Presentation on theme: "WWII Alliance b/t USSR & US WWII alliances contributed to the development of the Cold War in 2 ways Tensions were high between the 2 countries b/c of."— Presentation transcript:
WWII Alliance b/t USSR & US WWII alliances contributed to the development of the Cold War in 2 ways Tensions were high between the 2 countries b/c of ideological differences. The USSR & US had competing goals for E. Europe post-war. –US- set up demo govs –USSR- create buffer states “Throughout history, Poland has been used as a corridor for assaults on Russia.”- said Stalin. This was his excuse to invade Poland, and then followed that with Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, & Romania Because of the invasions, any remaining goodwill disappeared.
Post-War European Econ & Mil Alliances Econ & mil alliances in Europe post-WWII led to development of the C.W. in 2 ways Economic alliances formed under Marshall Plan & COMECON hardened the divisions between these 2 –For US- econ aid essential to keep comm. from spreading beyond USSR. –For USSR- M.P was an attempt to spread cap. & bribe Europe to keep them demo. Military alliances formed by NATO & the Warsaw Pact meant the possibility of armed conflict & led to defensive armies throughout Euro.
Comm Rebellions in Greece & Turkey Comm rebellions in Gr. & Turk contributed to C.W. in 2 main ways. 1st, the rebellions inspired the Truman Doctrine- which justified US intervention in conflicts anywhere in the world in the name of containing comm. –T.D. became the framework for US policy in the nuclear age 2nd, they inspired an indirect confrontations b/t US & USSR- trademarks of C.W. –Any tensions b/t comm. & non-comm states were considered C.W. conflicts b/c they showed struggle b/t the 2 ideologies- even if no fighting occurred
Comm Development of Nuclear Weapons Development of nuclear weapons contributed to C.W. also. The USSR’s development of nukes meant they could compete with us as a mil. superpower- –With nukes behind them, USSR, could also keep control of the countries of under their sphere of influence (so-called Iron Curtain) The US & USSR began an arms race to try and get the most nukes. –This only made people on both sides more paranoid & afraid of each other Since both countries knew that nuclear war at this point would be MAD (mutually assured destruction) b/c they had enough to destroy the world many times over, they chose to fight each other by giving econ & mil aid to rival nations (proxy wars) –This way, no nuclear war, BUT increased tension all over the world.
The (Two) Berlin Crises The crises in Berlin added to the growth in the C.W. for 3 reasons. 1st, Berlin was located in Soviet territory & they felt they were entitled to full control over it. 2nd, The USSR’s decision to blockade W. Berlin when the West refused to turn it over to in 1948 the Soviets only made the relationship worse b/t the 2 superpowers. –USSR saw it as their territory & should be given to them. –The West saw the effects of the blockade & wondered how they could sentence their own people to starve. –US supply airlifts showed USSR, Berlin, & the world (baby!) that the US would take action against Soviet aggression 3rd, The Berlin Wall, built in 1961, gave visible proof to the division that existed b/t East & West- literally & symbolically. –USSR said it was for protection from West- but they shot people trying to escape to the West.
The Korean War The Korean War contributed to the C.W. in 2 ways. The war proved to Americans that the spread of comm. in Asia was a serious threat. Because of the K.W., both superpowers stepped up their competition around the globe. –Eventually this competition led to intervention in Asia, Africa, Lat. Am & the Mid East. As competition spread, poli. scientists began to see the world as bi-polar- either you were part of the American or Soviet sphere.
’56 Hungarian Rev & ’68 Prague Spring The Hun Rev & “ Prague Spring” contributed to the C.W. also. As the USSR closed its “iron curtain” around the countries under its domination, it only made the US (and the West) believe it had something to hide. The repression that the Soviets used against the protestors showed us that we had to keep up our fight against comm. from spreading. –It should be noted that when the Hungarians asked for help we refused to send troops, sending only $$ instead- Did this violate our T.D.? In 1968, Czechoslovakia’s president Alexander Dubcek attempted to reform the country by introducing free speech & freedom of assembly while retaining its comm govt The USSR responded by invading w/ Warsaw Pact troops & tanks. –They arrested the leaders of P.S. & replaced them w/ pro-Soviet leaders
McCarthyism The Birth of McC. In 1950, Joe McC was a Repub sen from WI looking for a way to promote his career- turned to anti-comm. Attracted national attention w/ claims of list of 205 comms in the state dept working on our f. p. People went crazy- and he got re-elected. (f.p. = foreign policy) Next 4 yrs looked for comms in areas of gov, entertain, & ed. As member of HUAC, bullied a stream of suspected comms- became most feared man in America The scapegoating (blaming innocent people) that surrounded his accusations came to be called “McCarthyism” McCarthy & the Cold War McCarthy had the (mis?)fortune to be a sen. right after a string of events hit the US China fell to comm. (1949) State Dept. official Alger Hiss had been accused of spying. USSR tested its first atomic bomb Rosenbergs were convicted & executed for spying (in ’53) Anti-Comm as Politics The Demo. Party soon lost popularity- seen as soft on comm. not “Red”, but “Pink” - even FDR’s New Deal was now viewed as comm. Treason Eisenhower won the ‘52 election by a landslide- Republicans (or at least conservatives were the answer to our country’s problems
Anti-Comm. Sentiment in US Society Anti-Comm. Sentiments Saturate America- Virtually all areas of US life during 50s were affected. Politics Anti-comm. campaign pushed the poli. spectrum far to the right (much like the ?) Any proposal that made govt. bigger was deemed comm. –1. Truman proposed a national health care system for all Am citizens in ’48, but opponents pointed out that Comms also favored this and defeated it in legislation –2. In the 50s, after Jonas Salk invented the polio vaccine it was suggested that it be distributed free to all school age children, but Ike’s secretary of health, education, & welfare called it “socialized medicine through the back door” so gov. funding of vaccinations was cut by 70%! Lawmaking Laws passed at all levels against comm. threat. –TX passes law makes comm. membership punishable by 20 yrs in prison (govt threatened veto, he wanted death!) –In NYC, citizens pledged their loyalty to get fishing licenses. –In IN, loyalty oaths were required before licenses given to pro wrestlers –Fed gov. passed the Comm. Control Act making membership in Communist Party illegal (passed unanimously) –The fed govt est’d 6 concentration camps to house suspected Comm. sympathizers in case we went to war. Education Anti-comm. hysteria impacted ed. also- teachers and profs required to swear loyalty oaths. Textbooks emphasized patriotic themes; promoted anti-comm. propaganda. –One warned students that unquestioning party members are everywhere, willing to engage in spying, sabotage. & promotion of unrest. –Another told students to report suspicious behavior to authorities Un-American books were banned and removed from library shelves.
Film Industry One of McCarthy’s prime targets was Hollywood- vigorously attacked by HUAC. –Many in industry blacklisted- banished from working- for refusing to cooperate with the committee. The Hollywood 10, group of writers, directors, & producers who refused to testify before Congress regarding their pol. beliefs or name names of other suspected comms became most famous blacklisted by the industry’s owners working w/ HUAC –Some of the 10 WERE comms, but remember- they had been our allies just a few years prior to this (at best they were misguided, it did not mean they wanted to overthrow our govt) – Others decided to prove their loyalty by founding the Motion Picture for the Preservation of American Ideals- Gary Cooper, John Wayne, & Walt Disney. They said if you’re not fighting comm., you’re helping comm. –In 1952, 12 anti-comm movies were made- Red Menace, Iron Fist, & Red Snow (which beat out the other favorite Yellow Snow- I kid, I kid!!)
The End of McCarthyism McC Falls Despite the hysteria, McC never proved his conspiracy charges- only that he had no scruples! As his allegations turned out to be false, his power fell & supporters abandoned him. McCarthy finally overreached himself when he attacked the U.S. Army for sheltering Communists. McC shouted at a general, whose loyalty was unquestioned: You are a disgrace to the uniform. You’re shielding communist conspirators…You’re not fit to be an officer. You’re ignorant.” After he had disgraced ordinary Americans, military officers, congressmen, & finally Pres. Ike, the Senate voted for his censure in 1954. He died of liver failure three years later- alienated from the very Americans whom he had tried to impress with his anti-comm grandstanding. Minimal Comm Party Membership One of the ironies of the anti-Comm hysteria of the McC era is that comm. never gained a foothold in the U.S.- never very many people anyway. US Comm Party membership in ’46 numbered 45K about same as the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church