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**Convex Hull obstacle start end Convex Hull Convex Hull**

4/15/2017 4:51 AM Convex Hull obstacle start end Convex Hull

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**Outline and Reading Convex hull (§12.5.2) Orientation (§12.5.1-2)**

4/15/2017 4:51 AM Outline and Reading Convex hull (§12.5.2) Orientation (§ ) Sorting by angle (§12.5.5) Graham scan (§12.5.5) Analysis (§12.5.5) Convex Hull

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Convex Hull 4/15/2017 4:51 AM Convex Polygon A convex polygon is a nonintersecting polygon whose internal angles are all convex (i.e., less than p) In a convex polygon, a segment joining two vertices of the polygon lies entirely inside the polygon convex nonconvex Convex Hull

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Convex Hull 4/15/2017 4:51 AM Convex Hull The convex hull of a set of points is the smallest convex polygon containing the points Think of a rubber band snapping around the points Convex Hull

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**Special Cases The convex hull is a segment The convex hull is a point**

4/15/2017 4:51 AM Special Cases The convex hull is a segment Two points All the points are collinear The convex hull is a point there is one point All the points are coincident Convex Hull

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**Applications Motion planning Geometric algorithms obstacle start end**

Convex Hull 4/15/2017 4:51 AM Applications Motion planning Find an optimal route that avoids obstacles for a robot Geometric algorithms Convex hull is like a two-dimensional sorting obstacle start end Convex Hull

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**Computing the Convex Hull**

4/15/2017 4:51 AM Computing the Convex Hull The following method computes the convex hull of a set of points Phase 1: Find the lowest point (anchor point) Phase 2: Form a nonintersecting polygon by sorting the points counterclockwise around the anchor point Phase 3: While the polygon has a nonconvex vertex, remove it Convex Hull

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**Orientation b c CW a c b CCW a c b COLL a**

Convex Hull 4/15/2017 4:51 AM Orientation The orientation of three points in the plane is clockwise, counterclockwise, or collinear orientation(a, b, c) clockwise (CW, right turn) counterclockwise (CCW, left turn) collinear (COLL, no turn) The orientation of three points is characterized by the sign of the determinant D(a, b, c), whose absolute value is twice the area of the triangle with vertices a, b and c a b c CW c b CCW a c b a COLL Convex Hull

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Convex Hull 4/15/2017 4:51 AM Sorting by Angle Computing angles from coordinates is complex and leads to numerical inaccuracy We can sort a set of points by angle with respect to the anchor point a using a comparator based on the orientation function b < c orientation(a, b, c) = CCW b = c orientation(a, b, c) = COLL b > c orientation(a, b, c) = CW CCW COLL CW c c b b b c a a a Convex Hull

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**Removing Nonconvex Vertices**

Convex Hull 4/15/2017 4:51 AM Removing Nonconvex Vertices Testing whether a vertex is convex can be done using the orientation function Let p, q and r be three consecutive vertices of a polygon, in counterclockwise order q convex orientation(p, q, r) = CCW q nonconvex orientation(p, q, r) = CW or COLL r r q q p p Convex Hull

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**Graham Scan p q r H p q r H p q r H for each vertex r of the polygon**

Convex Hull 4/15/2017 4:51 AM Graham Scan The Graham scan is a systematic procedure for removing nonconvex vertices from a polygon The polygon is traversed counterclockwise and a sequence H of vertices is maintained for each vertex r of the polygon Let q and p be the last and second last vertex of H while orientation(p, q, r) = CW or COLL remove q from H q p p vertex preceding p in H Add r to the end of H p q r H p q r H p q r H Convex Hull

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Convex Hull 4/15/2017 4:51 AM Analysis Computing the convex hull of a set of points takes O(n log n) time Finding the anchor point takes O(n) time Sorting the points counterclockwise around the anchor point takes O(n log n) time Use the orientation comparator and any sorting algorithm that runs in O(n log n) time (e.g., heap-sort or merge-sort) The Graham scan takes O(n) time Each point is inserted once in sequence H Each vertex is removed at most once from sequence H Convex Hull

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**Incremental Convex Hull**

4/15/2017 4:51 AM Incremental Convex Hull q w u e z t Convex Hull

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**Outline and Reading Point location Incremental convex hull Problem**

4/15/2017 4:51 AM Outline and Reading Point location Problem Data structure Incremental convex hull Insertion algorithm Analysis Convex Hull

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Convex Hull 4/15/2017 4:51 AM Point Location TH Given a convex polygon P, a point location query locate(q) determines whether a query point q is inside (IN), outside (OUT), or on the boundary (ON) of P An efficient data structure for point location stores the top and bottom chains of P in two binary search trees, TL and TH of logarithmic height An internal node stores a pair (x (v), v) where v is a vertex and x (v) is its x-coordinate An external node represents an edge or an empty half-plane P TL Convex Hull

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**Point Location (cont.) TH eH P q vL TL**

Convex Hull 4/15/2017 4:51 AM Point Location (cont.) TH To perform locate(q), we search for x(q) in TL and TH to find Edge eL or vertex vL on the lower chain of P whose horizontal span includes x(q) Edge eH or vertex vH on the upper chain of P whose horizontal span includes x(q) We consider four cases If no such edges/vertices exist, we return OUT Else if q is on eL (vL) or on eH (vH), we return ON Else if q is above eL (vL) and below eH (vH), we return IN Else, we return OUT eH P q vL TL Convex Hull

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**Incremental Convex Hull**

4/15/2017 4:51 AM Incremental Convex Hull The incremental convex hull problem consists of performing a series of the following operations on a set S of points locate(q): determines if query point q is inside, outside or on the convex hull of S insert(q): inserts a new point q into S hull(): returns the convex hull of S Incremental convex hull data structure We store the points of the convex hull and discard the other points We store the hull points in two red-black trees TL for the lower hull TH for the upper hull Convex Hull

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Convex Hull 4/15/2017 4:51 AM Insertion of a Point In operation insert(q), we consider four cases that depend on the location of point q A IN or ON: no change B OUT and above: add q to the upper hull C OUT and below: add q to the lower hull D OUT and left or right: add q to the lower and upper hull A C D Convex Hull

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**Insertion of a Point (cont.)**

Convex Hull 4/15/2017 4:51 AM Insertion of a Point (cont.) q Algorithm to add a vertex q to the upper hull chain in Case B (boundary conditions omitted for simplicity) We find the edge e (vertex v) whose horizontal span includes q w left endpoint (neighbor) of e (v) z left neighbor of w While orientation(q, w, z) = CW or COLL We remove vertex w w z u right endpoint (neighbor) of e (v) t right neighbor of u While orientation(t, u, q) = CW or COLL We remove vertex u u t We add vertex q w e u z t q w u z t Convex Hull

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**Analysis Let n be the current size of the convex hull**

4/15/2017 4:51 AM Analysis Let n be the current size of the convex hull Operation locate takes O(log n) time Operation insert takes O((1 + k)log n) time, where k is the number of vertices removed Operation hull takes O(n) time The amortized running time of operation insert is O(log n) Convex Hull

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