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Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 VSEC Seminar March 26, 27 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 VSEC Seminar March 26, 27 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 VSEC Seminar March 26, Virginia Beach, VA Richmond, VA David DeSutter, P.E. Director of Engineering and Customer Service EFCO Corporation Mitch Snead The Snead Company

2 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 VSEC Seminar March 26, Virginia Beach, VA Richmond, VA Better Communication = Better Overall Structure Pondering Point: During a “design event,” the typical commercial “window” will fail due to either improper anchorage or under-designed surrounding conditions.

3 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 VSEC Seminar March 26, Curtain Wall vs. Storefront (General, Construction, Connection and Anchors) Curtain Wall Performance – Wind, Snow, Seismic, Thermal, Impact, Blast CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Need) CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Get) CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Assume) CW Analysis, Rules of Thumb Reference Information

4 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Available in three basic variations (“plane of glass”): outside set, center set (a.k.a..flush glaze), and inside set. Storefront OUTSIDE SET (S945) CENTER SET (S403) INSIDE SET (S433)

5 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Most Storefront is available in three (3) configurations (“glazing method”): Outside glazedInside glazedVertical SSG glazed Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Storefront

6 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Most Storefront is available in two (2) types of connections (“installation method”): Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Storefront

7 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Most Storefront is available in limited widths and depths: 2” – 3” in width 4” – 6 ½” in depth Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Storefront

8 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Curtain Wall Primarily available in one basic variation (“plane of glass”):

9 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Curtain Wall Primarily available in three (3) basic configurations (“glazing method”): Outside glazedInside glazedStructurally glazed

10 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Curtain Wall Primarily available in two (3) basic connections (“installation method”): Shear BlockScrew Spline“Unitized”

11 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Curtain Wall Options, Options, Options

12 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Water Performance SystemWater Control Curtain Wall“Zone Pressure Equalized” StorefrontDiverting Water through entire system

13 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Water Performance – Curtain Wall

14 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Water Performance – Storefront

15 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Water Performance – Storefront

16 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Curtain Wall Anchors – Head & Sill Anchor Bolts Control! Direct Load Path to MWFRS R wl Movement Allowances Unlimited (?)

17 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Anchor Bolts Control! Curtain Wall Anchors – Head & Sill

18 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Curtain Wall Anchors – Intermediate/Slabs R wl

19 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Curtain Wall Anchors – Intermediate/Slabs R wl “Wind Load” Anchor = Roller Support “Dead Load” Anchor = Pin Support

20 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall vs. Storefront - General Connections Control! Storefront Anchors – Head, Sill & Jambs Indirect Load Path to MWFRS R wl Limited Movement (1/8” max)

21 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 VSEC Seminar March 26, Curtain Wall vs. Storefront (General, Construction, Connection and Anchors) Curtain Wall Performance – Wind, Snow, Seismic, Thermal, Impact, Blast CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Need) CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Get) CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Assume) CW Analysis, Rules of Thumb Reference Information

22 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast Wind Considerations “Components and Cladding” provisions of ASCE 7 or Appropriate Building Code Corner Zones are Important! $ Industry Standard Deflection Limits: L/175 (span = 13’ – 6”) Accurate span information (dimensions), location of appropriate anchors! $$$$ Aluminum Association ASD/LRFD Goal: Transfer all wind forces to MWFRS WL Reactions: 200 lbf to 3,500 lbf per anchor is typical

23 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast Snow Considerations Flat Roof Snow Loads + Drift Surcharge on Bladed Sunshades is (?) Mullion Attachment Typical for Sunshades Goal: Transfer all snow forces to curtain wall system, then to MWFRS Effect of Snow on Reactions: Little effect to MWFRS

24 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast Seismic Considerations Racking of CW – Engineer of Record Must Provide Calculated Interstory Drift! Controlled “Fallout” is the Standard (  Fallout in ASCE 7) Ps

25 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast Seismic Considerations Shear Forces per ASCE 7 Calculate Fp =.4a p (S ds )Wp/(Rp/Ip) (1+2(z/h)) Fp= Seismic force acting at centroid of mullion, with load evenly distributed along length of mullion –Fp acts the same as the wind load –Varies for perimeter anchors –Determine Deflection, Stress of frame member –Can be problematic for intermediate wind load anchors

26 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast Seismic Considerations Racking of CW Shear Forces per ASCE 7 Goal: Transfer all seismic forces to MWFRS Seismic Reactions: Usually 50% of WL (200 lbf to 3,500 lbf per anchor is typical), but in-plane along weak axis

27 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast Thermal/Vertical Movement Considerations CW Mullions Buckle Easily Must Account for all Vertical Movement (Thermal + Building Movement) $$$$ Must Maintain Integrity of Perimeter Sealant Joint and Satisify Architectural Aesthetics Sealant Joint RoT = ½ x Joint Width (Compression/Tension) “Standard” System (no “Bells & Whistles”) good for +/- ¼” to ½” +/-!!

28 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast Thermal/Vertical Movement Considerations Total VM = Thermal + LL + CS + Creep + DL Thermal Glass contact controls

29 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast Thermal/Vertical Movement Considerations

30 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast Thermal/Vertical Movement Considerations Thermal + Slab Movement

31 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast Thermal/Vertical Movement Considerations Goal: Avoid all thermal forces to MWFRS

32 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast Impact Considerations Large Missile <30’ (ASTM E1996 and 1886) Small Missile >30’ (ASTM E1996/1886) Large Missile Dependant on Wind Speed! Identify Windborne Debris Region 1.Areas within one mile of the coastal mean high water line where the basic wind speed is equal to or greater than 110 mph and Hawaii 2.Areas where the basic wind speed is equal to or greater than 120 mph

33 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast

34 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Part D. Missile Guidelines Large and Small Missile Impact per ASTM E EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 ASTM E Missile Level Missile Impact Speed A (10) 2 gram steel balls 130 f/s (39.62 m/s) B 2 lb. 2 x 4 (1’-9”)lumber 50 f/s (15.25 m/s) C 4.5 lb 2 x 4 (4’) lumber 40 f/s (12.19 m/s) D 9 lb 2 x 4” (8’) lumber 50 f/s (15.25 m/s) E 9 lb. 2 x 4 (8’) lumber 80 f/s (24.38 m/s)

35 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Part D. Missile Guidelines Large and Small Missile Impact per ASTM E EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 ASTM E Missile Level Missile Impact Speed A (10) 2 gram steel balls 130 f/s (39.62 m/s) B 2 lb. 2 x 4 (1’-9”)lumber 50 f/s (15.25 m/s) C 4.5 lb 2 x 4 (4’) lumber 40 f/s (12.19 m/s) D 9 lb 2 x 4” (8’) lumber 50 f/s (15.25 m/s) E 9 lb. 2 x 4 (8’) lumber 80 f/s (24.38 m/s) Many projects will require level “C” or below

36 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Part D. Missile Guidelines Large and Small Missile Impact per ASTM E EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 ASTM E Missile Level Missile Impact Speed A (10) 2 gram steel balls 130 f/s (39.62 m/s) B 2 lb. 2 x 4 (1’-9”)lumber 50 f/s (15.25 m/s) C 4.5 lb 2 x 4 (4’) lumber 40 f/s (12.19 m/s) D 9 lb 2 x 4” (8’) lumber 50 f/s (15.25 m/s) E 9 lb. 2 x 4 (8’) lumber 80 f/s (24.38 m/s)

37 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Part D. Missile Guidelines Large and Small Missile Impact per ASTM E EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 ASTM E Assembly Height Enhanced Protection Basic Protection Wind Zone 1 C A D D Wind Zone 2 C A D D Wind Zone 3 D A E D Wind Zone 4 D A E D 30 ft 110 < Wind < 120 Basic Wind Speed (MPH)

38 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Part E. ASTM vs. Florida Building Code Large and Small Missile Impact per FBC/TAS 201 & 203 EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Pass/Fail per FBC and/or Dade/Broward Counties, Florida The specimen shall resist the impact and cyclic loading with no tear formed longer than 5” and 1/16” in width through which air can pass. All specimens have to be tested at the Florida Approved Lab. TAS can NOT be tested at EFCO If any specimen fails to meet the requirements, the set of specimens is rejected. A retest of all (3) specimens is permitted. Cyclic Loading Identical to ASTM E 1886 Small Missile Impact Large Missile Impact

39 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast Goal: Prevent Loss of Glass Bite Reactions: Little to no effect to MWFRS due to impact Impact Considerations Large Missile <30’ (ASTM E1996 and 1886) Small Missile >30’ (ASTM E1996/1886) Large Missile Dependant on Wind Speed! Identify Windborne Debris Region

40 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast Blast Considerations Method 1: DoD UFC = Prescriptive for “Low” or “Very Low” Level of Protection Method 2: Design for Specific Blast Load and Specific Level of Protection

41 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast

42 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast

43 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance Wind, Snow, Seismic/Drift, Thermal/VM, Impact and Blast Blast Considerations Goal: Transfer Blast Loads to MWFRS Reactions: Up to 20,000 lbf per anchor (extremely short duration)! Wood, stud and masonry construction should be avoided for multi- lite or multi-span CW

44 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 VSEC Seminar March 26, Curtain Wall vs. Storefront (General, Construction, Connection and Anchors) Curtain Wall Performance – Wind, Snow, Seismic, Thermal, Impact, Blast CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Need) CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Get) CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Assume) CW Analysis, Rules of Thumb Reference Information

45 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Need Wind Considerations 1.Appropriate Code 2.Appropriate Exposure and Wind Speed 3.Accurate Span Information! 4.Appropriate Perimeter Condition (Structure) for “Higher” DP Regions

46 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Need VV T

47 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Need Snow Considerations 1.Appropriate Code 2.Appropriate Ground Snow Load and Drift Surcharge

48 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Need Seismic/Drift Considerations 1.Appropriate Code 2.Must, Must, Must have calculated interstory drift! 3.Must have S ds (Design Spectral Response Acceleration, ASCE 7, Section ) to calculate seismic shear.

49 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Need Thermal/VM Considerations 1.Total Vertical Deflection per Floor 2.Is the Total Vertical Deflection “Up and Down” or Different? 3.(The CW Manufacturer Will Add in the Thermal Movements)

50 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Need Impact Considerations 1.Appropriate Code (for DP) 2.Appropriate Wind Speed (Local Codes May Override Model BC) 3.Appropriate Perimeter Condition (Structure) for “Higher” DP Regions 4.Identify Windborne Debris Regions

51 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Need Blast Considerations 1.Charge and Standoff Distance or Blast Load and Impulse for “Blast Design” (DoD is prescriptive) 2.Appropriate Perimeter Condition (Structure) for Short Duration Blast Loads!

52 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Need Blast Considerations 10K – 20K

53 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 VSEC Seminar March 26, Curtain Wall vs. Storefront (General, Construction, Connection and Anchors) Curtain Wall Performance – Wind, Snow, Seismic, Thermal, Impact, Blast CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Need) CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Get) CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Assume) CW Analysis, Rules of Thumb Reference Information

54 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Get Wind Considerations 1.Appropriate Code [No code or conflicting wind speeds – ie. 3 second gust wind speeds with fastest mile code] 2.Appropriate Exposure and Wind Speed [Conflicting wind speeds] 3.Accurate Span Information [“Like pulling teeth”] 4.Appropriate Perimeter Condition (Structure) for “Higher” DP Regions [You be the judge - Plywood, 20 ga. Stud, face brick, masonry/concrete w/o edge distance are problematic] Manufacturers Bid Documents: 1.Take-off from installer 2.Plans (Architecturals, limited Structurals) and Specs

55 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Get Wind Considerations 3. Appropriate Perimeter Condition (Structure) for “Higher” DP Regions [Is this lintel able to handle the wind loads?.] 200# - 3,500#

56 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Get Wind Considerations 3. Appropriate Perimeter Condition (Structure) for “Higher” DP Regions [Can this masonry handle these loads? If so, it is very difficult for the CW anchor to hit the center of the cell.] 200# - 3,500#

57 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Get Wind Considerations 3. Appropriate Perimeter Condition (Structure) for “Higher” DP Regions [No doubt the concrete can handle the wind loads, but maintaining edge distance is impossible w/o customization.] 200# - 3,500#

58 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Get Snow Considerations 1.Appropriate Code [Code is identified 50% of time.] 2.Appropriate Ground Snow Load [Ground snow load is specified in some cases, drift surcharge is rarely, if ever specified…]

59 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Get Seismic/Drift Considerations 1.Appropriate Code [Typical spec: “Curtain wall system must be designed to resist appropriate seismic forces and displacements…..”] 2.Must, Must, Must have calculated interstory drift. [See above.] 3.Must have Design Spectral Response Acceleration (S ds ) variable to calculate seismic shear (ASCE 7, Section ) [This is rarely, if ever provided in specifications]

60 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Get Thermal/VM Considerations 1.Total Vertical Deflection per Floor (not the Allowable by Code!) [Sometimes we get the LL, column shortening and creep as a maximum for all floors, all spans. Most of the time, spec reads: “…curtain wall system must be designed to accommodate deflections including, but not limited to live load, dead load, column shortening, creep and thermal expansion and contraction of the curtain wall system assuming a temperature differential of 180 deg F…”] 2.Is the Total Vertical Deflection “Up and Down” or Different? [Rarely get different values for “up” and “down,” see above] 3.(The CW Manufacturer Will Add in the Thermal Movements)

61 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Get Impact Considerations 1.Appropriate Code (for DP) [No code or conflicting wind speeds – ie. 3 second gust wind speeds with fastest mile code] 2.Appropriate Wind Speed (Local Codes May Override Model BC) [Conflicting wind speeds] 3.Appropriate Perimeter Condition (Structure) for “Higher” DP Regions [You be the judge…]

62 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Get Blast Considerations 1.Charge and Standoff Distance or Blast Load and Impulse for “Blast Design” (DoD is prescriptive) [Rarely if ever specified…] 2.Appropriate Perimeter Condition (Structure) for Short Duration Blast Loads! [Our opinion is the perimeter structure is generally ignored for windows and CW for blast projects …] 10,000# +

63 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008

64 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 VSEC Seminar March 26, Curtain Wall vs. Storefront (General, Construction, Connection and Anchors) Curtain Wall Performance – Wind, Snow, Seismic, Thermal, Impact, Blast CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Need) CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Get) CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Assume) CW Analysis, Rules of Thumb Reference Information

65 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Assume Wind Considerations 1.Appropriate Code [No code or conflicting wind speeds – ie. 3 second gust wind speeds with fastest mile code] [Assume latest ASCE 7.] 2.Appropriate Exposure and Wind Speed [Conflicting wind speeds] [Assume an Exposure Cat. (usually “C”) and wind speed based on map.] 3.Accurate Span Information [“Like pulling teeth”] [“Quote and qualify” then hope for the best and plan for the worst] 4.Appropriate Perimeter Condition (Structure) for “Higher” DP Regions [You be the judge - Plywood, 20 ga. Stud, face brick, masonry/concrete w/o edge distance are problematic] [Assume that condition will support loads, assume architect passes info to engineer of record.]

66 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Assume Wind Considerations 3. Appropriate Perimeter Condition (Structure) for “Higher” DP Regions [Plywood, 20 ga. Stud, face brick, masonry/concrete w/o edge distance and lintels.] [Assume that condition will support loads, address water concern, redesign anchor as necessary, assume architect passes info to engineer of record.] 200# - 3,500#

67 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Assume Wind Considerations 3. Appropriate Perimeter Condition (Structure) for “Higher” DP Regions [Plywood, 20 ga. Stud, face brick, masonry/concrete w/o edge distance and lintels.] [Assume that condition will support loads, redesign anchor as necessary, assume architect passes info to engineer of record.] 200# - 3,500#

68 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Assume Wind Considerations 3. Appropriate Perimeter Condition (Structure) for “Higher” DP Regions [Plywood, 20 ga. Stud, face brick, masonry/concrete w/o edge distance and lintels.] [Assume that condition will support loads, redesign anchor as necessary, assume architect passes info to engineer of record.] 200# - 3,500#

69 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Assume Snow Considerations 1.Appropriate Code [Code is identified 50% of time.] [Assume ASCE 7] 2.Appropriate Ground Snow Load [Ground snow load is specified in some cases, drift surcharge is rarely, if ever specified…] [Assume ground snow loads in ASCE 7, use best judgment on drift surcharge.]

70 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Assume Seismic/Drift Considerations 1.Appropriate Code [Typical spec: “Curtain wall system must be designed to resist appropriate seismic forces and displacements…..”] [Assume ASCE 7, but……..] 2.Must, Must, Must have calculated interstory drift. [See above.] [Assume that our “standard” performance for  fallout is less than the calculated interstory drift, communicate to architect, assume that this information is passed to Engineer of Record. This information is rarely provided.] 3.Must have Design Spectral Response Acceleration (S ds ) variable to calculate seismic shear (ASCE 7, Section ) [This is rarely, if ever provided in specifications] [Make a call to customer/architect. Thus far, this information is almost always provided.]

71 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Assume Thermal/VM Considerations 1.Total Vertical Deflection per Floor (not the Allowable by Code!) [Sometimes we get the LL, column shortening and creep as a maximum for all floors, all spans. Most of the time, spec reads: “…curtain wall system must be designed to accommodate deflections including, but not limited to live load, dead load, column shortening, creep and thermal expansion and contraction of the curtain wall system assuming a temperature differential of 180 deg F…”] [Assume that our standard system as quoted will meet the requirement - bad assumption. Hard splice everywhere possible to minimize moving joints. Use realistic  F.] 2.Is the Total Vertical Deflection “Up and Down” or Different? [Rarely get different values for “up” and “down,” see above] [Assume same “up” and “down” deflections.] 3.(The CW Manufacturer Will Add in the Thermal Movements) […using “realistic”  F…]

72 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Assume Impact Considerations 1.Appropriate Code (for DP) [No code or conflicting wind speeds – ie. 3 second gust wind speeds with fastest mile code] [Use ASCE 7.] 2.Appropriate Wind Speed (Local Codes May Override Model BC) [Conflicting wind speeds] [Use ASCE 7 wind speed map.] 3.Appropriate Perimeter Condition (Structure) for “Higher” DP Regions [You be the judge…] [Assume that condition will support loads, assume architect passes info to engineer of record.]

73 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Performance What We (Manufacturers) Assume Blast Considerations 1.Charge and Standoff Distance or Blast Load and Impulse for “Blast Design” (DoD is prescriptive) [Rarely if ever specified…] 2.Appropriate Perimeter Condition (Structure) for Short Duration Blast Loads! [Our opinion is the perimeter structure is ignored…] [Assume that condition will support loads, design anchor and connection accordingly, assume architect passes info to engineer of record. Bad assumption in the case below…] 10K – 20K

74 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 VSEC Seminar March 26, Curtain Wall vs. Storefront (General, Construction, Connection and Anchors) Curtain Wall Performance – Wind, Snow, Seismic, Thermal, Impact, Blast CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Need) CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Get) CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Assume) CW Analysis, Rules of Thumb Reference Information

75 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Analysis, Rules of Thumb Basic Assumptions for the Engineer of Record When Considering CW: 1.DL of CW = 10 lb/sf 2.Assume 1/8” per 10’ of span for thermal movement 3.CW engineers assume combination of pin and roller connections 4.Most “Box Stock” CW system can only handle ¼” to ½” of total vertical movement (w/o customization). 5.Typical CW is spliced (hinged) at every 20’ 6.CW/SF is very resistant to (seismic) drift, but very difficult to calculate 7.Post tension conc. slabs with minimal cover cause severe pain to CW engineers (typ. anchor bolt embedment > 2 ½”)

76 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Curtain Wall Analysis, Rules of Thumb

77 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008

78 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008

79 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008

80 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 VSEC Seminar March 26, Curtain Wall vs. Storefront (General, Construction, Connection and Anchors) Curtain Wall Performance – Wind, Snow, Seismic, Thermal, Impact, Blast CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Need) CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Get) CW/SF Manufacturer’s Design Considerations (What We Assume) CW Analysis, Rules of Thumb Reference Information

81 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 Reference Information

82 Manufacturer Of Architectural And Commercial Grade Windows, Curtain Walls, Entrances, And Storefronts EFCO UNIVERSITY 2008 What’s on Your Mind?


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