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Acct 2210: Internal Control and Accounting for Cash Chapter 6 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Acct 2210: Internal Control and Accounting for Cash Chapter 6 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Acct 2210: Internal Control and Accounting for Cash Chapter 6 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Identify the key elements of a strong system of internal control. LO 1 6-1

3 Internal Controls Internal Controls (policies/procedures to provide assurance that enterprise objectives are accomplished) (1) Accounting controls designed to safeguard company assets and ensure reliable accounting records (2) Administrative controls for evaluating performance and assessing compliance with company policies and public laws 6-2

4 The Nine (9) Features of Internal Control (pg ) 1.Separation of Duties 2.Quality of Employees 3.Bonded Employees 4.Required Absences 5.Procedures Manual 6.Authority and Responsibility 7.Prenumbered Documents 8.Physical Control 9.Performance Evaluations 6-3

5 1) Separation of Duties When duties are separated, the work of one employee can act as a check on the work of another employee. The likelihood of fraud or theft is greatly reduced. 6-4

6 2) Quality of Employees The ability of cross-trained employees to substitute for one another prevents disruptions in the workplace. Job rotation may help relieve boredom and increase productivity. 6-5

7 3) Bonded Employees A fidelity bond provides insurance that protects a company from loss caused by employee dishonesty. To become bonded, an employee’s background is investigated. 6-6

8 4) Required Absences An employee may be able to cover up fraudulent activities if they are always present at work. All employees should be required to take regular vacations and their duties should be rotated periodically. 6-7

9 5) Procedures Manual Accounting and other important procedures should be written in a procedures manual. Periodically, management should conduct an investigation to see that required procedures are actually being followed. 6-8

10 6) Authority and Responsibility General authority applies to all member of the organization. For example, all employees are required to fly coach and purchase airline tickets from a specific vendor. Specific authority applies only to a specific position within the organization. For example, all checks must be cosigned by the Controller and Treasurer. 6-9

11 7) Prenumbered Documents. Prenumbered forms are used for all important documents such as checks, purchase orders, receiving reports, and invoices. The use of prenumbered forms helps keep track of all forms issued during a particular period. 6-10

12 8) Physical Control All companies should maintain adequate physical control over valuable assets that may be misappropriated. For example, inventory should be properly stored in a secure location. Serial numbers should be placed on all valuable assets to assist in a physical count of these assets. 6-11

13 9) Performance Evaluation Internal controls should include independent verification of employee performance. For example, someone other than the person who has control over inventory should take a physical count of inventory. Internal and external audits serve as independent verification of performance. 6-12

14 Internal Control Limitations! Internal controls can be circumvented by collusion among employees. Two or more employees working together can hide embezzlement by covering for each other. No system can completely prevent fraud. 6-13

15 Identify special internal controls for cash. LO

16 Accounting for Cash Controlling Cash Cash receipts should be recorded immediately upon receipt and deposited intact daily. Cash payments should be made by prenumbered check. Up to date signature card should be maintained. A deposit ticket should be used for all deposits. A monthly bank reconciliation should be prepared by an independent party. 6-15

17 Prepare a bank reconciliation. LO

18 Reconciling the Bank Statement The bank reconciliation reports on the differences between the balance on the bank statement and the balance in the general ledger cash account. The reconciliation results in the true cash balance that will appear on the balance sheet. 6-17

19 Reconciling the Bank Statement If an error is found on the bank statement, an adjustment for it is made to the unadjusted bank balance to determine the “true” cash balance. Any error or change made on our books requires an adjusting journal entry to correct. 6-18

20 Bank Reconciliation Green Shades Resorts, Inc. is preparing the bank reconciliation for the month of September. 1.The Sept 30 th balance on the bank statement is $3,516.45, and the Cash general ledger balance on this date is $3, There was a deposit in transit in the amount of $ The bank erroneously deducted a $25 check drawn on the books of Green Valley Resorts from our account. 4.At September 30 th three checks are outstanding. Check 639 dated 9/18 for $13.75; Check 646 dated 9/20 for $29.00; and Check 672 dated 9/27 for $ More Information 6-19

21 Bank Reconciliation 5.During the month of September the bank collected an account receivable for us in the amount of $ A check actually written for $36.45 for utilities expense was erroneously recorded in our records by the bookkeeper as $ The bank assessed a service charge of $8.40 for September. 8.We deposited a NSF check in the amount of $ Let’s prepare the bank reconciliation 6-20

22 Bank Reconciliation 6-21

23 Bank Reconciliation 6-22

24 Bank Reconciliation 6-23

25 Bank Reconciliation 6-24

26 Bank Reconciliation 6-25

27 Bank Reconciliation 6-26

28 Adjusting the Books (Only) Every reconciling item that appears on the unadjusted book balance section requires a journal entry to adjust the general ledger cash balance to the true cash balance. 6-27

29 Cash Short and Over When using a cash register, employees sometimes make mistakes in collecting cash or making change for customers. If the cash register does not reconcile by a small amount at the end of the day, we use an account called Cash Short and Over to force a balance. Assume a cash register was to have a balance of $500, but contained only $499 at the end of the day. 6-28

30 Describe the auditor’s role in financial reporting. LO

31 The Financial Analyst How can a financial analyst know that a company really did follow GAAP? Certified Public Accountants 6-30

32 Materiality and Financial Audits Auditors do not guarantee that financial statements are absolutely correct—only that they are materially correct. “Material” Item An error, or other reporting problem, that would influence the decision of an average prudent investor. 6-31

33 Types of Audit Opinions UnqualifiedAdverse QualifiedDisclaimer 6-32

34 Confidentiality The confidentiality rules in the code of ethics for CPAs prohibits auditors from voluntarily disclosing information they have acquired as a result of their accountant-client relationships. However, accountants may be required to testify in a court of law. 6-33

35 The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) The SEC is a government agency authorized to establish and enforce the accounting rules for public companies. Public companies, have to follow the reporting rules of the SEC as well as GAAP. 6-34

36 Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) of 2002 Prior to 2002, the SEC left much of the regulation and oversight of independent audits to the AICPA. However, SOX established the PCAOB to enforce audit standards for SEC audits. 6-35

37 End of Chapter Six 6-36

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