Presentation on theme: "Whitney T. Vikki Z. Melisa W. Anthony G.. Islam 1.3 billion people Predominant religion of the middle east from North Africa to Central Asia Half of the."— Presentation transcript:
Islam 1.3 billion people Predominant religion of the middle east from North Africa to Central Asia Half of the worlds Muslims live in four countries outside of the Middle East: Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India
Islam Islam in Arabic means submission to the will of god It has a similar root to the Arabic word for peace An adherent of the religion of Islam is knows as a Muslim, which in Arabic means one who surrenders to God
Origin of Islam Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all consider Adam to have been the first man and Abraham to have been one of his descendants Abraham married Sarah, who did not bear children, Abraham then married Hagar, who bore a son, Ishmael Both were banished One of Ishmael’s descendants, Muhammad, became the Prophet of Islam Muslims trace their story through his second wife, Hagar and her son Ishmael
History Location Arabian Peninsula, Middle East Time Period AD 570 People Muslims
History The history of Islam centers around one person, Muhammad He was born around AD 570 and was raised by his extended family after the death of his parents Married a wealthy woman As he grew, he became displeased with polytheism and came to believe in one God, Allah He started having religious visions around age 40
Muhammad In the visions, he would receive messages or revelations from Allah He memorized and taught them to his followers These visions are now recorded in the Qur’an or Koran Muhammad continued to receive these visions and messages until his death in 632 A.D.
Muhammad Muhammad’s new faith was not widely accepted in his hometown of Mecca He and his followers moved to Medina – Medina means “City of the Prophet” This movement is know as the Hijirat or “the flight” It marks as the turning point in Islam and serves as the beginning date on Islamic calendars
Death of Muhammad When he died he left no document appointing a successor Some people thought that one of the original converts who had taught with Muhammad Some wanted a member of a powerful political family Some felt that ‘Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad had been divinely designated as a successor An early believer, Abu Bakr was appointed, but died within two years.
Spread of Islam Muhammad’s followers were put into armies that extended the region of Muslim control over extensive area of Africa, Asia, and Europe After Muhammad’s death, Muslim armies conquered Palestine, and the Persian Empire, and much of India Muslims captured North Africa Crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and retained part of West Europe Muslims took control of much of southeastern Europe and Turkey
Power Struggle A power struggle developed as a result of different groups of Muslim believed their method of establishing a successor was the best The biggest conflict and argument was over whether the successor should be elected or chosen through heredity This conflict produced the main body of Islam known as the Sunnis (followers of the prophet’s way Other numerous sects including the Shi’a and the Sufis Today, Sunnis are the majority in Islam today
Sunni Muslims Sunni (from the Arabic word orthodox) 83 percent of Muslims, largest branch in most Muslim countries) Believes that the first four caliphs (Mohammad’s successors) rightfully took his place as the leaders of Muslims They recognize the heirs of the four caliphs as legitimate religious leaders These heirs ruled continuously in the Arab world until the break up of the Ottoman Empire following the end of the First World War
Shiite Muslims Shiite (from the Arabic word for sectarian, sometimes written Shia in English) 16 percent of Muslims, clustered in a handful of countries Compromise more then 90 percent of the population in Iran
Shi'a The Shi’a are the group of Muslims who believe that the successorship should remain within Muhammad's family They believe that the leaders are spiritually chosen, not politically chosen They carry with them the pain of Muhammad’s son-in-law, ‘Ali, who was murdered by Mu’awiya in order to obtain power Today the Shi’a dominate Iran
Sufis The Sufis are a group who believes that orthodox Islam is too mechanical and impersonal This group of Islamic mystics seek for direct personal experience of the Divine.
Black Muslims Islam also has a presence in the United States through the Nation of Islam, also known as Black Muslims, founded in Detroit in 1930 Black Muslims, lived austerely and advocated a separate autonomous nation within the U.S. for their adherants
Core of Islamic Belief Five Pillars of Islam Iman or Faith Salah or Prayer Zakah(Financial obligation) Sawm or Fasting Hajj or Pilgrimage
Iman (Faith) The declaration of faith is called the Shahadah The significance of this declaration is the belief that the only purpose of life is to serve and obey God They achieve this through teachings and practices from the last prophet, Muhammad
Salah (Prayer) Salah is the name for prayers that are performed five times a day The prayers are a direct link between the worshipper and God Translation of a prayer: God is Great. God is Great. God is Great. God is Great. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God. I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God. I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God. Come to prayer! Come to prayer! Come to success! Come to success! God is Great! God is Great! There is none worthy of worship except God.
Zakah (Financial obligation) The literal and simple meaning of Zakah is purity. The technical meaning of the word designates the annual amount in kind or coin which a Muslim with means must distribute among the rightful beneficiaries Each Muslim calculates his or her own zakah individually
Sawm (Fasting) During the month of Ramada-n people fast. (abstaining from food, drink, and sexual relations with their spouses.) Sick, elderly, or on a journey, and women who are menstruating, pregnant or nursing, are permitted to break the fast. If they are able to, later on they make up the days that they didn’t fast.
Hajj (Pilgrimage) For those who are physically and financially capable of doing so they make a pilgrimage to Makkah (Hajj) They wear simple clothes to get rid of “class” in order to show that all stand equal before god
Arab Customs… Facts from an article from http://www.globalsecurity.org/:http://www.globalsecurity.org/ Here are some of the guidelines for soldiers deploying to the Middle East regarding Arab customs, courtesies, and gestures: Alcohol--Moslem religion restricts the use of alcohol and it is prohibited by many host countries in the Middle East theater. Army officials say that in deference to the Arab hosts, alcohol will be prohibited. Pornography and sexually explicit literature is equally unacceptable in the Arab society, officials say, and is also prohibited in the theater. Handshaking/Sitting --Shake hands whenever meeting an Arab, and when leaving him. Never sit and expose the sole of one's shoes or bottoms of feet to an Arab. It is regarded as an insult. Conversation--Generally take the lead from what an Arab brings up in conversation, but avoid asking personal questions. Do not ask questions about the women of an Arab family. Friendship--Arabs take friendship very seriously. The Arab concept of friendship is one of duration and intensity. Before an Arab enters into a friendship, he must find out all about a person to see how much influence one has and if the person might embarrass him. If someone misrepresents his background, not only will it affect credibility, it can seriously harm the Arab's standing and that of his family. Remember, however, that the Arab system of friendship balances favors against obligations. When favors are asked by an Arab, never give a flat "no"; it will signal a desire to end the friendship. Touching--Touching and holding hands with members of the same sex in public is acceptable among Arabs and demonstrates friendship. Touching or kissing members of the opposite sex in public is considered to be in extremely bad taste or obscene. Distance--Arabs stand very close to one another when talking. Westerners may find this uncomfortable, but do not back away. Time--Do not be impatient with local people. If hurried, nothing will get done. However, late arrival for an appointment is a public insult. Criticism--Unlike Americans, Arabs do not accept or give criticism directly. Even constructive criticism of an Arab's work or ideas in public is considered an insult. It is especially rude to contradict a person of status or a superior in rank or age. An Arab's ideas or suggestions should always be given recognition. If criticism is required, take the Arab aside privately and gradually lead up to the subject in an indirect and very tactful manner. Arabs understand and appreciate tact because it protects public image and avoids insult. Patronizing--Do not talk down to someone because he doesn't speak English well. Photography--Do not take pictures of military or civilian installations or equipment, military or civilian police, or civilian airport or seaport facilities without permission of the host country. Do not photograph people at close range (particularly women) without permission.
Holy Places in Islam Mosque of The Haram Mecca-Saudi Arabia Mosque of the Prophet Medina-Saudi Arabia Aqsa Mosque Al Qods-Palestine
Works Cited HNN Staff. "What Is the Difference Between Sunni and Shiite Muslims--and Why Does It Matter?" History News Network. 18 Dec. 2006. George Mason University's. 15 Sept. 2008 http://hnn.us/articles/934.htmlhttp://hnn.us/articles/934.html Muhammad Picture. http://www.zombietime.com/mohammed_image_archive/book_illos/Prophet_mu hammad.jpg. http://www.zombietime.com/mohammed_image_archive/book_illos/Prophet_mu hammad.jpg The Quran Picture. Http://citizenx.org/wp-content/quran.jpg.Http://citizenx.org/wp-content/quran.jpg Wenner, Sara. "History of Islam." 2001. 16 Sept. 2008 http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/islam/history.html http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/islam/history.html Zahid, Ishaq Zahid. "Five Pillars of Islam." Islam 101. 16 Sept. 2008. Religion Packet http://arabic.speak7.com/index.htm