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National Series Lecture 1 Introduction Egypt Bradford Disarmament Research Centre Division of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK Picture Image Transparent.

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Presentation on theme: "National Series Lecture 1 Introduction Egypt Bradford Disarmament Research Centre Division of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK Picture Image Transparent."— Presentation transcript:

1 National Series Lecture 1 Introduction Egypt Bradford Disarmament Research Centre Division of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK Picture Image Transparent Globe by digitalart - from:

2 Outline 1.Where we are in the early 21 st century 2.Outline of the following lectures a)What we should know (learning outcome) b)What we can do (policy contribution) Picture Image: Golden World In Hands by jscreationzs- from:

3 What is “Life Science”? “Any field of science that is leading to or has the potential to lead to an enhanced understanding of living organisms, especially human life.” E.g. Biology, proteomics, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, aerosol technology, chemistry and mathematics (National Research Council, 2006: 27) Applied in: Public health, Medicine, Agriculture, Energy, Environment and National security studies

4 Biotechnology: An integral part of national strategy in the 21 st Century A growing market in Biotechnology: the pharmaceutical market (National Research Council, 2006: 85) Similar results in number of researchers and the amount of private investment for R&D in the life sciences Rapid growth in the Asia-Pacific and the Middle East (Ernst&Young 2011, Frost&Sullivan 2010)

5 Egypt: National Academy of Sciences Academy of Scientific Research and Technology. (ASRT) The Academy of Scientific Research and Technology (ASRT) was established by Presidential Decree No. 2405 of September 1971 as the national body responsible for science and technology in Egypt, and was affiliated to the Prime Minister. However, the ASRT changed its affiliation several times. The ASRT is affiliated at present, and since 1986, to the Minister of State for Scientific Research, who is the official spokesman for ASRT towards political and legislative authorities. A Second Presidential Decree No. 377 of 1998 was issued for the reorganization of ASRT, where the ASRT is considered a public authority with an independent status and affiliated to the Minister of State for Scientific Research Affairs, with headquarters in Cairo. (IAP 2012)

6 Egypt: Life science outlook ItemRanking 2011 Ranking49 2005 Ranking38 Ranking Change-11 2011 Regional Ranking2 in N. Africa 2005 Regional Ranking1 in N. Africa Hits in PubMed235 PubMed Ranking44 Hit in Espacenet67 Espacenet Ranking48 Combined Ranking46 Source: (BWPP 2011) Global publication ranking

7 PubMed search with “Egypt”

8 Development in the post-revolution period New Egyptian President a Scientist (The Scientist, 2012) “After a contentious and drawn out election process, the votes have been counted, and Egyptians have elected their next president— Muslim Brotherhood candidate Mohammed Morsi... During his campaign, Morsi promised to boost science research spending in Egypt to 2.5 percent of the country’s GDP. He also pledged to spend more on higher education, to increase faculty salaries, and to encourage innovation by fostering collaboration between research institutes and industry. ‘My vision is for science to be the start of a renaissance in Egypt and for science research to be our weapon against the major problems that our country faces," Morsi said in a statement.’”

9 Egyptian Journal of Biology and Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology The Egyptian Journal of Biology publishes standard scientific contributions and reviews from all aspects of the biological sciences. Faunistic papers or field-based studies of the natural history of the Egyptian fauna should be directed to our sister journal, the Egyptian Journal of Natural History. All papers are reviewed by at least one or two Egyptian referees, and then by international referees. The referee/s are chosen by the editors. · The language of publication is English. Summaries are given in English and Arabic, and may also be given in other languages. In case of non-Arab authors, the editors will prepare the Arabic summary. The Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology publishes primary research and review articles focused on all areas of biotechnology research

10 Egypt: Biotechnology from Laboratory to the Marketplace: Challenges and Opportunities Significance of biotechnology in Egyptian Economy “The Government of Egypt places great importance on the significant role the agricultural sector plays in the national economy. Agriculture accounts for 20 percent of both GDP and total exports, and 34 percent of the total labor force. The agricultural sector contributes to the overall food needs of the country, and provides the domestic industry with agricultural raw materials.” (Magdy A. Madkour, 2000 Agricultural Technology and the Poor)

11 International Industry Networking Egyptian Biotechnology Information Center The Egypt BIC (EBIC) was initiated in March 2003 and was hosted by Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute (AGERI). In 2011, the EBIC was transferred to Faculty of Agriculture at Cairo University to fulfill its main goal which is to disseminate information to large sector of the community. EBIC’s mission is to build a solid public awareness program grounded on transparency, scientific-based information, and free dialogue with North Africa’s Arab-speaking countries. It collaborates with national programs in facilitating the development of a conducive policy environment for the application of biotechnologies.

12 Pharmaceuticals & Biotechnology Industrial Development in the post-revolution period DEBICO is a joint stock company S.A.E established in 2012 after the Egyptian revolution of January, 25th, with a unique team of co- founders of incomparable professional and academic background in the bio-pharmaceutical industry. The DEBICO health care professionals are committed to the education of qualified citizens and to the development of the quality standards of services and products in the regional bio-pharmaceutical industry. DEBICO is an investment planner and builder who specializes in the unique needs of life science and chemical industries. We offer comprehensive solutions for - The pharmaceutical industry - The biotechnology - The fine chemicals and chemical industries - The cosmetics industry

13 Egyptian Initiatives in Nanotechnology Egypt Nanotechnology Center Egypt Nanotechnology Center (EGNC) is an initiative launched by the Egyptian government in 2008 to support industrial research novelty. The agreement to establish the center was held by Information Technology Industry Development Agency (ITIDA) representing the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, the Science and Technological Development Fund representing the Ministry of Higher Education and IBM Corporation. The EGNC will include 28 specialized laboratories that will be equipped with the most up-to-date nanotechnology devices to help researchers work on the advanced Nano-science and Nanotechnology projects.

14 Why do we care? Should this be an issue for us? The dual-use nature of science and technology: –“Every major technology — metallurgy, explosives, internal combustion, aviation, electronics, nuclear energy — has been intensively exploited, not only for peaceful purposes but also for hostile ones.” –“…Must this also happen with biotechnology, certain to be a dominant technology of the twenty-first century?” Matthew Meselson: Professor of Molecular Biology at Harvard University (Meselson, 2000: 16) HostilePeaceful

15 Meselson’s Forecast in 2000 Ability “Our ability to modify fundamental life processes continues its rapid advance” “We will be able not only to devise additional ways to destroy life but will also become able to manipulate it” Dilemma “…[This has a] Vast potential for beneficial application and could have inimical consequences for the course of civilization.”

16 Meselson’s Forecast in 2000 “At present, we appear to be approaching a crossroads —a time that will test whether biotechnology…” Will come to be intensively exploited for hostile purposes, or Our species will find the collective wisdom to take a different course.

17 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) 1972 Article I “Each State Party to this Convention undertakes never in any circumstances to develop, produce, stockpile or otherwise acquire or retain: 1. Microbial or other biological agents or toxins whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes.” This applies not only to states but also to non-state actors

18 Science and Security: Dual-Use The need for a broader conceptualisation of dual-use Biological agents and toxins can be used for hostile purposes without weaponization and technology is typically diffused globally for peaceful purposes Hostile use can take the form of criminal acts or terrorist acts (non- state level) in parallel to military application (state level), The BTWC prohibits the misuse of the life sciences by both states and non-state actors Dual-use: broader concept PeacefulNon-peaceful Dual-use: traditional concept MilitaryCivilian

19 Egypt and international regimes WMD Cairo is a state party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and has signed but not ratified the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). Suspected of maintaining a chemical warfare (CW) capability, Egypt is one of the few states to have used chemical weapons in wartime (North Yemen Civil War (1962-1970), period of Egyptian involvement 1963-1967). BTWC: Signature (10 April 1972 not ratified yet) Most assessments by security experts indicate that while Egypt has a strong technical base in applied microbiology, it lacks the necessary infrastructure for developing or producing BW. Furthermore, there is no corroborated open-source evidence of any organized BW-related research activity. (Nuclear Threat Initiative 2012)

20 Egypt and international regimes CWC Egypt acceded to the Geneva Protocol on December 6, 1928, but has remained outside the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), publicly asserting that it will not accede to the convention until questions regarding Israel's nuclear weapons are addressed. There is strong evidence that during their intervention in the North Yemen Civil War, Egyptian forces employed bombs and artillery shells filled with phosgene and mustard against the Royalist troops and civilians in North Yemen. There is relatively little reliable open-source information available concerning Egypt's chemical warfare (CW) programs after the 1970s. There is some evidence pointing to Egyptian cooperation on CW issues with Syria in the 1970s and to a lesser degree with Iraq in the 1980s. However, very little evidence exists to support claims of ongoing Egyptian offensive CW efforts after the late 1970s. Since the early 1980s Egypt has received training in defensive CW from the United States. (Nuclear Threat Initiative 2012)

21 National Series: Lecture Outline 2. Biosecurity Threats 3. The Web of Prevention 4. National Measures 5. Responsibility of Scientists Picture Image: Transparent Globe by digitalart - from:

22 ‘No single focal point’ of threats –Potential actors, material and information, which can be related to dual- use issues, exist at international, regional, national, local and individual levels. Unpredictable future of the life sciences Reviewing threats (Lecture 2) Manmade threats: warfare, crime and terrorism Safety/accidental risks at laboratories Natural outbreaks of infectious disease

23 To address natural outbreaks of infectious disease Public health preparedness and response planning To address safety/accidental risks Laboratory regulations to safely manage dangerous pathogens and toxins, to prevent an accidental release into the environment and unauthorized access To address manmade threats Strong international arms control agreements with effective national implementation Internationally coordinated export controls Intelligence Biodefense To address the unpredictable future of the life sciences Oversight: Review of security-sensitive science and technology developments Responsible conduct in research through education The Web of Prevention (WoP) (Lecture 3)

24 Web of prevention Public health measures Laboratory measures International prohibition regime Export control IntelligenceBiodefense Oversight and review of Sci-Tech Responsible conduct Natural threats Safety risks Governance of science Manmade threats

25 National implementation (Lecture 4) To National Context

26 National implementation (Lecture 4) 1 International agreements 2 Signature and ratification by states 3 National measures in states Legislation, regulation, order or other forms of governance

27 Worldwide engagement of life scientists with the WoP will: Effectively strengthen biosecurity measures by requiring the engagement of practicing scientists Prevent unnecessary restriction of scientific freedoms Education of, and capacity building among, scientists on biosecurity issues is necessary for successful security Uninformed scientists = no effective science policy inputs to the WoP Engagement of informed life scientists about biosecurity issues is key to successful security The need for responsible conduct in research (Lecture 5)

28 Biosecurity: Definition issues The term “biosecurity” has been conceptualised differently across various scientific and professional disciplines Areas: The term has been used in ecology, agriculture, food supply, arms control and public health contexts, with different meanings and conceptualisations Policy processes: these overlap with interdisciplinary areas such as biosafety, counter-terrorism, agricultural biosecurity and biodiversity Linguistic: In addition to these conceptual complications, “biosecurity” has also experienced linguistic complications (Fidler and Gostin 2007, Sunshine Project 2003, Barletta 2002)

29 National Series: WoP = Biosecurity Education = Biosecurity Competency

30 References The references cited in this lecture are viewable in the Notes section of this presentation.

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