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Chapter 6 TCP Congestion Control Professor Rick Han University of Colorado at Boulder

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1 Chapter 6 TCP Congestion Control Professor Rick Han University of Colorado at Boulder

2 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder Announcements Read Sections , Skip 6.5 Hope to get HW #4 to you by Thursday Programming Assignment #2 due April 2 Midterm Still grading, a little long, time management also an issue, will be curved, hope to get back by Thursday but may have to wait until April 2 Next, more on TCP

3 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder Recap of Previous Lecture TCP: Transmission Control Protocol Three-way handshake SYN and SYN/ACK exchange FIN and FIN/ACK exchange TCP State Machine: Setup Established Tear-Down TCP Segments Sequence # is # of lowest byte Cumulative ACK TCP Flow Control Receiver advertises window

4 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder TCP Adaptive Retransmission TCP achieves reliability by retransmitting segments after: –A Timeout –Receiving 3 duplicate cumulative ACK’s Two out-of-order segments arrive at receiver, but lowest unacknowledged segment has yet to arrive Receiver repeats its highest received cumulative sequence # - - hence duplicate cumulative ACK’s Doesn’t wait for timeout : “fast retransmit” Choosing the value of the Timeout –If too small, retransmit unnecessarily –If too large, poor throughput –Make this adaptive, to respond to changing congestion delays in Internet

5 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder Initial Round-trip Estimator Round trip times exponentially averaged: –New RTT estimate =  (old RTT estimate) + (1 -  ) (new RTT) –Recommended value for  : for most TCP’s Retransmission Timeout RTO =  RTT, where  = 2 –Thought to be large enough to provide enough cushion to prevent spurious retransmissions –…and small enough to keep throughput high –Every time the timer expires, retransmit segment

6 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder RTT Retransmission Ambiguity AB ACK Sample RTT Original transmission retransmission RTO AB Original transmission retransmission Sample RTT ACK RTO X

7 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder Karn/Partridge’s modified RTT Estimator Basic problem: –If a sender has retransmitted a segment, then ACK for that segment may correspond to any of the retransmissions Is RTT for first transmission or retransmission? Solution: –Each time a segment is retransmitted: Don’t average the RTT estimate with the current RTT sample Also, Double the RTO – exponential backoff like Ethernet, assuming that the packet loss was due to congestion. –If a segment was ACK’ed after one transmission Recalculate RTT estimate and RTO

8 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder Jacobson/Karel’s Retransmission Timeout Key observation: –Original smoothed RTT can’t keep up with wide/rapid variations in RTT Solution: –Base RTO on both the average RTT and variance/standard deviation of RTT estimate –Should have the property that: When stddev is large, want RTO to stay above the rapid oscillations and not timeout too often –i.e. set RTO = Average RTT + N*stddev When stddev is small, stay close to average RTT

9 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder Jacobson/Karel’s Retransmission Timeout (2) Err = current RTT – old Ave RTT A Next A = old A + g*Err, g=0.125 Next Std Dev D = old D + h*(|Err|-old D), h=0.25 RTO = A + 4 * Next D

10 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder TCP Congestion Control Flow control addresses congestion at receiver, not in middle of network Suppose you initially send up to the size of flow control window –Intermediate routers may not be able to handle so much traffic –Congestion overflows router buffers causing lost packets causing retransmissions causing more congestion – congestion collapse in late 80’s Van Jacobsen observation: –Send only enough packets into the network that the network has the capacity to handle without loss

11 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder TCP Congestion Control (2) Define a congestion window CW –Distinct from flow control window FW –Actual window size W = min (CW, FW) # of data bytes that can be on the link If receiver is slowest, then W = FW Else if network is slowest, then W = CW Send no more data than the bottleneck can handle

12 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder TCP Congestion Control (3) How does sender set CW? –Adaptively probe the network with data segments –Keep expanding the window until a segment is lost, then contract window. –Continue with expand/contract cycle throughout connection – “sawtooth” behavior Rate time

13 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder TCP “Slow” Start The rate at which new packets should be injected into network is the rate at which ACKs are returned by other end Use ACK’s to pace transmission of packets: “self- clocking” Start by setting CW = 1 segment (in bytes) Initial segment size set by receiver For each ACK that returns, increment CW by one. Send 1 packet. When ACK returns, increment CW, CW=2 Send 2 packets. When 1 st ACK returns, increment CW to CW=3, when 2 nd ACK returns, increment CW to CW=4 Can send 4 packets. After 4 ACKs return, CW will be up to 8 Exponential increase – not “slow”, quickly reach window size that the network can accommodate

14 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder TCP Slow Start CW=1 CW=2 CW=4 CW=3 CW=8

15 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder TCP Additive Increase/ Multiplicative Decrease How does a sender detect that CW is too large? It starts to see timeouts, which are interpreted as packet loss due to congestion After a timeout: TCP remembers that congestion occurred near CW by storing CW/2 in ssthresh = CW/2 ssthresh = Slow Start Threshold TCP drastically resets CW=1 and slow starts again But TCP exponentially increases only to ssthresh, halfway to old congestion mark After CW>ssthresh, additively increase CW Rationale: Be cautious about sending new data packets once you get near old mark that caused timeouts/congestion

16 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder TCP Additive Increase/ Multiplicative Decrease (2) Additive increase: –If entire window’s worth (CW) of packets in a RTT is ACKed w/o error, then increment CW by one –In practice, TCP adds  /CW to CW as each ACK returns, rather than waiting for a full CW of ACKs to return

17 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder TCP Additive Increase CW=1 CW=2 CW=3 CW=4

18 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder TCP Additive Increase/ Multiplicative Decrease (3) Why not just slow start exclusively (exponential increase) after timeout, instead of additive increase? Rationale: Be more cautious about adding new packets once you’re near old congestion point, so don’t do exponential increase exclusively Each time a timeout occurs, divide CW by half and store in ssthresh: multiplicative decrease Minimum ssthresh and minimum CW is one

19 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder TCP Additive Increase/ Multiplicative Decrease (4) Why not additive decrease instead of multiplicative decrease after congestion? Consequences of having a too-large congestion window are worse than having a too-small CW Adds to congestion Additive decrease can keep CW too large for too long compared to multiplicative decrease

20 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder TCP Saw Tooth Behavior Time Congestion Window Initial Slowstart Fast Retransmit and Recovery Slowstart to pace packets Timeouts may still occur Courtesy: Srini Seshan

21 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder TCP Additive Increase/ Multiplicative Decrease (5) What happens if the amount of unacknowledged data is greater than CW? –Can’t send new data –Retransmit unacknowledged data –Wait for ACKs for unacknowledged data to increase CW above size of unacknowledged data, then can send new data After a timeout, TCP slows down in two ways: –Congestion window collapses, restricting new data –RTO backs off exponentially, slowing down retransmission of old unacknowledged data

22 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder TCP Tahoe vs. TCP Reno TCP Tahoe –Slow start –Additive increase after hitting ssthresh –Multiplicative decrease and slow start after timeout –Fast Retransmit TCP Reno –TCP Tahoe + Fast Recovery –Observation: packet loss can be inferred not only by timeouts, but also by duplicate ACKs –Widely deployed on most UNIX systems, though SACK-TCP is now gaining prominence

23 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder TCP Tahoe vs. TCP Reno (2) How should TCP react if it receives duplicate cumulative ACKs? –This is a sign that some but not all packets are getting through to receiver, out of order –Don’t react as harshly as when there is a timeout If 3 duplicate ACKs are received, then infer that one segment has been lost –Retransmit immediately, rather than wait for a timeout : called Fast Retransmit –Cancel slow start, and drop CW to half its value (approximately) rather than to one : called Fast Recovery

24 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder TCP Saw Tooth Behavior Time Congestion Window Initial Slowstart Fast Retransmit and Recovery Slowstart to pace packets Timeouts may still occur Courtesy: Srini Seshan

25 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder Congestion Avoidance Congestion control: –Cycle of actively probing, transmitting more than the network can handle, then backing off Congestion avoidance: –Back off before there are packet losses –How can you tell that congestion is increasing? Look at RTT – is it expanding? Be informed by routers that there is congestion –Set a bit in the packet : DECbit

26 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder Congestion Avoidance (2) DECbit –Implemented in Digital Network Architecture (DNA) –Could be implemented in TCP/IP –Router sets a congestion bit, and receiver sends back ACK with a congestion bit set at the transport layer –If <50% of packets had congestion bit set, then add one to CW –If >50% of packets had congestion bit set, then decrease CW by 0.875

27 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder Congestion Avoidance (3) RED: Random Early Detection –Rather than explicitly setting a congestion bit, drop a packet before queues are completely full Controversial: why drop a packet until you have to? –Early signals to end host via timeout or duplicate ACK that router is getting full –Policy: If avg queue len <= minthresh, queue packet If minthresh < avg queue len < maxthresh, drop packet with probability p If avg queue len >= maxthresh, drop packet

28 Prof. Rick Han, University of Colorado at Boulder Congestion Avoidance (4) Source-based congestion avoidance: look at RTT and back off early in your transmissions –Example: during two RTTs, if avg RTT > (min RTT + max RTT)/2, then decrease CW by factor of 8 –Example: compare throughput, keep incrementing CW (CW[n+1]=CW+1) until: if send rate at RTT(n+1) < 0.5*send rate at RTT(n), then decrease CW by one


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