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The Role of District Leadership Teams in PBIS Implementation Rob Horner University of Oregon www.pbis.org.

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Presentation on theme: "The Role of District Leadership Teams in PBIS Implementation Rob Horner University of Oregon www.pbis.org."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Role of District Leadership Teams in PBIS Implementation Rob Horner University of Oregon

2 Assumptions All districts have schools implementing PBIS Some district leadership teams have extensive PBIS experience, others have limited experience. Recent research by McIntosh et al., indicates that the quality of the district leadership team is among the more important variables affecting the quality and sustainability of PBIS implementation. Challenge associated with aligning multiple initiatives

3 Districts are the key to Implementation Student is the unit of analysis School is the unit of intervention District is the unit of implementation State is the unit of coordination

4 Goals Define the purpose of PBIS Define the role and functions of district leadership teams Build action plans to enhance district leadership Propose one measure of district implementation capacity.

5 Why PBIS? The fundamental purpose of PBIS is to make schools more effective and equitable learning environments. Predictable Consistent Positive Safe

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7 Main Messages PBIS is a foundation for the next generation of education. Effective (academic, behavior) Equitable (all students succeed) Efficient (time, cost)

8 Experimental Research on SWPBIS Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), Ross, S. W., Endrulat, N. R., & Horner, R. H. (2012). Adult outcomes of school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions. 14(2) Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf, P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial. Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2): Bradshaw, Pas, Goldweber, Rosenberg, & Leaf, 2012 Freeman, J., Simonsen, B., McCoach D.B., Sugai, G., Lombardi, A., & Horner, ( submitted) Implementation Effects of School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports on Academic, Attendance, and Behavior Outcomes in High Schools. SWPBIS Experimentally Related to: 1.Reduction in problem behavior 2.Increased academic performance 3.Increased attendance 4.Improved perception of safety 5.Reduction in bullying behaviors 6.Improved organizational efficiency 7.Reduction in staff turnover 8.Increased perception of teacher efficacy 9.Improved Social Emotional competence

9 What is School-wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS)? School-wide PBIS is: A multi-tiered framework for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to achieve behavioral and academic outcomes for all students. Evidence-based features of SWPBIS Prevention Define and teach positive social expectations Acknowledge positive behavior Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior On-going collection and use of data for decision-making Continuum of intensive, individual intervention supports. Implementation of the systems that support effective practices

10 Questions What about using “warning” messages, (e.g. no texting) What about “extreme behavior problems” What do you mean by “social culture”

11 Teaching Matrix Activity (Identify cells that you would change) ClassroomLunchroomBusHallwayAssembly Respect Others No food in class Eat your own food Stay in your seat No harassment No violence Arrive on time to speaker Respect Environment & Property Recycle paperReturn trays Keep feet on floor Do not litter Leave the auditorium as clean as you find it. Respect Yourself Do your best Wash your hands Be at stop on time Use your words No hats No gum Respect Learning Have materials ready Eat balanced diet Go directly from bus to class Go directly to class Discuss topics in class w/ others

12 Teaching Matrix Activity (Identify cells that you would change) ClassroomLunchroomBusHallwayAssembly Respect Others No food in class Eat your own food Stay in your seat No harassment No violence Arrive on time to speaker Respect Environment & Property Recycle paperReturn trays Keep feet on floor Do not litter Leave the auditorium as clean as you find it. Respect Yourself Do your best Wash your hands Be at stop on time Use your words No hats No gum Respect Learning Have materials ready Eat balanced diet Go directly from bus to class Go directly to class Discuss topics in class w/ others

13 Establishing a Social Culture Common Vision/Values Common Language Common Experience MEMBERSHIP

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15 School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) The social culture of a school matters. A continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families. Effective practices with the systems needed for high fidelity and sustainability Multiple tiers of intensity

16 Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT 27 Main Ideas: 1.Invest in prevention first 2.Multiple tiers of support intensity 3.Early/rapid access to support

17 Using PBIS to Achieve Quality, Equity and Efficiency QUALITY: Using what works; Linking Academic and Behavior Supports North Carolina (valued outcomes) Michigan (behavior and literacy supports) Commitment to Fidelity Measures Building functional logic/ theory/ practice (Sanford) EQUITY: Making schools work for all Scott Ross Russ Skiba Vincent, Cartledge, May & Tobin Bully prevention EFFICIENCY: Working Smarter: Building implementation science into large scale adoption. Using teacher and student time better. Dean Fixsen/ Oregon Dept of Education

18 Schools using PBIS August, ,611

19 Number of Schools Implementation SWPBIS (Tier I) by State August, States with more than 500 schools California

20 Proportion of Schools Implementing SWPBIS by State August, States with more than 40% of schools California

21 Lessons Learned Implementation Leadership Team Local Demonstrations Build Policy Foundation Build Technical Capacity

22 Leadership Team Active Coordination Funding Visibility Political Support TrainingCoachingEvaluation Local School/District Teams/Demonstrations Behavioral Expertise Policy

23 Questions How do we establish “staff buy –in” to implement PBIS? How do we build a unified “District Effort” while also honoring the independent culture of each school? In our district PBIS is strong within SPED, but not as well extended to Regular Educators… how do we change this? How does PBIS address discipline disproportionality by race/ethnicity?

24 Questions What Universal screeners are you recommending, and how do we learn how to use these for decision-making? Can you please speak to the concerns about detrimental effects of “extrinsic rewards” on building intrinsic motivation and character. Can you review what “coaching” really looks like?

25 Districts District Implementation Team Right People (5-10) Adequate authority (schedule, funds, personnel, policy) Meeting schedule (monthly) Adequate coordination support Measures of impact Coherent District Policy Social behavior is a priority in district improvement plan (e.g. LCAP) District commitment to selecting practices that are evidence-based District process for aligning multiple initiatives.

26 District Leadership Team Evaluation Capacity Data systems that inform decision-making and provide policy feedback ** Fidelity and Impact Recruitment, Hiring, Evaluation “Preference will be given to individuals with knowledge and experience in implementation of multi-tiered academic and behavior supports.”

27 Available at

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29 Sub-scale report

30 Sub-subscale report Tier I Teams Implementation Evaluation Tier II Teams Interventions Evaluation Tier III Teams Resources Assessment Support plan Monitoring and adaptation

31 Item Report

32 Action Planning

33 Districts Annual Faculty/Staff Orientation Defines PBIS as a priority Defines what to expect in a school using PBIS min of annual orientation Professional Development (Training) PD is always tied to core improvement goals PD typically involves distributed training (multiple events) PD is always linked to on-site coaching. PD is always linked to a fidelity measure Coaching Prompting, Fluency Building, Performance Feedback, Adaptation HOW Drivers

34 Districts Annual Faculty and Staff Evaluations Staff evaluations include assessment of whether multi-tiered systems of support are implemented (e.g. OTISS) Development of Targeted Expertise Schools have access to individuals with the skills to perform, train, coach and support Tier II and Tier III supports. This expertise may be within the district, or from a regional support entity. Development of Exemplar Sites

35 Leadership Team Active Coordination Funding Visibility Political Support TrainingCoachingEvaluation Local School/District Teams/Demonstrations Behavioral Expertise Policy

36 Summary PBIS is a framework for improving the effectiveness and equity of schools PBIS is evidence-based PBIS implementation requires an active and effective district leadership team Data-based Decision-making is a central part of PBIS Fidelity of PBIS (Tiered Fidelity Inventory) Impact on Students (Tier I, Tier II, Tier III) Capacity of District (DCA)

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38 PBIS Science Values Vision Practices that work Practices that affect quality of life Practices that are practical, durable and available


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