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Crucible QuickWrite 9/21-9/22

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1 Crucible QuickWrite 9/21-9/22
“FEAR is an acronym in the English language for ‘False Evidence Appearing Real’.” ~Neale Donald Walsch~ In your notes, please respond to the following questions: Define hysteria. What are the causes? What is mob mentality? What are the negative effects? What makes fear a powerful tool? Examination of a Witch, by T.H. Matteson Courtesy of the Peabody Essex Museum

2 The McCarthy Trials vs. Salem Witch Trials: Arthur Miller The Crucible

3 Senator Joseph McCarthy

4 I. Joseph McCarthy An American politician who served as a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin 1950: McCarthy claimed that there were large numbers of Communists & Soviet spies and sympathizers inside the U.S. federal government and elsewhere. Ultimately, McCarthy's tactics & his inability to support his claims led him to be censured by the United States Senate.

5 II. The McCarthy Trials

6 A. Trial Targets 1) writers 2) Actors 3) Politicians 4) Other free-thinkers Trial lasted for 3yrs without proven accusations Accused were asked to testify against family & friends or go to jail

7 B. Effects of the “Witch Hunts”
Created a climate of fear: treason, Communist takeover, and spies Interrogation techniques: repetitious, petty, guilt by association Victims lost jobs, reputations, and had to leave U.S. Accused were asked to testify against family and friends or go to jail Climaxed in April 1954 after accusing the Secretary of the Navy of sheltering Communist spies The Secretary exposed McCarthy’s questionable motives

8 III. Arthur Miller The Man and the Playwright

9 Arthur Miller 1915 –2005 Biographical Info:
 A) Born in Harlem but moved to Brooklyn during the Depression B) In grade school, Miller was more involved in sports than literature and his grades were not always good C) Miller enrolled at the University of Michigan to study journalism & drama ·   D) Married Marilyn Monroe in 1956 (divorced in 1961) ·       **influenced by War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy Interesting side jobs: mouse tender in a science laboratory; night editor of the Michigan Daily; wrote radio scripts The Theatre ·      a) Winner of numerous awards including The Pulitzer Prize (Death of a Salesman 1949) ·      b) First Broadway play: The Man Who Had All the Luck (1944) ·       c) First Broadway success: All My Sons (1947) //….and, of course, The Crucible!! 

10 IV. Parallels Miller finds parallels between the witch hunt that took place in 1692 and his own experience… The accused were summoned to appear before McCarthy to answer the question: “Are you now or were you ever a Communist?” 3yrs before the production of The Crucible in NYC, Miller was summoned by a congressional committee** Miller spoke freely about himself & his occasional attendance, years before, as a guest at Communist meetings He refused to name names of other people in attendance and was found in contempt of Congress, but his conviction was later overturned by the Supreme Court

11 Arthur Miller on The Crucible
In a sense I went naked to Salem, still unable to accept the most common experience of humanity, the shifts of interests that turned loving husbands and wives into stony enemies, loving parents into indifferent supervisors or even exploiters of their children, and so forth. As I already knew from my reading, that was the real story of ancient Salem Village, what they called then the breaking of charity. The gray rain on my windshield was falling into my soul. ~Arthur Miller from Timebends: A Life~ ** CENTRAL THEME: “to break charity”: to betray someone, or to refuse him or her basic human generosity or respect**

12 V. The Salem Witch Trials: Historical Connections
1689: English rulers William and Mary started a war with France in the American colonies. King William's War: ravaged regions of upstate New York, Nova Scotia and Quebec Refugees flooded into Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony 1692: Elizabeth Parris, daughter of Reverend Samuel Parris, and Abigail Williams, his niece, started acting strangely Behaviors: A) They shook uncontrollably B) Crawled under tables C) Uttered strange sounds D) Screamed that they were being tortured Since doctors could not determine a medical cause for the bizarre behavior, they concluded that the girls were BEWITCHED!!!

13 Soon other girls cried out, sparking a witch hunt, and accused:
A) Tituba B) Sarah Good C) Sarah Osburn During the next 8 months of terror, more than one hundred fifty people were imprisoned for witchcraft By the time court was dismissed, the casualties were: 27 people convicted 19 hanged 1 pressed to death 50 confessed more than 100 were imprisoned awaiting trial


15 Salem, Massachusetts Today

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