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Aim: Landmark Supreme Court Cases. Marbury vs Madison 1803 Constitutional Principle Separation of Powers Checks and Balances The Judiciary Why the decision.

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Presentation on theme: "Aim: Landmark Supreme Court Cases. Marbury vs Madison 1803 Constitutional Principle Separation of Powers Checks and Balances The Judiciary Why the decision."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aim: Landmark Supreme Court Cases

2 Marbury vs Madison 1803 Constitutional Principle Separation of Powers Checks and Balances The Judiciary Why the decision is important Established the Supreme Court’s right of Judicial Review which is the right to determine the constitutionality of laws Strengthened the judiciary in relation to other branches of government

3 McCulloch vs Maryland 1819 Constitutional Principle Federalism – Federal Supremacy National Power – Necessary and Proper Clause The Judiciary Why Decision is Important Said no state could tax a federally chartered bank because the power to tax involves the power to destroy Ruling established the principle of national supremacy that the constitution and federal laws overrule state laws when the two conflict Expanded national power by supporting use of necessary and proper clause to carry out constitutional powers

4 Gibbons vs Ogden 1824 Constitutional Principle Federalism – Federal Supremacy Property Rights/Economic Policy – Interstate Commerce The Judiciary Why Decision is Important States may regulate only what is solely intrastate commerce (within a state) Congress has power to regulate interstate commerce, including commerce that involved intrastate-interstate activity Ruling established the basis of congressional regulation of interstate commerce

5 Worchester vs Georgia 1832 Constitutional Principle Federalism National Power Separation of Powers Equality Rights of Ethnic/Racial Groups Why Decision if Important The Constitution give the federal, not state governments exclusive jurisdiction over Native American Tribes Treaties between the US government and Native American tribes are the Supreme Law of the land Therefore, Georgia laws taking jurisdiction of Cherokee people and land are void President Andrew Jackson defied the ruling and the national policy of Indian Removal followed

6 Dred Scott vs Sanford 1857 Constitutional Principle The Judiciary Equality Civil Liberties Rights of Ethnic /Racial Groups Why Decision is Important Ruled that African Americans were not citizens (overturned by 14 th Amendment) Declared that enslaved people were property of owners As property, protected by 5 th amendment, enslaved people could be taken anywhere; therefore, Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional

7 Civil Rights Cases 1883 Constitutional Principle Equality National Power – Congress Rights of Ethnic/Racial Groups – 13 th & 14 th Amendments Why Decision is Important Declared 1875 Civil Rights Act unconstitutional 14 th Amendment prohibited states from discrimination, not individual actions in the private sector such as in theaters, hotels, and restaurants. Private discrimination was not a violation of the 13 th Amendment, prohibition against slavery and involuntary servitude

8 Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific RR vs Illinois 1886 Constitutional Principle Property Rights/Economic Policy – Interstate Commerce National Power Federalism Why Decision is Important Invalidated state law setting railroad rates on the part of an interstate trip within borders By declaring it a federal power to regulate rates and by limiting state regulations, Court strengthened Constitution’s Interstate Commerce Clause Ruling paved way for creation in 1887 of Interstate Commerce Commission

9 United States vs E.C. Knight Co Constitutional Principle National Power – Anti-trust The Judiciary Federalism Proper Rights/Economic Policy – Interstate Commerce Why Decision is Important While federal government did have the right to regulate some parts of economy, states under the 10 th Amendment, could regulate intrastate economic activities such as manufacturing Refineries were manufacturing operations, not commerce; therefore, the Sherman Anti-Trust Act could not be applied to American Sugar Refining Co. although company controlled 90% of sugar processing in the nation

10 In Re Debs 1895 Constitutional Principle National Power – Commerce Clause Property Rights/Economic Policy – Commerce Clause & Labor Why Decision is Important Ruled that federal government under commerce clause of Constitution had right to halt 1894 Pullman strike Said strike hurt general welfare of nation by disrupting commerce and mail delivery

11 Plessy vs Ferguson 1896 Constitutional Principle Equality Rights of Ethnic/Racial Groups 14 th Amendment Equal Protection Clause The Judiciary Why Decision is Important Upheld Louisiana law providing for equal but separate accommodations for white and colored races Said law did not conflict with 13 th or 14 th Amendments, nor with commerce clause 14 th amendment was not intended to enforce what court called social equality Provided legal justification for Separate but Equal Segregation policy until overturned in 1954 Brown vs Board of Education

12 Northern Securities Co. vs United States 1904 Constitutional Principle National Power – Anti-trust, Commerce Clause Property Rights/Economic Policy Why Decision is Important Federal Suit (part of T. Roosevelt’s trust busting) using Sherman Antitrust Act Court ruled that the Northern Securities Company was formed only to eliminate competition and ordered it to be dissolved Congress under Commerce Clause had authority to regulate any conspiracy to eliminate competition

13 Lochner vs New York 1905 Constitutional Principle Property Rights/Economic Policy – Contracts Civil Liberties – 14 th Amendment Why Decision is Important Ruled that a New York law limiting bakers to 10 hour days and a 60 hour weeks in order to protect public health was unconstitutional because it violated the right and liberty of an individual to contract New York law went beyond legitimate police powers of a state

14 Muller vs Oregon 1908 Constitutional Principle Civil Liberties – 14 th Amendment Federalism – 10 th vs 14 th Amendments Equality Rights of Women Why Decision is Important Upheld an Oregon law that limited women to a 10 hour work day in laundries or factories in order to protect women’s health Cited the physical differences between men and women when ruling that the need to protect women’s health outweighed the liberty to make a contract that was upheld in Lochner vs New York.

15 Schenk vs United States 1919 Constitutional Principle Civil Liberties – Limited in Wartime The Judiciary Why Decision is Important Established limits on free speech; right is not absolute but dependent on circumstances, example; a person is not protected if falsely shouts fire in a crowded theatre In this case, Court saw defendant’s actions as a Clear and Present Danger to security of the nation in wartime

16 Schechter Poultry Corp. vs United States 1935 Constitutional Principle Separation of Powers Property Rights/Economic Police – Commerce Clause Why Decision if Important Placed limits on the ability of Congress to delegate legislative power to President By narrowly defining interstate commerce also restricted congressional powers to regulate commerce Declared the New Deal’s National Industrial Act Unconstitutional

17 Korematsu vs United States 1944 Constitutional Principle Civil Liberties – Equal Protection Presidential Power in Wartime Rights of Ethnic/Racial Groups Why Decision is Important Upheld the power of the President in Wartime to limit a group’s civil liberties Ruled that forcible relocation of Japanese Americans to wartime relocation agency camps during World War II was legal

18 Brown vs Board of Education, Topeka Kansas 1954 Constitutional Principle Equality – Equal Protection Federalism Rights of Ethnic/Racial Groups Why Decision is Important In this school segregation case, the Court overturned Plessy vs Ferguson’s Separate but Equal Doctrine Ruled that Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal and violate the 14 th Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause

19 Watkins vs United States 1957 Constitutional Principle Criminal Procedure – Due Process National Power – Congressional Investigations Civil Liberties Why Decision is Important Congressional investigations must spell out their legislative purpose and jurisdiction The Bill of Rights is applicable to Congressional investigations Watkins was within his rights to refuse to testify to matters beyond scope of House Committee on Un- American Activities

20 Mapp vs Ohio 1961 Constitutional Principle Criminal Procedure – 4 th Amendment Civil Liberties – 14 th Amendment Why Decision is Important Ruled that the 4 th and 14 th Amendments protected citizens from illegal searches Applied the Exclusionary Rule to state courts which means evidence obtained unconstitutionally without a search warrant could not be used in federal or state courts

21 Baker vs Carr 1962 Constitutional Principle Avenues of Representation – Voting Rights & Equal Protection Federalism Why Decision is Important Court has jurisdiction over apportionment of seats in state legislatures Overrepresentation of rural voters and under representation of urban voters was a violation of 14 th Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause Ruling led to other court cases that established one person-one vote concept

22 Engel vs Vitale 1962 Constitutional Principle Civil Liberties – Establishment Clause 1 st and 14 th Amendments Why Decision is Important Reciting of an official prayer in the schools violated the 1 st Amendment’s Establishment Clause (Establishment of Religion) which was applied to the states by the 14 th Amendment Although students were not required to say the non- denominational prayer, its recitation in class put them under pressure

23 Gideon vs Wainwright 1963 Constitutional Principle Civil Liberties Criminal Procedure – 6 th and 14 th Amendments Why Decision is Important Ruled unanimously that the 6 th Amendment right to an attorney, which was applied to the states by the 14 th Amendment, required that a state provide lawyers for poor people accused of felony crimes not just capital (death penalty) crimes.

24 Heart of Atlanta Motel vs United States 1964 Constitution Principle National Power – Commerce Clause Civil Liberties – Equal Protection Clause Why Decision is Important Upheld the Constitutionality of 1964 Civil Rights Act’s use of Congressional interstate commerce powers to prohibit discrimination in private facilities whose operations affect interstate commerce

25 Miranda vs Arizona 1966 Constitutional Principle Criminal Procedures – Due Process; Self Incrimination Civil Liberties - Equal Protection Why Decision is Important Established the requirement prior to questioning to inform those accused of crimes that they have the right to remain silent, the right to a lawyer, and that what they say can be used against them in court Evidence obtained without this warning may not be used in court under the Exclusionary Rule

26 Tinker vs Des Moines Independent Community School District 1969 Constitutional Principle Civil Liberties – 1 st Amendment, Student rights/Safe School Environment Why Decision is Important While recognizing the authority of schools to prescribe and control conduct in the schools, the court ruled that neither students or teachers shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate Symbolic, silent expression of opinion in absence of any disorder (wearing black armbands to protest Vietnam War) is protected under the 1 st Amendment

27 New York Times Co. vs United States 1971 Constitutional Principle Civil Liberties – Freedom of the Press National Power Why Decision is Important Court narrowly upheld 1 st Amendment right to Freedom of the Press Ruled that government had not met the heavy burden of prior restraint; the government had not made a strong enough case to stop publication of the Pentagon Papers on the grounds that National Security would be hurt

28 Roe vs Wade 1973 Constitutional Principle Civil Liberties – Right to Privacy Rights of Women Why Decision is Important Declared state laws making abortions illegal to be unconstitutional while stating certain limits and conditions Basis of decision was right to privacy, citing the Due Process Clause of the 14 th Amendment

29 United States vs Nixon 1974 Constitutional Principle Separation of Powers – Due Process Executive Power Why Decision is Important By 8 – 0 vote, the Court ruled that Nixon had to turn over the Watergate Tapes to the Special Prosecutor No President was above the law; Executive Privilege (Confidentiality) was not absolute Separation of powers does not protect a President from Judicial Review of Executive Privilege, nor from the needs of the Judicial process

30 New Jersey vs T.L.O Constitutional Principle Civil Liberties – 4 th Amendment, Student Rights, Safe School Environment Why Decision is Important Affirmed the 4 th Amendment prohibition on Unreasonable Searches and Seizures applied to school officials But, necessity of maintaining discipline allowed for searches when there are Reasonable Grounds that the law or school rules have been broken comparted to police requirement of Probable Cause

31 Cruzan vs Director Missouri Department of Health 1990 Constitutional Principle Civil Liberties Why Decision is Important Ruled that under Due Process Clause, a competent person has the right to refuse life sustaining treatment Evidence of the wishes of an incompetent person must be clear and convincing; evidence not presented in this case Cruzan’s parents then gathered what Missouri Court agreed was Clear and Convincing evidence and the life support system was removed

32 Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania et al. vs Casey 1992 Constitutional Principle Civil Liberties – 4 th Amendment, Student Rights/Safe School Environment Why Decision is Important Upheld Roe vs Wade decision Determined that Pennsylvania law with provisions such as 24 hour waiting period and parental consent to a minor’s abortion did not create undue burden or substantial obstacles to abortion Struck down requirement of husband notification

33 Veronia School District vs Acton 1995 Constitutional Principle Civil Liberties – 4 th Amendment, Students Rights, Safe School Environment Why Decision is Important Ruled that a school’s practice of testing athletes randomly for drug use did NOT violate their rights under 4 th and 14 th Amendments Cited schools need to maintain student safety and fulfill its educational mission


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