2Manifest Destiny Opens issue of slavery expansion Key Concept 5.1 “The United States became more connected with the world as it pursued an expansionist foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere and emerged as the destination for many migrants from other countries.”Manifest DestinyOpens issue of slaveryexpansion
3Reasons to go West Economic and religious California gold rush- 49ers Homestead Act- 160 acres of land to anyone who lived on and cultivated for 5 years = mass movement west after Civil WarPacific Railway- constructed a railroad to Pacific CoastMormons- After founder Joseph Smith killed in 1844, Brigham Young led Mormons to Utah to escape persecutionMexican-American War= Mexican CessionDebates over slaveryFree-soil partyCompromise of 1850 & popular sovereignty
4Impacts of Western Migrations Hispanics and American IndiansMariana Vallejo-Mexican leader in CA supported American control; helped transition CA from Mexico to USSand Creek Massacre (1864) - CO militia attacked Cheyenne and killed over 100Little Big Horn- (Custer’s last stand)- Natives attacked and killed Custer and all his men
5Looking to expand trade beyond its own borders Asia- economic advantagesClipper ships- fast moving sailing ships allowed to open trade with AsiaCommodore Matthew Perry- US naval commander who played key role in opening Japan to WestMissionaries in China
6Slavery debates in newly acquired territories intensified sectionalism Key Concept 5.2 “Intensified by expansion and deepening regional divisions, debates over slavery and other economic, cultural, and political issues led the nation into civil war.”Slavery debates in newly acquired territories intensified sectionalismAbolitionismPublications (William Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator)Underground RRSecret network of northerners helping fugitive slaves escape; Harriet Tubman ‘Moses’Uncle Tom’s Cabin- Harriet Beecher Stowe; bestseller; abolition movement increases; British public anti-slavery
7South’s response to abolitionism Peculiar Institution- Southern term for slavery; slavery seemed too harsh of a termJohn C. Calhoun- S. Carolina; argued in favor of slavery; states’ rights;Minstrel shows- entertainment of white performers in blackface; Jim Crow popular character
8Attempts to solve slave debate in West Wilmot Proviso- proposed to ban all slavery from acquired Mexican territory- opened slavery debateCompromise of 1850-CA free statePopular sovereignty in NM and UTStronger fugitive slave lawEnd slave trade in DCSettled TX border disputeKansas-Nebraska Act- KS and NB open to popular sovereignty; leads to Bleeding KansasDred Scott v. Sandford- Af-Am. not citizens but property; property protected anywhere in USFreeport Doctrine- S. Douglas; territory could exclude slavery by creating laws that made it impossibleHarper’s Ferry- federal arsenal in VA; John Brown hoped to capture and lead slave rebellion- failed and hung for treason
9New PoliticsRepublican Party- 1854; formed after the Whig party split over KS- NB Act; Northern and Western party; oppose extension of slavery into W.Lincoln-Douglas Debates- series of debates; Douglas won senate; thrust Lincoln into national spotlightElection of led to Southern secessionLincoln- Illinois Republican- no slavery in new territoriesCrittenden Compromise- failed effort at protecting slavery south of ; compromise not supported by LincolnS. Carolina secedesConfederate State of America- Jefferson Davis
10North v. South North South Key Concept 5.3 “The Union victory in the Civil War and the contested Reconstruction of the South settled the issues of slavery and secession, but left unresolved many questions about the power of the federal government and citizenship rights.”North v. SouthNorthManufacturing and huge pop. growth- ImmigrantsConscriptionOpposition- NYC draft riots “rich man’s war but poor man’s fight”SouthAgriculture (cotton) and slow pop. GrowthOpposition- some farmers refuse to fight
11Why did the Union prevail? Military leadershipGrant, Sherman, total warStrategiesAnaconda PlanGreater resourcesIndustrialized North
12CW altered power relationships between states and federal gov’t and among branches… and leaving largely unchanged social and economic patternsEmancipation Proclamation- abolish slavery in all rebelling states.; purpose of the war was changed13th amendment- abolish slavery14th amendment- citizenship15th amendment- manhood suffrage
13Reconstruction- “largely unchanged social and economic patterns.” Sharecropping- freedmen worked on farms and exchanged labor for using land and housingHad to borrow $ to get startedHigh ratesUsually perpetual debtBlack CodesLaws passed in S. states after CW restricting rights and activities of blacks; define status as inferior to whitesCivil Rights Act of 1875-Prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection, transportation and businesses open to public- S. Court declared this unconstitutional in 1883Freedmen’s Bureau- federal agency to aid former slaves in transition to freedom
14Reconstruction cont’d Radical Republicans- opposed moderation or conciliation toward the South; supported civil rights for freed slaves; tried to limit presidential power and increase congressional powerImpeachment of Andrew JohnsonRobert Smalls- former slave; served in House of Reps.Hiram Revels- Miss. minister; 1st Af-Am to serve in SenateCarpetbagger- derogatory term used by white southerners to describe northerners who came to the South after the CWScalawag- derogatory term used by white southerners to describe other white southerners who cooperated with the Republican Party during Reconstruction.
15Reconstruction cont’d KKK- secret organization in South after CW used violence and intimidation factors to restore southern white powerRedeemers- Southern Democrats who brought the Democratic Party back to power; suppressing Black ReconstructionPlessy v. Ferguson- separate but equalLocal tactics- poll taxes, grandfather clauses, literacy tests
16Women’s rights during Reconstruction Era Divided women’s rights movementFrederick Douglass- favored black suffrage prior to women’s suffrageSusan B. Anthony, Elizabeth C. Stanton, Victoria Woodhull- feared women woulnt get suffrage for a long time.