2Key Components of a Radar System TransmitterElectronic device used to generate the microwave EM energy transmitted by the radarReceiverElectronic device used to detect the microwave pulse that is reflected by the area being imaged by the radarAntennaElectronic component through which microwave pulses are transmitted and received
3CW radarsRange MeasurementsTarget speed MeasurementsFrequency-modulation (FM)Doppler shiftThe transmitted wave is varied and range is determined by observing the lag in time between this modulation and the corresponding modulation of the received echoes.
4An X-band Doppler transceiver Doppler ShiftSmall, low-power versions of CW Doppler radars are used as:Speed sensors (police radar)Vehicle detectors for traffic controlProximity fuzes in rockets, bombs, and projectiles.In these applications:The range to the target is usually smallThe loss in sensitivity because of the use of a single antenna is acceptable .M/A-COM Gunnplexer Doppler transceiver, which packs a transmitter, ferrite circulator, and mixer into a single module.An X-band Doppler transceiverMechanical tuning coarsely sets frequency, whereas fine tuning and AFC can be provided by modulating the operating voltage. (U.S. Army photo.)
5A Gunn oscillator is the basic transmitter, which is coupled to a single antenna through the circulator. Transmitter power reflected back from the antenna port acts as the local oscillator into the single balanced mixer (an adjustable screw allows intentional standing-wave ratio (SWR) mismatch to force an adequate level of return signal).The addition of an antenna, frequency meter, and a direct-current (DC) power source completes the radar.Block diagram for a simple single-antenna CW Doppler radar based on a Doppler transceiver.CW Radar: w.r.t Pulsed radar-Less complex - Low cost - Lower operating voltage, and in some cases (high power) uses two antennas (Wastes in area)
6Pulsed radar The pulsed radar transmitter: Generates powerful pulses of EM energy at precise intervalsHigh-power microwave oscillator (magnetron)Microwave amplifier (klystron), supplied by a low-power RF sourceModulator:Properly-timed, high-amplitude, rectangular pulseHigh-power oscillatorSwitches the oscillator on and offMicrowave power amplifierActivates the amplifier just before the arrival of an electromagnetic pulse from a preceding stage or a frequency-generation source.
7In Amplifiers, the modulator pulse is supplied to the cathode of the power tube and the plate is at ground potential to shield personnel from shock hazards because of the extremely high voltage involved.The modulator pulse may be more than 100 KV in high-power radar transmitters.Radar transmitters produce:Voltages, currents, and radiation hazards that are extremely dangerous to personnel. Safety precautions must always be strictly observed when working in or around a radar transmitter
8Common Features of Radar Transmitter It is usually large fraction of radar systemHigh costLarge sizeHeavyRequires significant effortsIt requires a major share of system prime power and maintenance, because Radars are required to generate so much power outputMost people prefer to keep away from it
9R4 P × A × T Range & Power Relation R Detection Range P Transmitter PowerA Aperture areaT Scanning time (the time allowed to scan the required solid angle of coverage which limits how long the signal in each direction can be collected and integrated to improve S/N)
10Reduce the total system cost P & A Trade offHuge & Costly AntennaTiny inexpensive TransmitterNo senseDoubling the Tiny partCutting the huge part in halfReduce the total system costReasonable balance (according to the application) minimizing the total cost
11Pr × Ar R2 Pj × Aj Target carrying self-screening Jammer Pr & Ar are still the driving factorsBalanced System Design Results in Significant Transmitter PowerMax Radar Performance pushed the antenna aperture A and the transmitter power P to max affordable values
12Common Microwave Components of Radar Transmitters Wave Guide ComponentsHigh power Microwave GenerationsOscillators (Magnetron)AmplifiersModulators
13Wave Guide Concepts and features Pipe through which waves propagateCan have various cross sectionsRectangularCircularEllipticalCan be rigid or flexibleWaveguides have very low lossHigh PowerYXZabWaveguide can handle power levels far in excess of coaxial line ratings.Because there is no center conductor, waveguide is much less susceptible to shock and vibration during shipping and installation. No center conductor means no insulators and consequently lower loss.
14Metallic waveguides can transport a significant power Metallic waveguides can transport a significant power. Its value depends on the medium filling the guide, surface quality, humidity, pressure, possible temperature elevation, and frequency. If the guide is filled with dry air, the electric field may not go beyond 3 MV/m, which correspondsto a power range of 10 MWat 4GHz and 100 kW at 40 GHz. Discontinuities and irregularities in the waveguide may impose a security factor of 4 or more. Furthermore, losses in copper walls are of the order of 0.03 dB/m at 4GHz and 0.75 dB/m at 40GHz (5).
15TE10 Mode Mode with lowest cutoff frequency is dominant mode Single mode propagation is highly desirable to reduce dispersionThis occurs between cutoff frequency for TE10 mode and twice that frequency
19Hybrid TeeThe hybrid coupler is used some applications, namely, Mixers Modulators Isolated power splitters since the isolation between its input ports may be independent of the value of the two balanced impedance loads.Port 2Port 3Port 4Port 1
20Mechanical SwitchesDirect s microwave power from one transmission line to another or turns microwave power on and off. Switches can be mechanically or electronically. Here we discuss some types of mechanical switchs. Electronically switches will be introduced in active devices section.
21Waveguide Terminations Tapered absorber, usually consisting of a carbon-impregnated dielectric material that absorbs the microwave power8.2 – 12.4 GHz handles 75 wattsGHz7 - 10watt300Important specifications: SWR (or S11) Power-handling capability
22Wave guide coupler Coaxial and microstrip coupler High powerHigh directivitylimited in BWWide bandPoor directivityLimited powerCoaxial couplerD is not critical for sampling microwave powerD is extremely important for a return loss measurement, to measure the small power reflected from the mismatch.
23DuplexerCirculatorCirculator route microwave signals from one port of the device to another:Power entering port 1 is directed out of the circulator at port 2.A signal entering port 2 is routed to leave the circulator at port 3 and does not get back into port 1.A signal entering port 3 does not get into port 2, but goes out through port 1.123[S] =The S matrix of an ideal circulator is
24The important specifications of a circulator: Insertion loss: The loss of signal as it travels in the right direction (typically 0.5 dB)Directivity The loss in the signal as it travel in the wrong direction(Typically 20dB)Circulator enable the use of one antenna for both transmitter and receiver of communication system.Low Loss PathHigh Isolation PathTransmitterReceiver
25Two possible methods of achieving high output power in microwave system High power tube oscillatorLow power semiconductor precise oscillatorHigh power tube amplifier
26TYPES OF MICROWAVE TUBES AdvantagesCommon ApplicationsTraveling wave tube (TWT) amplifierWide bandwidthRadars;Communications;jammersKlystron amplifierHigh gain & high hRadar; medicalapplicationsMagnetron oscillatorlow-costRadarsDomestic cooking;industrial heatingof materialsGyrotron oscillatorHigh average powerIn band (30–300 GHz)Radar; Plasma heating incontrolledthermonuclearfusion research
27Pulsed Oscillator System Precise low power source + Amplifiers High Power RF GenerationPulsed Oscillator System(Usually) MagnetronPrecise low power source + AmplifiersMany stages (each with its own power supplies and control)All stages must be stableImportant features could not be provided using MagnetronCoded pulsedFrequency agilityCombining and arrayingComplexity and cost
28Oscillators Versus Amplifiers Issues of Selection(1) Accuracy and Stability of Carrier Frequency■ Magnetron frequency is affected by:□ Tub warmup drift □ Temperature drift□ Pushing □ Pulling■ In Amplifiers□ Frequency depends on the low power crystal oscillator. Frequency can be changed instantaneously by electronic switching (faster than mechanical tuner)(2) Coherence- Amplifier based transmitter:Coherent RF and IF LO are generated with precision- Oscillator-based transmitter:Manual tuning or an automatic frequency control (AFC) to tune the LO to the correct frequency.(3) Instabilities Terms include – frequency – phase shift – coho locking – pulse timing – pulse width – pulse amplitude – jitter
29Amplifier Chains: Special Considerations. Timing.Because modulator rise times differ, triggers to each amplifier stage must usually be separately adjusted to provide proper synchronization without excessive wasted beam energy.Isolation.Each intermediate stage of a chain must see proper load matchMatchingImproved amplifier ratings are sometimes available if the tube is guaranteed to see a good match.CFAs and traveling wave tubes (TWTs) generally require that wide band matching (than BW of operation) for stabilitySignal-to-Noise Ratio.Output S/N cannot be better than that of the worst stage
305- Leveling. (to maintain constant power with frequency) 6- Stability Budgets.Each stage must have better stability than the overall requirement on the transmitter, since the contributions of all stages may add. Such stability budgets are usually required for pulse-to-pulse variations, for intra-pulse variations, and sometimes for phase linearity.7. RF Leakage.Keeping the chain from oscillating requires leakage, from the output to the input, to be below certain level.8- ReliabilityThe complexity of transmitter amplifier chains often makes it difficult to achieve the desired reliability. Solutions usually involve the use of redundant stages or a whole redundant chain, and many combinations of switching are feasible.9- RF Amplifiers.availability of suitable RF amplifier devices
31linear-beam tubes (Klystrons & TWTs ) direction of the dc Electric field that accelerates the beam coincides with the axis of the Magnetic field that focuses and confines the beam.Crossed field tubes (magnetrons and CFAs)The electric and magnetic fields are at right angles to each other.
32MAGNETRON TRANSMITTERS Invented during World War IIThe 5J26, magnetron based , has been used in search radars for over 40 yearsoperates at L- bandmechanically tunable from 1250 to 1350 MHz.500-kW peak power (t =1ms) and 1000 pps, or (t =2ms) and 500 pps(0.001 duty cycle) and provides 500 W of average RF power.h = 40%The 1- to 2-ms pulse duration provides 150- to 300-m range resolutionMagnetron FeaturesHigh peak powerQuite small and Simplelow costPulsed magnetrons vary from a 1-in3, 1-kW peak-power to several megawatts peak and several kW average powerCW magnetrons have been made up to 25 kW for industrial heating.Stable enough for MTI operationAutomatic frequency control (AFC) is typically used to keep the receiver tunedto the transmitter
33Magnetron Features Cont. TunersHigh-power magnetrons can be mechanically tuned over a 5 to 10percent frequency range routinely, and in some cases as much as 25 percent.Rotary TuningThe rotary-tuned ("spin-tuned") magnetron was developedaround I960. A slotted disk is suspended above the anode cavities as when rotated, alternately provides inductive and capacitive loadingof the cavities to raise and lower the frequency. (Less average output power)
35The process begins with a low voltage being applied to the filament, which causes it to heat up. Remember, in a magnetron tube, the filament is also the cathode. The temperature rise causes increased molecular activity within the cathode, to the extent that it begins to "boil off" or emit electrons. Electrons leaving the surface of a heated filament wire might be compared to molecules that leave the surface of boiling water in the form of steam. Unlike steam, though, the electrons do not evaporate. They float, or hover, just off the surface of the cathode, waiting for some momentum.Electrons, being negative charges, are strongly repelled by other negative charges. So this floating cloud of electrons would be repelled away from a negatively charged cathode.The lectrons encounter the powerful magnetic field of two permanent magnets . These are positioned so that their magnetic fields are applied parallel to the cathode. The effect of the magnetic fields tends to deflect the speeding electrons away from the anode.Electrons form rotating patternRF output
36Magnetron Limitations Magnetrons are not suitable if:Precise frequency control is neededPrecise frequency jumping (within a pulse or within a pulse group) is requiredThe best possible stability is required. not stable enough to be suitable for very long pulses (e.g., 100 mS), and starting jitter limits their use at very short pulses (e.g., 0.1 mS), especially at high power and lower frequency bands.4. Coherence is required from pulse to pulse for second-time-around clutter cancellation, etc.
375. Coded or shaped pulses are required 5. Coded or shaped pulses are required. A range of only a few decibels of pulse shaping is feasible with a magnetron, and even then frequency pushing may prevent obtaining the desired benefits.6. Lowest possible spurious power levels are required. Magnetrons cannot provide a very pure spectrum but instead produce considerable electromagnetic interference (EMI) across a bandwidth much wider than their signal bandwidth (coaxial magnetrons are somewhat better in this respect).
38Common Problems in Magnetron SparkingEspecially when a magnetron is first started, it is normal for anode-to-cathode arcing to occur on a small percentage of the pulses.2. Moding: If other possible operating-mode conditions exist too close to the normal-mode current level, stable operation is difficult to achieve. Starting in the proper mode requires the proper rate of rise of magnetron cathode voltage, within limits that depend on the tube starting time and the closeness of other modes.3. Noise rings: Excessive inverse voltage following the pulse, or even a small forward "postpulse" of voltage applied to the magnetron, may make it produce sufficient noise to interfere with short-range target echoes. The term noise ring is used because this noise occurs at a constant delay after the transmitted pulse and produces a circle on a plan position indicator (PPI). This can also occur if the pulse voltage on the magnetron does not fall fast enough after the pulse.
394. Spurious RF output: In addition to their desired output power, magnetrons generate significant amounts of spurious noise.5. RF leakage out of the cathode stem: Typically, an S-band tube may radiate significant VHF and UHF energy as well as fundamental and harmonics out of its cathode stem. This effect varies greatly among different magnetrons, and when it occurs, it also varies greatly with lead arrangements, filament voltage, magnetic field, etc. Although it is preferable to eliminate cathode stem leakage within the tube, it has sometimes been successfully trapped, absorbed, or tolerated outside the tube.6. Drift: Magnetron frequency varies with ambient temperature according to the temperature coefficient of its cavities, and it may also vary significantly during warmup.
407. Pushing: The amount by which a magnetron's frequency varies with changes in anode current is called its pushing figure and the resulting pulse-to-pulse and intra-pulse frequency changes must be kept within system requirements by proper modulator design.8. Pulling: The amount by which a magnetron's frequency varies as the phase of a mismatched load is varied is called its pulling figure.9. Life: Although some magnetrons have short wear-out life, many others have short life because of miss-handling by inexperienced personnel. Dramatic increases in average life have been obtained by improved handling procedures and proper operator training.
45In a klystron:The electron gun produces a flow of electrons.The bunching cavities regulate the speed of the electrons so that they arrive in bunches at the output cavity.The bunches of electrons excite microwaves in the output cavity of the klystron.The microwaves flow into the waveguide, which transports them to the accelerator.The electrons are absorbed in the beam stop.
46TWTHigh bandwidth ~ one octave (low-power (few KW) helix type)
47TWT vs. KlystronSimilarities:Beam formation, focusing and collection are the sameInput and output rf coupling are similarTWT uses a traveling wave version of the discreet cavity interaction of the klystronLarge overlays in beam voltage, current and rf power outputDifferences:BandwidthKlystron ≈ 1%Waveguide TWT ≈ 10%Transmission Line (Helix) TWT ≈ octavesForm factor more amenable to low-cost, light-weight PPM focusing
50Crossed-Field Amplifiers (CFAs. High efficiencysmall sizeRelatively low-voltage operationCover from UHF to K bandAttractive for:lightweight systemsairborne useLow gain (~10 dB)CFAs are generally used only in the one or two highest-power stages of an amplifier chain, where they may offer an advantage in efficiency, operating voltage, size, and/or weight compared with linear-beam tubes.The output-stage CFA is usually preceded by a medium-power TWT that provides most of the chain gain.CFAs have also been used to boost the power output of previously existing radar systems.
52If Prequired < Pavailable of a single tube Combine the RF Power of More tubesVery ComplexThis Makes Solid State Transmitter Practical
53Combining and Arraying It is often necessary to use more than one RF tube or solid-state device to produce the required radar transmitter RF power output. Since the mid-1950s, two or more microwave tubes have often been used to achieve more total power output than can be obtained from a single tube. Since about 1960, there has been interest in using more than one RF device, especially if it can then be solid-state, to provide increased system reliability from the greatly lowered probability of multiple failures.Combiners Include:Magic TMulti-branch WilkensonP1 the output power of the first tubeP2 the output power of the second tubeq the angle between the two combined outputs
54Ways of Combining Power Common way of operating two identical devices in parallel.(Magic-T as a splitter and Combiner)The two outputs are recombined onlyin space but the devices are still effectively operating in parallel.(Magic-T as a splitter)Two whole chains operating in parallel; but the greater the number of items that are included in each of the two paths, the more chance exists for phase differences to occur between the two paths as a function of frequency, temperature, or component tolerances.Therefore, combining chains is more difficult than combining single stages and is usually avoided.
55Solid State Amplifiers (SSAs) Compared with tubes, solid-state devices offer many advantages:1. No hot cathodes are required; therefore, there is no warmup delay, nowasted heater power, and virtually no limit on operating life.2. Device operation occurs at much lower voltages; therefore, power supplyvoltages are on the order of volts rather than kilovolts. This avoids the need for large spacings, oil filling, or encapsulation, thus saving size and weight and leading to higher reliability of the power supplies as well as of the microwave power amplifiers themselves.3. Transmitters designed with solid-state devices exhibit improved mean timebetween failures (MTBF) in comparison with tube-type transmitters. ModuleMTBFs greater than 100,000 h have been measured.
564. No pulse modulator is required 4. No pulse modulator is required. Solid-state microwave devices for radar generally operate Class-C, which is self-pulsing as the RF drive is turned on and off.5. Graceful degradation of system performance occurs when modules fail. This results because a large number of solid-state devices must be combined to provide the power for a radar transmitter, and they are easily combined in ways that degrade gracefully when individual units fail.6. Extremely wide bandwidth can be realized. While high-power microwave radar tubes can achieve 10 to 20 percent bandwidth, solid-state transmitter modules can achieve up to 50 percent bandwidth or more with good efficiency.7. Flexibility can be realized for phased array applications. For phased array systems, an active transceiver module can be associated with every antenna element. RF distribution losses that normally occur in a tube-powered system between a point-source tube amplifier and the face of the array are thus eliminated.
57Single SSA moduleBroad bandwidth, low power, moderate gain, low noise, low efficiency devicesSmall size, low cost manufacturing processIdeal for use as drivers for high power sourcesTwo basic transistor types BJTs and FETsBoth are used at 3 GHz for power amplifiers but FETs dominate at higher frequenciesBoth are limited in frequency by transit time effects that are similar to those encountered by vacuum triodesNew materials GaAs and GaN produce higher mobility carriers and higher breakdown voltage to extend the performance envelop of solid state amplifiers
58Solid stateDriver 10 WBlock diagram of CFA amplifier chain at 11 GHz for multi-megawatt systemTWT or klystronIntermediate amp30 dB 10 kWCFA+10 dB100 kW1 MW10 MW
59Pulse ModulatorMost radar oscillators operate at pulse voltages between 5 and 20 kilovolts. They require currents of several amperes during the actual pulse which places severe requirements on the modulator. The function of the high-vacuum tube modulator is to act as a switch to turn a pulse ON and OFF at the transmitter in response to a control signal. The best device for this purpose is one which requires the least signal power for control and allows the transfer of power from the transmitter power source to the oscillator with the least loss. The pulse modulator circuits discussed in this section are typical pulse modulators used in radar equipment.
60GAS-FILLED TUBESIn some tubes, the air is removed and replaced with an inert gas at a reduced pressure. The gases used include mercury vapor, neon, argon, and nitrogen.They are capable of carrying much more current than high-vacuum tubes, and they tend to maintain a constant IR drop across their terminals within a limited range of currents.The electron stream from the hot cathode encounters gas molecules on its way to the plate (Ionization)If the plate voltage is very low, the gas-filled diode acts almost like an ordinary diode except that the electron stream is slowed to a certain extent by the gas molecules.Increase plate voltage (Ionization POINT ) FIRING POTENTIALThe value of the plate voltage at which ionization stops is called the DEIONIZATION POTENTIAL, or EXTINCTION POTENTIAL
61Thyratron gas-tube modulator It consists of a power source (Ebb), a circuit for storing energy (L2, C2, C3, C4, and C5), a circuit for discharging the storage circuit (V2), and a pulse transformer (T1). In addition this circuit has a damping diode (V1) to prevent reverse-polarity signals from being applied to the plate of V2 which could cause V2 to breakdown. With no trigger pulse applied, the pfn charges through T1, the pfn, and the charging coil L1 to the potential of Ebb. When a trigger pulse is applied to the grid of V2, the tube ionizes causing the pulse-forming network to discharge through V2 and the primary of T1. As the voltage across the pfn falls below the ionization point of V2, the tube shuts off. Because of the inductive properties of the pfn, the positive discharge voltage has a tendency to swing negative.This negative overshoot is prevented from damaging the thyratron and affecting the output of the circuit by V1, R1, R2, and C1. This is a damping circuit and provides a path for the overshoot transient through V1. It is dissipated by R1 and R2 with C1 acting as a high-frequency bypass to ground, preserving the sharp leading and trailing edges of the pulse. The hydrogen thyratron modulator is the most common radar modulator