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HTML5 Canvas and PHP Programming Club IIT Kanpur.

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Presentation on theme: "HTML5 Canvas and PHP Programming Club IIT Kanpur."— Presentation transcript:

1 HTML5 Canvas and PHP Programming Club IIT Kanpur

2 The canvas tag Similar to the,, or tag, with the exception that its contents are rendered with JavaScript The canvas context is an object with properties and methods that you can use to render graphics inside the canvas element. The context can be 2d or webgl (3d).

3 Canvas Template var canvas = document.getElementById('myCanvas'); var context = canvas.getContext('2d'); // do stuff here

4 Line use the beginPath(), moveTo(), lineTo(), and stroke() methods beginPath() - to declare that we are about to draw a new path moveTo() - to position the context point (i.e. Starting point), lineTo() - to draw a straight line from the starting position to a new position stroke() - to make the line visible i.e fill color in the line

5 Line var canvas = document.getElementById('myCanvas'); var context = canvas.getContext('2d'); context.beginPath(); context.moveTo(100, 150); context.lineTo(450, 50); context.stroke();

6 Properties of Line Line Width - context.lineWidth = 15; Must be set before stroke() function Line Color – context.strokeStyle = '#ff0000'; Line Cap – Can be round, square or butt. Specified by context.lineCap = 'round';

7 Arc Arcs are defined by a center point, a radius, a starting angle, an ending angle, and the drawing direction (either clockwise or anticlockwise). Angle should be in radians Arcs can be styled with the lineWidth, strokeStyle, and lineCap properties

8 Arc var canvas = document.getElementById('myCanvas'); var context = canvas.getContext('2d'); var x = canvas.width / 2; var y = canvas.height / 2; var radius = 75; var startAngle = 1.1 * Math.PI; var endAngle = 1.9 * Math.PI; var counterClockwise = false; context.beginPath(); context.arc(x, y, radius, startAngle, endAngle, counterClockwise); context.lineWidth = 15; context.strokeStyle = 'black'; context.stroke();

9 Quadratic Curve Use the quadraticCurveTo() method Quadratic curves can be styled with the lineWidth, strokeStyle, and lineCap properties

10 Quadratic Curve Context Point is soecified by the context.moveTo() function QuadraticCurveTo() function takes 4 arguments- the x co-ordinate of the control point the y co-ordinate of the control point the x co-ordinate of the end point the y co-ordinate of the end point

11 Quadratic Curve var canvas = document.getElementById('myCanvas'); var context = canvas.getContext('2d'); context.beginPat1h(); context.moveTo(188, 150); context.quadraticCurveTo(288, 0, 388, 150); context.lineWidth = 10; context.strokeStyle = 'black'; context.stroke();

12 Path To create a path with HTML5 Canvas, we can connect multiple subpaths. The ending point of each new subpath becomes the new context point. We can use the lineTo(), arcTo(), quadraticCurveTo(), and bezierCurveTo() methods to construct each subpath which makes up our path. We can also use the beginPath() method each time we want to start drawing a new path.

13 Path canvas id="myCanvas" width="578" height="200"> var canvas = document.getElementById('myCanvas'); var context = canvas.getContext('2d'); context.beginPath(); context.moveTo(100, 20); // line 1 context.lineTo(200, 160); // quadratic curve context.quadraticCurveTo(230, 200, 250, 120); // bezier curve context.bezierCurveTo(290, -40, 300, 200, 400, 150); // line 2 context.lineTo(500, 90); context.lineWidth = 5; context.strokeStyle = 'blue'; context.stroke();

14 Joining Lines To set the line join style of an HTML5 Canvas path, we can set the lineJoin context property Paths can have one of three line joins: miter, round, or bevel Unless otherwise specified, the HTML5 Canvas line join property is defaulted with the miter style

15 Joining Lines var canvas = document.getElementById('myCanvas'); var context = canvas.getContext('2d'); // set line width for all lines context.lineWidth = 25; // round line join (middle) context.beginPath(); context.moveTo(239, 150); context.lineTo(289, 50); context.lineTo(339, 150); context.lineJoin = 'round'; context.stroke();

16 Rounded Corners we use the arcTo() method which is defined by a control point, an ending point, and a radius.

17 Rounded Corners var canvas = document.getElementById('myCanvas'); var context = canvas.getContext('2d'); var rectWidth = 200; var rectHeight = 100; var rectX = 189; var rectY = 50; var cornerRadius = 50; context.beginPath(); context.moveTo(rectX, rectY); context.lineTo(rectX + rectWidth - cornerRadius, rectY); context.arcTo(rectX + rectWidth, rectY, rectX + rectWidth, rectY + cornerRadius, cornerRadius); context.lineTo(rectX + rectWidth, rectY + rectHeight); context.lineWidth = 5; context.stroke();

18 Custom Shape To create a custom shape with HTML5 Canvas, we can create a path and then close it using the closePath() method. We can use the lineTo(), arcTo(), quadraticCurveTo(), or bezierCurveTo() methods to construct each subpath which makes up our shape

19 Custom Path var canvas = document.getElementById('myCanvas'); var context = canvas.getContext('2d'); // begin custom shape context.beginPath(); context.moveTo(170, 80); context.bezierCurveTo(130, 100, 130, 150, 230, 150); context.bezierCurveTo(250, 180, 320, 180, 340, 150); context.bezierCurveTo(420, 150, 420, 120, 390, 100); context.bezierCurveTo(430, 40, 370, 30, 340, 50); context.bezierCurveTo(320, 5, 250, 20, 250, 50); context.bezierCurveTo(200, 5, 150, 20, 170, 80); // complete custom shape context.closePath(); context.lineWidth = 5; context.strokeStyle = 'blue'; context.stroke();

20 Rectangle we can use the rect() method rather than constructing the shape with 4 connecting lines. rectangle is positioned with x and y parameters, and is sized with width and height parameters. The rectangle is positioned about its top left corner.

21 Rectangle var canvas = document.getElementById('myCanvas'); var context = canvas.getContext('2d'); context.beginPath(); context.rect(188, 50, 200, 100); context.fillStyle = 'yellow'; context.fill(); context.lineWidth = 7; context.strokeStyle = 'black'; context.stroke();

22 Circle We create a full arc using the arc() method by defining the starting angle as 0 and the ending angle as 2 * PI

23 Color Filling To fill an HTML5 Canvas shape with a solid color, we can set the fillStyle property to a color. then we can use the fill() method to fill the shape. When setting both the fill and stroke for a shape, make sure that you use fill() before stroke(). Otherwise, the fill will overlap half of the stroke

24 Filling Color var canvas = document.getElementById('myCanvas'); var context = canvas.getContext('2d'); // begin custom shape context.beginPath(); context.moveTo(170, 80); context.bezierCurveTo(130, 100, 130, 150, 230, 150); context.bezierCurveTo(250, 180, 320, 180, 340, 150); context.bezierCurveTo(420, 150, 420, 120, 390, 100); context.bezierCurveTo(430, 40, 370, 30, 340, 50); context.bezierCurveTo(320, 5, 250, 20, 250, 50); context.bezierCurveTo(200, 5, 150, 20, 170, 80); // complete custom shape context.closePath(); context.lineWidth = 5; context.fillStyle = '#8ED6FF'; context.fill(); context.strokeStyle = 'blue'; context.stroke();

25 Drawing Image To draw an image using HTML5 Canvas, we use the drawImage() method which requires an image object and a destination point. The destination point defines the top left corner of the image relative to the top left corner of the canvas. var imageObj = new Image(); imageObj.onload = function() { context.drawImage(imageObj, 69, 50); }; imageObj.src = 'http://www.html5canvastutorials.com/demos/assets/darth-vader.jpg';

26 Image Size we add two additional arguments to the drawImage() method, width and height var width = 200; var height = 137; var imageObj = new Image(); imageObj.onload = function() { context.drawImage(imageObj, x, y, width, height); };

27 Crop an Image We add six additional arguments to the drawImage() method, sourceX, sourceY, sourceWidth, sourceHeight, destWidth and destHeight.

28 Text To draw text using HTML5 Canvas, we can use the font property and the fillText() method of the canvas context. To set the font, size, and style of HTML5 Canvas text, we set the font property of the canvas context to a string containing the font style, size, and family, delimited by spaces. Once the font property has been set, we can draw the text with the fillText() method, which requires a string and an x and y position

29 Text var canvas = document.getElementById('myCanvas'); var context = canvas.getContext('2d'); context.font = 'italic 40pt Calibri'; context.fillText('Hello World!', 150, 100);

30 Properties Of Text TO change text color, set context.fillStyle = "color" TO change stroke color, set context.strokeStyle = "color" To align text, use context.textAlign = "center". can be set to start, end, left, center, or right. When it's set to start and the document direction is ltr (left to right), or when it's set to end and the document direction is rtl (right to left).

31 Snake GAME Let's make simple snake game using the tools we have learnt.

32 HTML

33 Initializing the canvas var canvas = document.getElementById('canvas'); context = canvas.getContext("2d"); var w = canvas.width(); var h = canvas.height();

34 Painting the canvas context.fillStyle= "white"; context.fillRect(0, 0, w, h); context.strokeStyle = "black"; context.strokeRect(0, 0, w, h);

35 Creating the snake create_snake(); function create_snake() { var length = 5; //Length of the snake snake_array = []; //Empty array to start with for(var i = length-1; i>=0; i--) { //This will create a horizontal snake starting from the top left snake_array.push({x: i, y:0}); } }

36 Painting the snake var cw = 10;//cell width function paint() { for(var i = 0; i < snake_array.length; i++) { var c = snake_array[i]; //Lets paint 10px wide cells context.fillStyle = "blue"; context.fillRect(c.x*cw, c.y*cw, cw, cw); context.strokeStyle = "white"; context.strokeRect(c.x*cw, c.y*cw, cw, cw); } }

37 Moving the snake game_loop = setInterval(paint, 60); //put the following lines inside the paint function //Pop out the tail cell and place it infront of the head cell var nx = snake_array[0].x; var ny = snake_array[0].y; //These were the position of the head cell. //We will increment it to get the new head position nx++; var tail = snake_array.pop(); //pops out the last cell tail.x = nx; snake_array.unshift(tail); //puts back the tail as the first cell

38 Leaving a trail After every 60ms, paint() function will create new rectangles but not delete the previous ones. This will leave a trail of the movement of the snake. To fix it, we paint the background of the canvas inside the paint() function.

39 Direction Based Movement var d = "right"; //default direction //add the following lines in the paint function if(d == "right") nx++; else if(d == "left") nx--; else if(d == "up") ny--; else if(d == "down") ny++;

40 Keyboard Controls document.onkeydown = function(e){ var key = e.which; if(key == "37" && d != "right ") d = "left"; else if(key == "38" && d != "down ") d= " up"; else if(key == "39" && d != "left ") d= " right"; else if(key == "40" && d != "up") d= " down"; };

41 Game init function function init() { d = "right"; //default direction create_snake(); create_food(); game_loop = setInterval(paint, 60); }

42 Game Over Condition if(nx == -1 || nx = w/cw || ny == -1 || ny = h/cw) { //restart game init(); return; }

43 Lets Create food now function create_food() { food = { x: Math.random()*(w-cw)/cw, y: Math.random()*(h-cw)/cw, }; //This will create a cell with x/y between 0-44 //Because there are 45(450/10) positions accross the rows and columns }

44 A function to paint cells function paint_cell(x, y) { context.fillStyle= "blue"; contetx.fillRect(x*cw, y*cw, cw, cw); context.strokeStyle= "white"; context.strokeRect(x*cw, y*cw, cw, cw); } //Now even while painting snake, we can use this function

45 Paint food //inside the paint function var food; create_food; paint_cell(food.x, food.y)

46 Eating food //If the new head position matches with that of the food, //Create a new head instead of moving the tail if(nx == food.x && ny == food.y) { var tail = {x: nx, y: ny}; //Create new food create_food(); } else { var tail = snake_array.pop(); //pops out the last cell tail.x = nx; tail.y = ny; }

47 Checking Body Collision function check_collision(x, y, array) { //This function will check if the provided x/y coordinates exist //in an array of cells or not for(var i = 0; i < array.length; i++) { if(array[i].x == x && array[i].y == y) return true; } return false; }

48 Checking Collision Addone more condition for game over in the paint function.- if(nx == -1 || nx == w/cw || ny == -1 || ny == h/cw || check_collision(nx, ny, snake_array )) { //restart game init(); return; }

49 And we are done! Congratulations on Making Your first game. Simple, wasn't it?


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