Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1. 2 Part 1 Structure and Function of the Respiratory System When you can not breath, nothing else matters Slogan of the American Lung Association.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1. 2 Part 1 Structure and Function of the Respiratory System When you can not breath, nothing else matters Slogan of the American Lung Association."— Presentation transcript:

1 1

2 2 Part 1 Structure and Function of the Respiratory System When you can not breath, nothing else matters Slogan of the American Lung Association

3 3 Respiration is the process by which the body takes in and utilizes oxygen (O 2 ) and gets rid of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ).

4 4 An Overview of Key Steps in Respiration

5 5 Respiration can be divided into four major functional events Ventilation: Movement of air into and out of lungs Gas exchange between air in lungs and blood Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood Internal respiration: Gas exchange between the blood and tissues

6 6 Respiratory System Functions Gas exchange: Oxygen enters blood and carbon dioxide leaves Regulation of blood pH: Altered by changing blood carbon dioxide levels Voice production: Movement of air past vocal folds makes sound and speech Olfaction: Smell occurs when airborne molecules drawn into nasal cavity Protection: Against microorganisms by preventing entry and removing them Metabolism: Synthesize and metabolize different compounds (Nonrespiratory Function of the Lung)

7 7 Section I ANATOMY OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT

8 8 Respiratory System Divisions Upper Airway –Nose, pharynx, larynx and associated structures Lower Airway –trachea, bronchi, lungs

9 9 Conducting Zone All the structures air passes through before reaching the respiratory zone. Cartilage holds tube system open and smooth muscle controls tube diameter Warms and humidifies inspired air. Filters and cleans: Insert fig. 16.5

10 10 Respiratory Zone Region of gas exchange between air and blood. Includes respiratory bronchioles and alveolar sacs.

11 11 Airway branching

12 12 Section II BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE LUNG Two separate blood supplies: pulmonary circulation and bronchial circulation Pulmonary circulation Bronchial circulation

13 13 Pulmonary circulation Brings deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the gas-exchange units At the gas-exchanging units, oxygen is picked up and carbon dioxide is removed from the blood The oxygenated blood returned to the left atrium for distribution to the rest of the body

14 14 Bronchial circulation Arise from the aorta Provides nourishments to the lung parenchyma (肺实质)

15 15 Section III MUSCLES OF RESPIRATION Inspiratory muscle: Diaphragm and Abdominal breathing (腹式呼 吸) external intercostal muscle and thoracic breathing (胸式呼吸) accessory muscle of inspiration Expiratory muscle relax during normal breathing Internal intercostal muscle Muscles of the abdominal wall

16 16 Thoracic Walls and Muscles of Respiration

17 17 Breathing Rate At rest: breaths / minute During exercise: at maximum exercise in adults

18 18 Thoracic Volume

19 19 Mechanisms of Breathing: How do we change the volume of the rib cage ? To Inhale is an ACTIVE process Diaphragm Diaphragm Rib Cage Contract Diaphragm Volume External Intercostal MusclesExternal Intercostal Muscles Intercostals Contract to Lift Rib Spine Ribs Volume Both actions occur simultaneously – otherwise not effective

20 20 Pleura

21 21 Pleural fluid produced by pleural membranes –Acts as lubricant –Helps hold parietal and visceral pleural membranes together

22 22 Ventilation Movement of air into and out of lungs Air moves from area of higher pressure to area of lower pressure Pressure is inversely related to volume

23 23 Alveolar Pressure Changes During Respiration

24 24 Chest Wall (muscle, ribs) Principles of Breathing Functional Unit: Chest Wall and Lung ConductingAirways Diaphragm(muscle) Lungs Gas Exchange Follows Boyle’s Law: Pressure (P) x Volume (V) = Constant Pleural Cavity Imaginary Space between Lungs and chest wall Pleural Cavity Very small space Maintained at negative pressure Transmits pressure changes Allows lung and ribs to slide

25 25 CW Follows Boyle’s Law: PV= C At Rest with mouth open P b = P i = 0 D PiPiPiPi A PS PbPbPbPb Airway Open Principle of Breathing 1

26 26 CW Follows Boyle’s Law: PV= C At Rest with mouth open P b = P i = 0 Inhalation: - Increase Volume of Rib cage - Decrease the pleural cavity pressure - Decrease in Pressure inside (P i ) lungs D PiPiPiPi A PS PbPbPbPb Airway Open Principle of Breathing 2

27 27 CW Follows Boyle’s Law: PV= C At Rest with mouth open P b = P i = 0 Inhalation: - P b outside is now greater than P i - Air flows down pressure gradient - Until Pi = Pb D PiPiPiPi A PS PbPbPbPb Airway Open Principle of Breathing 3

28 28 CW Follows Boyle’s Law: PV= C D PiPiPiPi A PS PbPbPbPb Airway Open At Rest with mouth open P b = P i = 0 Exhalation: Opposite Process - Decrease Rib Cage Volume Principle of Breathing 4

29 29 CW Follows Boyle’s Law: PV= C At Rest with mouth open P b = P i = 0 Exhalation: Opposite Process - Decrease Rib Cage Volume - Increase in pleural cavity pressure - Increase P i D PiPiPiPi A PS PbPbPbPb Airway Open Principle of Breathing 5

30 30 CW Follows Boyle’s Law: PV= C At Rest with mouth open P b = P i = 0 Exhalation: Opposite Process - Decrease Rib Cage Volume - Increase P i - Pi is greater than P b - Air flows down pressure gradient - Until P i = P b again D PiPiPiPi A PS PbPbPbPb Airway Open Principle of Breathing 6

31 31

32 32 Section IV SURFACTANT AND SURFACE TENSION Surface tension ( 表面张力) : a measure of the attraction force of the surface molecules per unit length of the material to which they are attached

33 33 Surface Tension Force exerted by fluid in alveoli to resist distension Lungs secrete and absorb fluid, leaving a very thin film of fluid. H 2 0 molecules at the surface are attracted to other H 2 0 molecules by attractive forces. –Force is directed inward, raising pressure in alveoli.

34 34 What is Surface Tension ? Within Fluid All forces balance At surface Unbalanced forces Generate Tension

35 35 Surface Tension Law of Laplace: –Pressure in alveoli –directly proportional to surface tension –inversely proportional to radius of alveoli –if surface tension were the same in all alveolus.... Insert fig

36 36 Collapse Expand Effect of Surface Tension on Alveoli size Air Flow

37 37 Surfactant ( 表面活性物质) Phospholipid produced by alveolar type II cells. Lowers surface tension. –Reduces attractive forces of hydrogen bonding –by becoming interspersed between H 2 0 molecules. Surface tension in alveoli is reduced.

38 38 Area dependence of Surfactant action Tension Area Surfactant Increase Area Saline Slider - Change Surface Area Saline Decrease Area Low S/unit Area High S/unit Area

39 39 Surfactant prevents alveolar collapse

40 40 Volume L RV Pleural Pressure cm H 2 O Normal (with surfactant) Saline Filled Without surfactant Volume-pressure curves of lungs filled with saline and with air (with or without surfactant)

41 41 Physiology Importance of Surfactant Reduce the work of breathing Stabilize alveoli Prevent collapse and sticking of alveoli Maintain the dryness of the alveoli Prevent the edema of the alveoli


Download ppt "1. 2 Part 1 Structure and Function of the Respiratory System When you can not breath, nothing else matters Slogan of the American Lung Association."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google