ND, SD (mainly) Unpredictable weather unpredictable harvest Sod houses were dingy, insect-infested, dirty Little civilization nearby
Oklahoma Territory Opened Last major land rush in 1889. “Boomers” awaited the opening of the lands for claiming.
But some sneaky people broke the rules and claimed the best lands first. Oklahoma City, OK 1889
Sooners Because “greedy, land-stealing cheaters” doesn’t fit on a jersey. Just say