Presentation on theme: "P OST W AR Life of the 1950’s. P RESIDENT T RUMAN (1945 – 1953) Yalta to Potsdam: Soviets had wanted Germany to pay reparations at Yalta. Truman would."— Presentation transcript:
P RESIDENT T RUMAN (1945 – 1953) Yalta to Potsdam: Soviets had wanted Germany to pay reparations at Yalta. Truman would not allow it at Potsdam. Reparations will be taken from the zones. Marshall Plan – giving aid to Western European Countries threatened with Communism. This is the idea of what philosophy? Truman Doctrine - U.S. Will aid a country trying to resist the spread of Communism. Berlin Airlift – Britain and the U.S. airing supplies to West Berlin.
P RESIDENT E ISENHOWER (1952-1961) Military leader who led D-Day. Brinksmanship - U.S. will build up its air force and the use of weapons. Build up army, navy, air force Air force was to deliver bombs (if needed) More nuclear missiles. H-Bomb Advances nuclear technology 1 million tons of TNT – 67 x the power of what was dropped on Hiroshima. November 1, 1952: U.S. was the first to test. U.S.S.R. – tested in 1953.
E ISENHOWER Created the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)- Covert operations to defend the U.S. from the spread of Communism. Information abroad. First took place in the Middle East Iran nationalized its oil. US poured money in to help pro- American Shah (leader) to control Iran to prevent the country from turning to U.S.S.R. Eisenhower Doctrine – We will intervene in the Middle East to prevent the spread of Communism. January 1957 A warning.
HUAC AND M C C ARTHYISM House Un-American Activities Committee – investigated Communist influences. Biggest known was their investigation of the Movie industry in 1947. Hollywood 10 imprisoned for refusing to testify. Goal was to hunt down and arrest Communist Leaders. HUAC led by Joseph McCarthy. Republican from Wisconsin His tactics became known as McCarthyism – accusing people of disloyalty without evidence. Had a list, but never produced it, and gave names in Senate (protected from slander). http://w ww.yout ube.com/ watch?v =hyBiSk 97Hag
I MPACT Civil Rights and Liberties are violated during McCarthyism. Hollywood blacklist – list of Communist suspects denied acting and producing jobs. People denied work – Actor Charlie Chaplin, W.E.B. DuBois, Langston Hughes, Robert Oppenheimer (director of the Manhattan Project). Hundreds imprisoned, thousands lose their jobs. Subpoenaed to testify in front of the HUAC What does this tell you about the time period. One group of Senators (about 6) led by Margaret Chase Smith of Maine – spoke out against McCarthyism in an attempt to stop the attacks.
R OSENBERGS Julius and Ethel Rosenberg 1953 Ethel’s brother worked in Los Alamos and charges with giving information to the U.S.S.R. Convicted of espionage by selling nuclear secrets to the U.S.S.R. Executed in 1953. Increased fear of Communism. https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature= player_embedded&v=B33oE73tPUo
L IFE IN THE US GI Bill – Servicemen’s Readjustment Act Provided money to veterans to go to school or get loans. Rise of the suburb – millions of young families can now buy homes, farms, or establish businesses. Highway system and Growth of the Suburb Eisenhower sends millions of dollars to build highways. Cities growing out instead of up. White Flight to the suburbs. Levittown's – first housing communities. Baby boom – birthrates between the 1940s and 1960s soared.
L IFE IN THE US Franchise begins – Assembly line for food preparation Franchise – a company with similar services in many locations. McDonalds – most famous opened in 1940s Became a Franchise in 1955