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CSMA/CA in IEEE 802.11 1 Physical carrier sense, and Virtual carrier sense using Network Allocation Vector (NAV) NAV is updated based on overheard RTS/CTS/DATA/ACK.

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Presentation on theme: "CSMA/CA in IEEE 802.11 1 Physical carrier sense, and Virtual carrier sense using Network Allocation Vector (NAV) NAV is updated based on overheard RTS/CTS/DATA/ACK."— Presentation transcript:

1 CSMA/CA in IEEE Physical carrier sense, and Virtual carrier sense using Network Allocation Vector (NAV) NAV is updated based on overheard RTS/CTS/DATA/ACK packets, each of which specified duration of a pending transmission Nodes stay silent when carrier sensed (physical/virtual) Backoff intervals used to reduce collision probability

2 Backoff Interval 2 When transmitting a packet, choose a backoff interval in the range [0,cw] cw is contention window Count down the backoff interval when medium is idle Count-down is suspended if medium becomes busy When backoff interval reaches 0, transmit RTS

3 DCF Example 3 data wait B1 = 5 B2 = 15 B1 = 25 B2 = 20 data wait B1 and B2 are backoff intervals at nodes 1 and 2 cw = 31 B2 = 10

4 Backoff Interval 4 The time spent counting down backoff intervals is a part of MAC overhead Choosing a large cw leads to large backoff intervals and can result in larger overhead Choosing a small cw leads to a larger number of collisions (when two nodes count down to 0 simultaneously)

5 5 Since the number of nodes attempting to transmit simultaneously may change with time, some mechanism to manage contention is needed IEEE DCF: contention window cw is chosen dynamically depending on collision occurrence

6 Binary Exponential Backoff in DCF 6 When a node fails to receive CTS in response to its RTS, it increases the contention window cw is doubled (up to an upper bound) When a node successfully completes a data transfer, it restores cw to Cw min cw follows a sawtooth curve

7

8 Handoff

9 Scanning Phase in Current Handoff Process AP discovery by scanning Explicitly scan all channels Passive scan The client switches to a candidate channel and listens for periodic beacon packets from APs. Active scan The client actively broadcasts a probe packet on each channel to force APs to respond immediately. New AP selection Compare the signal strength

10 Problems in Handoff Approximate latencies for current handoff Scanning: ms Authentication: < 10 ms (Re)association: < 10 ms (w/o IAPP) The client only monitors the signal to the current AP and handoffs only after the service degrades below an acceptable threshold. Solutions Continuously monitoring the proximity of nearby APs ! Maintain AP neighboring graph


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