Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 20121 The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope C.W. James, ECAP, University.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 20121 The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope C.W. James, ECAP, University."— Presentation transcript:

1 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 20121 The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope C.W. James, ECAP, University of Erlangen, on behalf of the ANTARES collaboration.

2 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 20122 Cosmic rays and neutrinos What produces this spectrum? Standard model: acceleration at relativistic astrophysical shocks R. Shellard, Braz. J. Phys 31 (2001)

3 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 20123 Why look for neutrinos? Flux unattenuated over cosmological distances Image courtesy of NRAO/AUI Nature 432 (2004) 75 Image courtesy of NRAO/AUI Travel in straight lines (unlike cosmic rays) Signatures of hadronic processes in the high-energy universe SNR AGN jets and lobes GRB NASA/Swift/Stefan Immler

4 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 20124 Quick note: these are not Solar neutrinos! Production via cosmic-ray (~proton) interactions with: Much rarer than solar neutrinos – but more energetic (GeV-PeV: not MeV) – ν μ and ν τ CC interactions possible low E proton Hadronic matter (interstellar gas)Photon fields (CMB)

5 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 20125  42° interaction Earth’s crust (sea floor; Antarctic continent) Cherenkov light from  3D PMT array  Main detection channel:  CC interactions (  NC, and e and  also). Detection Principle  p    p,  5 Optically transparent material (water; deep ice)

6 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 20126 Let’s build it!

7 7  CPPM, Marseille  DSM/IRFU/CEA, Saclay  APC, Paris  LPC, Clermont-Ferrand  IPHC, Strasbourg  Univ. de H.-A., Mulhouse  LAM, Marseille  COM, Marseille  GeoAzur Villefranche  INSU-Division Technique  Univ./INFN of Bari  Univ./INFN of Bologna  Univ./INFN of Catania  LNS–Catania  Univ./INFN of Pisa  Univ./INFN of Rome  Univ./INFN of Genova  IFIC, Valencia  UPV, Valencia  UPC, Barcelona  NIKHEF,  Amsterdam  Utrecht  KVI Groningen  NIOZ Texel  ITEP,Moscow  Moscow State Univ  University of Erlangen Bamberg Observatory Univ. of Wurzeburg  ISS, Bucarest 8 countries 31 institutes ~150 scientists+engineers  LPRM, Oujda The ANTARES Collaboration

8 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 20128 ANTARES: Location 40km off the coast of Toulon

9 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 20129 V. Bertin - CPPM - ARENA'08 @ Roma The ANTARES detector 70 m 450 m JunctionBox Interlink cables 40 km to shore 2500m 12 lines 25 storeys/line 3 PMTs / storey 885 10-inch PMTs 10-20 Mton volume

10 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201210 Sample events Maximum-likelihood fit to recorded photon hit times http://www.pi1.physik.uni-erlangen.de/antares/online-display/online-display.php

11 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201211 ANTARES ‘visibility’ ANTARES at 43 o N Sensitive to the Southern sky Includes the Galactic Centre Mkn 501 RX J1713.7-39 GX339-4 SS433 CRAB VELA Galactic Centre Visible Invisible ANTARES: 43 o N Never visible Always visible Increasing sensitivity

12 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201212  ANTARES performance: angular resolution ~50% events reconstruct to better than 0.5 o ~99% reconstruct to better than 10 o Energy reconstruction is much harder (most is not ‘seen’)

13 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201213 Muon and neutrino backgrounds Remove atmospheric muon background with quality cuts CR neutrino background irreducible 1% misreconstruction from belowfrom above p   p,  Muon flux at 2500m depth Look for an excess here!

14 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201214 Science with ANTARES High-energy Neutrino Astrophysics – Galactic sources: SN & SNR, micro-quasars, CR in molecular clouds – Extra-galactic sources: AGN, GRB, GZK processes Search for new physics: – Dark matter annihilation, nuclearites, monopoles Earth sciences: – Oceanography, marine biology, seismology, environment monitoring… GeV-100 GeVGeV-TeVTeV-PeVPeV-EeV > EeV OscillationsDMSNR, μQSOAGNExotics, GZKMarine biology GUT???

15 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201215 Results!

16 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201216 All-sky point-source search Sky map in equatorial coordinates: – 2007-2010 data (813 days livetime) – 3058 candidates after cuts: expect 14% down-going muon contamination Most significant cluster: 2.2σ No strong evidence for a point-source excess

17 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201217 Search from suspected sources 51 pre-defined ‘suspect’ sources (mostly based on gamma-ray flux and visibility) Top 11 sources: most significant first WR20a & b: hot, massive stars HESS, Astronomy & Astrophysics 467 (2007) 1075

18 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201218 Neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts ‘Fireball’ model for GRBs: – Explains long-duration bursts – Predicts neutrinos! Search criteria: – Direction (2 o from source) – Time (~1 minute) – Upcoming events only Results from 2007 data (40 GRBs): no detection

19 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201219 Neutrino Oscillations Two-flavour mixing approximation: – Measureable: ‘Unknown’: – World data: 1 st minimum at, (120 m max muon range) Expectations for 863 days’ data: Events seen with two lines Events seen with one line No oscillations Best world data

20 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201220 Oscillation analysis: results After a Chi 2 minimisation to and two systematic variables: – 1 st measurement of its type – Accepted July 2 nd by Physics Letters B – Promising for next-generation larger detectors Data No oscillations Best fit Combined single and multi-line data ANTARES K2K MINOS Super-K 68% C.L. 90% C.L.

21 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201221 Search for Dark Matter Annihilation in the Sun Muon Flux Limits 90%CL (2007-2008) 21 PRELIMINARY Angular distance from sun Lack of excess: => model limits (apologies: I do not have these plots here!) A search for an excess from the galactic centre is ongoing

22 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201222 Search for magnetic monopoles Relativistic monopoles emit VC radiation – 8550 times brighter than a muon – Look for extremely bright events! ANTARES search space – Relativistic – ‘intermediate mass’ (< 10 14 GeV) Search performed on data from 2008: – 1 event – 0.13 bkgd – 1.5 σ significance

23 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201223 Multi-Messenger astronomy Alerts Strategy: – Increase discovery potential (different probes) – Increase significance via coincidence Ligo/Virgo (grav. waves) – Dedicated analysis chain – GW trigger GCN (GRB) – Global burst network – GRB burst alert – ANTARES trigger and coincident analysis TAROT (optical) – Follow-up search for SN – 10s repositioning

24 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201224 Summary ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope: – Largest neutrino telescope in the Northern Hemisphere – Proven ability to detect neutrino-induced muons – Good performance in bread & butter science: neutrino astrophysics – Sensitivity optimised for the galactic centre region Diverse physics program: – Dark matter – Neutrino oscillations – Exotics (magnetic monopoles, nuclearites) Entering ‘mature’ phase: – First round of results published (~1 year’s data) – Analyses on 3+ years of 12-line data in progress – More results on their way!

25 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201225 EXTRA SLIDES (in case of tricky questions)

26 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201226 Background and diffuse flux sensitivity High energies favour source spectra – Background from atmospheric neutrinos: E nu -3.7 – Sources: order E nu -2 Look for a high-energy excess! E 2  (E) 90% = 5.3×10 -8 GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 20 TeV { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/14/4310629/slides/slide_26.jpg", "name": "C. W.", "description": "James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201226 Background and diffuse flux sensitivity High energies favour source spectra – Background from atmospheric neutrinos: E nu -3.7 – Sources: order E nu -2 Look for a high-energy excess. E 2  (E) 90% = 5.3×10 -8 GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 20 TeV

27 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201227 Standard data pipeline ‘hit’: send PMT data to shore when one or more photons are observed Raw data rate: too high to record Trigger: Record data to disk if it looks `interesting’. Standard trigger requirements: – Large ( ) hits OR hits on neighbouring PMTs (600 Hz) – Clusters of >=5 hits – Trigger hits must be causally connected Many other triggers (GRB alert, monitoring info, GC etc) Threshold: 0.3 V photon PMT voltage 25 ns integration Shore triggering and data acquisition

28 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201228 Candidate List Search – 90%CL Flux Limits 28 Assumes E -2 flux for a possible signal ANTARES 2007-2010 813 days ANTARES has the most stringent limits for the Southern Sky

29 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201229 Bioluminescence: large seasonal fluctuations – Bacteria – Vertebrates Optical Background Potassium 40 decay: constant background Image courtesy Wolfram Alpha Spring 2006Spring 2007

30 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201230 Trigger effective area (preliminary plot: officially updated version will be out shortly)

31 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201231 Data reduction for point-source search Cut on angular-error estimate, and on fit quality

32 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201232 Resolution: use the Moon’s shadow The Moon blocks CR: expect reduction in the upcoming-event rate 884 days’ livetime 2.7 sigma defecit Agrees with Monte Carlo expectations

33 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201233 Sea currents and acoustic positioning Storey 1 Storey 8 Storey 14 Storey 20 Storey 25 Radial displacement Measure every 2 min: Distance line bases to 5 storeys/line and also storey headings and tilts Precision ~ few cms

34 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201234 2006 – 2008: Building phase of the Detector Junction box 2001 Main cable 2002 Line 1, 22006 Line 3, 4, 5 01 / 2007 Line 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 12 / 2007 Line 11, 1205 / 2008 ~70 m

35 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201235 Search for Neutrinos from Fermi Bubbles For 100% hadronic models: F ~1/2.5 F  (Vissani) E 2 dF /dE=1.2*10 -7 GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 E cutoff protons: 1PeV-10 PeV (Croker&Aharonian) E cutoff neutrinos = 1/20 cutoff protons Good visibility for ANTARES Background estimated from average of three ‘OFF’ regions (time shifted in local coordinates) galactic coords detector coords

36 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201236 Dark Matter Simulation MAINANNIHILATIONMAINANNIHILATION CHANNELSCHANNELS 36 M WIMP = 350 GeV τ leptons regeneration in the Sun mUED particular case…

37 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201237 Dark matter – detector performance ANTARES effective area to muon neutrinos incident on Earth – Most neutrinos do not produce detectable muons – Most muons are very low in energy

38 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201238 Magnetic Monopoles: data reduction Magnetic monopoles… – Theoretical prediction (quantisation of charge, guage theories…) – Have not been observed (various limits exist) – Have a magnetic charge g: will emit Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation – VC radiation: 8550 times brighter than that of a muon with similar velocity – Acceleration in cosmic magnetic fields

39 C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 201239 Search for Dark Matter Annihilation in the Sun Muon Flux Limits 90%CL (2007-2008) 39 PRELIMINARY Angular distance from sun PRELIMINARY


Download ppt "C. W. James, The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope, SEWM, Swansea, 13th July 20121 The ANTARES Underwater Neutrino Telescope C.W. James, ECAP, University."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google