Presentation on theme: "Period 5 1844-1877. Key Concept 5.1 “The United States became more connected with the world as it pursued an expansionist foreign policy in the Western."— Presentation transcript:
Key Concept 5.1 “The United States became more connected with the world as it pursued an expansionist foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere and emerged as the destination for many migrants from other countries.” Manifest Destiny Opens issue of slavery expansion
Reasons to go West Economic and religious California gold rush- 49ers Homestead Act- 160 acres of land to anyone who lived on and cultivated for 5 years = mass movement west after Civil War Pacific Railway- constructed a railroad to Pacific Coast Mormons- After founder Joseph Smith killed in 1844, Brigham Young led Mormons to Utah to escape persecution Mexican-American War= Mexican Cession Debates over slavery Free-soil party Compromise of 1850 & popular sovereignty
Impacts of Western Migrations Hispanics and American Indians Mariana Vallejo-Mexican leader in CA supported American control; helped transition CA from Mexico to US Sand Creek Massacre (1864) - CO militia attacked Cheyenne and killed over 100 Little Big Horn- (Custer’s last stand)- Natives attacked and killed Custer and all his men
Looking to expand trade beyond its own borders Asia- economic advantages Clipper ships- fast moving sailing ships allowed to open trade with Asia Commodore Matthew Perry- US naval commander who played key role in opening Japan to West Missionaries in China
Key Concept 5.2 “Intensified by expansion and deepening regional divisions, debates over slavery and other economic, cultural, and political issues led the nation into civil war.” Slavery debates in newly acquired territories intensified sectionalism Abolitionism Publications (William Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator ) Underground RR Secret network of northerners helping fugitive slaves escape; Harriet Tubman ‘Moses’ Uncle Tom’s Cabin- Harriet Beecher Stowe; bestseller; abolition movement increases; British public anti-slavery
South’s response to abolitionism Peculiar Institution- Southern term for slavery; slavery seemed too harsh of a term John C. Calhoun- S. Carolina; argued in favor of slavery; states’ rights; Minstrel shows- entertainment of white performers in blackface; Jim Crow popular character
Attempts to solve slave debate in West Wilmot Proviso- proposed to ban all slavery from acquired Mexican territory- opened slavery debate Compromise of CA free state Popular sovereignty in NM and UT Stronger fugitive slave law End slave trade in DC Settled TX border dispute Kansas-Nebraska Act- KS and NB open to popular sovereignty; leads to Bleeding Kansas Dred Scott v. Sandford- Af-Am. not citizens but property; property protected anywhere in US Freeport Doctrine- S. Douglas; territory could exclude slavery by creating laws that made it impossible Harper’s Ferry- federal arsenal in VA; John Brown hoped to capture and lead slave rebellion- failed and hung for treason
New Politics Republican Party- 1854; formed after the Whig party split over KS- NB Act; Northern and Western party; oppose extension of slavery into W. Lincoln-Douglas Debates- series of debates; Douglas won senate; thrust Lincoln into national spotlight Election of led to Southern secession Lincoln- Illinois Republican- no slavery in new territories Crittenden Compromise- failed effort at protecting slavery south of 36 30; compromise not supported by Lincoln S. Carolina secedes Confederate State of America- Jefferson Davis
Key Concept 5.3 “The Union victory in the Civil War and the contested Reconstruction of the South settled the issues of slavery and secession, but left unresolved many questions about the power of the federal government and citizenship rights.” North v. South North Manufacturing and huge pop. growth- Immigrants Conscription Opposition- NYC draft riots “rich man’s war but poor man’s fight” South Agriculture (cotton) and slow pop. Growth Conscription Opposition- some farmers refuse to fight
Why did the Union prevail? Military leadership Grant, Sherman, total war Strategies Anaconda Plan Greater resources Industrialized North
CW altered power relationships between states and federal gov’t and among branches… and leaving largely unchanged social and economic patterns Emancipation Proclamation- abolish slavery in all rebelling states.; purpose of the war was changed 13 th amendment- abolish slavery 14 th amendment- citizenship 15 th amendment- manhood suffrage
Reconstruction- “largely unchanged social and economic patterns.” Sharecropping- freedmen worked on farms and exchanged labor for using land and housing Had to borrow $ to get started High rates Usually perpetual debt Black Codes Laws passed in S. states after CW restricting rights and activities of blacks; define status as inferior to whites Civil Rights Act of Prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection, transportation and businesses open to public- S. Court declared this unconstitutional in 1883 Freedmen’s Bureau- federal agency to aid former slaves in transition to freedom
Reconstruction cont’d Radical Republicans- opposed moderation or conciliation toward the South; supported civil rights for freed slaves; tried to limit presidential power and increase congressional power Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Robert Smalls- former slave; served in House of Reps. Hiram Revels- Miss. minister; 1 st Af-Am to serve in Senate Carpetbagger- derogatory term used by white southerners to describe northerners who came to the South after the CW Scalawag- derogatory term used by white southerners to describe other white southerners who cooperated with the Republican Party during Reconstruction.
Reconstruction cont’d KKK- secret organization in South after CW used violence and intimidation factors to restore southern white power Redeemers- Southern Democrats who brought the Democratic Party back to power; suppressing Black Reconstruction Plessy v. Ferguson- separate but equal Local tactics- poll taxes, grandfather clauses, literacy tests
Women’s rights during Reconstruction Era Divided women’s rights movement Frederick Douglass- favored black suffrage prior to women’s suffrage Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth C. Stanton, Victoria Woodhull- feared women woulnt get suffrage for a long time.