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Presidents Nixon, Ford, Carter Last section of Ch 29 & All of Ch 31.

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Presentation on theme: "Presidents Nixon, Ford, Carter Last section of Ch 29 & All of Ch 31."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presidents Nixon, Ford, Carter Last section of Ch 29 & All of Ch 31

2 Richard Nixon 1913 – 1994; 37 th President Whittier College, Duke Law School Navy in WWII, Served in House & Senate Eisenhower’s VP Married to Pat – 2 daughters – Tricia & Julie President for the Moon landing Had Elvis to the White House in 1970

3 “Realpolitik” From German for “real politics” Deal with solid national interests not just fear of communism – Recognized that communism was NOT one unified movement Dr. Henry Kissinger, National Security Advisor & later Secretary of State – German Jewish Immigrant, Army, Harvard Détente – flexible diplomacy, easing of Cold War

4 People’s Republic of China Nixon quietly began plans to recognize China – Kissinger played key role in this “Ping – Pong Diplomacy” – US table tennis team visited China in April 1971 Feb ‘72 – Nixon’s official visit to China – Saw Great Wall, Imperial City – Premier Zhou Enlai & met with Mao Result: trade with & travel to China thrived

5 Détente with the Soviet Union Premier Leonid Brezhnev concerned about US - China relations Invited Nixon to Moscow! May 1972 Announced joint space mission Signed SALT I – 1 st step at arms limits – Froze deployments of ICBMs Intercontinental ballistic missiles – Limited ABMs (antiballistic missiles) – Viewed as 1 st step towards end of Cold War

6 New Federalism - Nixon’s Domestic Agenda Environmental laws & created the EPA – Clean Air, Clean Water, Endangered Species Acts – 1 st Earth Day celebrations in 1970 Created OSHA – Occupational Safety & Health Administration Tried to deal with inflation & enacted price controls for period of time Enforced Supreme Court order on busing to further desegregate schools

7 Watergate – The Beginning Watergate – building in Washington DC – Offices, hotel, condos June 17, 1972 – Burglary at the Democratic National Committee HQ – 5 caught by security linked to CREEP Committee to Re-Elect the President The Washington Post’s reporters kept with story – Bob Woodward & Carl Bernstein – Had gov’t source – “Deep Throat” (Mark Felt – FBI)

8 The Investigation Mostly led by Woodward & Bernstein Senate committee est. in Feb 1973 – White House staff to testify Archibald Cox named Watergate Special Prosecutor Nixon responded in speeches in April & Aug ‘73 & in April ’74 – Always denied any involvement - Indicted - 5 burglars & G. Gordon Liddy, CREEP lawyer (convicted) & Howard Hunt, CIA & consultant (plead guilty)

9 Allegations of a Cover Up Accused John Dean & John Mitchell of orchestrating the cover up – Council to the President & Attorney General Revealed deeper political espionage – Plots to discredit candidates, break in at Pentagon Papers Ellsberg’s psychiatrist July ‘73 Nixon claims executive privilege & won’t testify for Senate Committee

10 White House taping system revealed Committee discovers that since ‘71, Nixon has recorded all conversations & phone calls – To be remembered in history! Nixon’s refusal to hand over tapes & subsequent release of tapes w/ parts erased United States v. Nixon – Supreme Court case – Ruled he had to produce the tapes in July 1974

11 “Saturday Night Massacre”, Oct ‘73 Nixon ordered Attorney General Richardson to fire Special Prosecutor Cox; refused & resigned Ordered Deputy Att. Gen. Ruckelshaus to fire Cox; refused & was fired Robert Bork, Solicitor General fired Cox Nation watched…wondering Nov 1 st - New Special Prosecutor Leon Jaworski Nov 17 th Press Conference – Nixon urged nation to move on and says “I am not a crook”

12 The End of a Presidency After Supreme Court ruling on the tapes… House Judiciary Committee adopted three Articles of Impeachment (step 1) – July ‘74 “The Smoking Gun” – transcript of Nixon talking 6 days after break in, proving he ordered the cover up, are released – Aug 5 th Aug 8 th - Nixon told nation he would resign Aug 9 th – resigned…Ford = 38 th President – Pardoned Nixon Sept 8 th or would’ve been charged

13 Gerald Ford 1913 – 2006, reputation for integrity U of Michigan, Yale Law School & football! Navy for WWII, lawyer, House of Rep – House Minority Leader, Married to Betty, 3 sons, 1 daughter Former NY Governor Nelson Rockefeller was his appointed Vice President “our long national nightmare is over”

14 Issues of the Ford Presidency Stressed efforts to grow economy & limit fears of energy shortages – Vetoed 39 bills he felt would hurt economy – WIN – Whip Inflation Now – mostly voluntary plan Reformed antitrust laws Continued visits with Soviet leaders – détente – Kissinger still Sec of State “shuttle diplomacy” – started w/ Middle East Ultimately economy blamed on him

15 Ford’s Foreign Policy Helsinki Accords – pledge to protect human rights, not a formal treaty – Signed by US, Canada, Soviets, & most of Europe – Seen as another step towards ending the Cold War USS Mayaguez – seized by Khmer Rouge – Ford sent in Marines, rescued ship & crew Saw rise in “boat people” after fall of Saigon

16 Reforms after Watergate Federal Election Campaign Act amended – Set limits on contribution, provided some federal funding for campaigns, created Federal Election Commission Freedom of Information Act amended – Penalty to gov’t officials who withheld documents Sunshine Act – opened meetings of most gov’t agencies to the public Ethics in Gov’t Act – required financial disclosures, restricted lobbying, created a special prosecutor

17 Jimmy Carter 1924 – still alive, 39 th President Georgia peanut family farm, devout Baptist Naval Academy, nuclear engineer for subs State gov’t, Georgia Governor Married to Rosalynn, 3 sons, 1 daughter – Amy Walter Mondale, VP Carter Center, Habitat for Humanity, 2002 Nobel Peace Prize

18 Domestic Policy Pardon to draft dodgers – campaign promise Economy still bad – gave loan to save Chrysler Energy Crisis & gas lines also hurt him Nominated Paul Volcker as Fed Chairman – His actions will help improve economy Created Department of Education Expanded lands for National Parks Ultimately now remembered for over-managing the administration

19 Carter’s Foreign Policy Détente seemed to fade…emphasized human rights in relations w/ all nations SALT II – pledge to limit nuclear weapons – After heated debate in Senate, Carter withdrew it… Because the Soviets invaded Afghanistan – Imposed sanctions & boycotted 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow Difficulties with both Nicaragua & Cuba Pledged to return the Canal to Panama in 1999

20 Middle East – High & Low points Camp David Accords – peace agreement between Egypt & Israel – After 2 weeks of personal diplomacy – Considered biggest victory of Presidency Iranian Hostage Crisis – 66 hostages taken from US Embassy & held for 444 days – US allowed the Shah to enter US for medical care – Ayatollah Khomeini had seized power – Carter blamed for failing to free them Failed rescue attempt hurt him too


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