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School-Wide Intervention to Improve Reading and Behavioral Skills Debra Kamps, Howard Wills, Charles Greenwood Juniper Gardens Children’s Project University.

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Presentation on theme: "School-Wide Intervention to Improve Reading and Behavioral Skills Debra Kamps, Howard Wills, Charles Greenwood Juniper Gardens Children’s Project University."— Presentation transcript:

1 School-Wide Intervention to Improve Reading and Behavioral Skills Debra Kamps, Howard Wills, Charles Greenwood Juniper Gardens Children’s Project University of Kansas 2006 OSEP Project Director’s Meeting

2 The Kansas Center for Early Intervention in Reading and Behavior Representative Schools Sample In the Kansas City Metropolitan Area 2 States 4 Districts Urban/Suburban (cultural and economic diversity) Public, Charter, Parochial Randomized Longitudinal Design Strength of Treatment Assessed

3 Some Unique Dimensions of the KS Study Intervention Reading and Behavioral Risk Dual School-wide Behavior and Reading Teams Directing 3-tiered Models Reading Team Behavior Team

4 A Three-tiered Model for School-wide Screening & Early Intervention Primary Level Intervention All students receive instruction and support within the general education classroom (universals) Secondary Level Intervention Students not meeting benchmark goals using the DIBELS and students meeting SSBD/ESP behavioral risk scores receive differential instruction and intervention (small groups) Tertiary Level Intervention Students in intensive range or non-responsive to secondary level (individualized, long-term)

5 Accomplishments of the Reading and Behavior Center Secondary/Tertiary small group reading intervention 590 students in 2003-2004 790 students in 2004-2005 908 students in 2005-2006 Secondary/Tertiary level behavior intervention 174 students in 2003-2004 283 students in 2004-2005 276 students in 2005-2006

6 School-wide Positive Behavior Support (Horner & Sugai, 2000) Primary Level Intervention School-wide implementation of behavioral expectations (teaching, rewarding, 4:1 positives, providing fair consequences team driven, data-based decision making) Secondary Level Intervention Students not improving with primary level, receive targeted interventions e.g., group contingencies, social skills groups, check-in/check-out, point systems, mentors Tertiary Level Intervention Students at highest risk or unresponsive to secondary level receive individualized intervention Year 1 Year 2 Year 3

7 Settings   Expectations ClassroomCafeteriaRestroomPlaygroundHallway Active Listening  Eyes on speaker within 2-3 seconds  Silent voices  Hands and feet still  Respond to directions first time  Active listening within 2-3 seconds  Eyes on the speaker  Silent voices during Active Listening drill  Quiet chairs  Intent to cooperate  Quiet voices  Think about the expectations for restroom use  Cooperate with the expectations  Respond immediately after the whistle is blown (eyes on speaker, silent voices, ready to follow directions)  Silent voices  Eyes look forward  Ears ready to listen to any directions  Follow the leader and directions Best Effort  Do quality work that is: o accurate o neat o complete  Set table completely  Signal servers with choice  Get everything you need before sitting down  Eat meal within time allowed  Use restroom only when necessary  Use the restroom quickly  Take care of personal hygiene  Do not play in restroom  Know the recess choices for your class  Play games and use equipment as taught  Stick with the chosen activity  Silent voices  Space between people  Body faces forward  Avoid squeaking shoes Care for Property  Respect all property of self and others  Return materials in good condition to the proper place  Keep all areas as clean and neat as possible  Return dishes to washing area in a neat and orderly way  Keep walls and floors clean  Flush toilets when finished  Report damages or messes immediately  Use equipment as it is intended to be used  Keep balls inside the fence  Account for all equipment and bring it in  Keep hands off walls and displays  Wipe mud off of feet before entering the building  Avoid making black marks Deep-Down Kindness  Use kind words  Help and assist others  Include others  Work for the common good  Use good manners as you pass utensils and eat  Include others at the table in quiet and kind conversations  Thank others for serving and helping you  Allow other people privacy  Use kind words to others in the restroom  Report anything that is unkind, unsafe or unclean as a kindness to everyone using the restroom  Use words of a good sport (good game, nice job, your turn, etc.)  Include others in your play  Avoid racing to get ahead in line  Allow others to step into their place in line  Hold doors for others  Use “excuse me” when moving in front of someone Extreme Safety  Use words and problem- solving steps to handle conflicts  Follow safety rules  Use materials and equipment so as to not injure self or others (keep all chair legs on the floor)  Walk at all times  Avoid passing germs to others and their trays  Clean up all spills  Do not stand on toilets  Do not climb on stalls  Wash hands after use with soap and plenty of water  Dress appropriately for the weather  Use equipment as it is intended to be used  Throw and kick balls only if you are involved in the game  Stay inside the fence at all times  Walk at all times  Stay to the right side of the hallway  Keep arms at sides  Look before rounding a corner School Expectations Matrix- Overland Park Elementary

8 Class-Wide Function-based Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) Behavioral intervention to teach appropriate skills and reinforce use through game format Secondary Level Intervention (3-tiered Positive Behavior Support model) Designed to: – help students who need more than universal supports – be implemented at the class-wide level – incorporate individualized components – address attention – a common function of problem behavior – be implemented during “problem” times during the day

9 CW-FIT Components Class-wide Function-Based Intervention Teams ‘CW-FIT’ DRA/ Contingencies Self/Peer Management Extinction Teaching

10 Teaching Appropriate Behavior Direct instruction of skills: Define, model, teacher-student and student- student role play, feedback, practice 3-5 days teaching and practice Pre-correct at start of instruction Incidental teaching

11 Class-wide Function-Based Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) Teaching Component How to gain the teacher’s attention Following directions Ignoring inappropriate behaviors Other optional skill References: Tough Kid Social Skills; Utah State BEST Practices; Skillstreaming Curricula




15 CW-FIT Game Component Group Contingency Class Teams of 2-5 Students teams of 1 – Self-monitoring Token Economy Daily point goal set Points awarded every 2-5 minutes to groups in which all students are displaying behavioral skills at the beep Reward given at end of class to all groups who met goal Teacher Praise


17 Success In Schools Four Schools – Thirteen classrooms Approximately 235 students Three 5 th grade math classes One K, four 1 st, one 2 nd, one 3 rd Three middle school classes (one teacher for 2 science classes and 1 religion class)

18 Participants and settings Kansas City, MO Elementary Charter School 423 students Low SES – 94% free and reduced lunch 62% English Language Learners High number of office referrals Three 5 th Grade Math Classes Class 1, year 1, teacher w/2 years experience, 16 students Class 2, year 2, beginning teacher, 19 students Class 3, year 2, beginning teacher, 16 students

19 Procedures Researcher provided demonstration of teaching and CW-FIT game (2-3 sessions) Teachers assumed management of lessons, pre-corrects, game (points) CW-FIT used on a daily basis during math sessions, rewards extended to every 2 nd session

20 Results – Mr. L’s Math Class

21 Teacher Behaviors

22 Results for Students At Risk for SBD n = 17 (12 classrooms) Frequency of Disruptive Behaviors Baseline mean = 22.45 Intervention mean = 6.52 (ES = -1.35) Percentage of On Task Behavior Baseline mean = 61.7 Intervention mean = 85.4 (ES = 0.85)

23 Conclusions CW FIT improves behavior for many students CW FIT improves teacher attention to appropriate behaviors and usually reduces reprimands 1-2 Target students need additional tertiary level intervention Teachers have generalized use to subsequent school years and additional class periods

24 Behavior Education Program (Crone, Horner, & Hawken, 2004) Morning check-in (Get BEP Form) Give BEP form to each teacher prior to each period. End of day check-out Points tallied Reward BEP form copy taken home and signed Return signed copy next morning “Check In/Check Out”

25 Check In/Check Out Process Daily CICO Plan Morning Check-in Afternoon Check-out Daily Teacher Evaluation Home Check-in





30 Tertiary Level, Intensive Intervention 1) Increase secondary level intervention e.g., frequency, quality, level of reinforcement, individualize components OR 2) Functional assessment, hypothesis testing, functional analysis

31 “Functional Analysis and Function-based Intervention during Small Group Reading Instruction” (Shumate & Wills) Reading para-professional 20-min small group (5:1 ratio) 2 nd grade female, with inappropriate verbalizations and bids for teacher attention Her behaviors resulted in frequent disruption of the small group and a loss of academic time for her and the other students.

32 Procedures and Results Three FA conditions were: attention, escape, and play FA implemented by para with coaching by research staff FA results: problem behaviors maintained by teacher attention

33 Function-based intervention Non-contingent reinforcement procedure 1-min schedule Ignore all undesirable behaviors Attend to all “hand raising” Para self-monitoring of praise frequency Note: The para-professional reported that the functional analysis conditions were easy to run and the intervention was easy to implement.




37 How does School-wide PBS Impact Learning/Reading? Higher levels of engagement Lower levels of disruptive behaviors Improves school climate – more positive Higher ratios of praise to reprimands Combined small group & PBS dramatically increases student responses Provides behavior intervention for at risk/SBD e.g., contingency programs, social skills, self-management, check-in/check out

38 Lessons learned…so far School-wide early screening is essential There is a strong relationship between behavior and learning Establishing school-based teams that use data- based decision making is a major process change that reaps GREAT rewards Flexible scheduling of small groups and creative use of staff resources is a critical component of reading intervention It is effortful to change the way we do business (i.e., functional reading teams, PBS teams, data based decision making)


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