Presentation on theme: "Past-Tense Verbs. English has only two kinds of verbs, each with the same three main parts. REGULAR oInfinitive: to WALK oPast tense: WALKED (no helping."— Presentation transcript:
English has only two kinds of verbs, each with the same three main parts. REGULAR oInfinitive: to WALK oPast tense: WALKED (no helping verb used) oPast participle: WALKED (with helping verb) IRREGULAR o Infinitive: to FLY o Past tense: FLEW (no helping verb used) o Past participle: FLOWN (with helping verb)
What’s the difference between a regular and an irregular verb? oA regular verb never changes the main verb itself; it just adds a -d or an -ed when describing past actions: dance—dancedtalk—talked oIrregular verbs are unpredictable. When describing past actions, they might (1) stay the same, (2) change just a part of the word, or (3) change the whole word: cut—cut grow—grew think—thought
Regular Past-Tense Verbs: Tip #1 oRemember to add the -d or -ed endings to mark the past, especially those endings that we don’t hear clearly! oEvery day, I walk downtown. oYesterday, I walked downtown. oFor weeks now, I have walked downtown. oEvery day, we dance until dawn. oYesterday, we danced until dawn. oFor weeks, we have danced until dawn.
Regular Past-Tense Verbs: Tip #2 oBe extra careful when the word “to” follows a past tense verb; it’s easy to forget the verb ending because we don’t hear it. oGrammar used to be easy. oThis is supposed to be fun.
Regular Past-Tense Verbs: Tip #3 oRemember to use the “change y to i when you add -ed” rule! PresentPast We testify.We testified. They apply. They have applied.
Irregular Past-Tense Verbs: Tip #1 oSome verbs stay the same in the present and the past. Don’t be tempted to add an ending. PresentPast I quit!Yesterday I quit! They cost a lot nowadays. Earlier, they had cost a lot.
Irregular Past-Tense Verbs: Tip #2 oUnlike other verbs, to be has both a singular and a plural form in the past tense. Be sure to use the right form. PresentPast Singular Today she is happy. Yesterday she was happy. Plural Today they are happy. Yesterday they were happy.
Memorize any of the irregular past tense verbs that don’t sound natural to you. PresentPast becomebecame beginbegan buildbuilt choosechose cut leadled read PresentPast laylaid lie (down) lay seesaw lightlit sitsat set keepkept
What about other tenses? oAll other past-tense verbs are formed from the past participle and some kind of a helping verb like has/have/had/is/was/were: oHe has asked the $64,000 question. oThe case was decided in their favor. oShe had succeeded beyond her wildest hopes. oYou have been selected to enter the Publishers Clearinghouse sweepstakes!
Past participles of regular verbs end in -d or -ed, just as the past-tense verb does. PresentPastPast Participle talktalked(has) talked dependdepended(has) depended testifytestified(has) testified scarescared(has) scared
Unfortunately, the past participles of irregular verbs are as unpredictable as the past tense is. PresentPast Past participle beginbeganbegun becomebecamebecome choosechosechosen cut leadled PresentPast Past participle gowentgone seesawseen forgetforgotforgotten givegavegiven dodiddone
And just to make things really confusing, consider … PresentPastPast Participle lie (= recline)layhas lain lay (= put)laidhas laid sitsathas sat set (= place)sethas set
oPast participles are often used as adjectives, to describe other words. Remember the -ed ending! oWhat is the prescribed solution? ( = the solution that someone has prescribed) oYou seem shocked. ( = something has shocked you) Warning: Potential Trouble Spot!
Try some out! Are there any missing endings below ? oShe appears to be a very prejudiced person. oMy critical thinking teacher was astonished that I finished the quiz so early. oI think everything is finally settled to everyone’s satisfaction.
Warning: Potential Trouble Spot #2! oDon’t confuse the past tense of the irregular verbs (no helping verb) with the past participle (with helping verb). oI begun my homework early this week. oHe had gave me his address. X gave: past tense given: past participle began: past tense begun: past participle X
Warning: Potential Trouble Spot #3! oWatch the passive verbs (= a combination of is, are, was, were, be, been, or being plus the past participle). Be sure to use the participle form. oMy heart is broken. o (not is broke) oThe course was well designed. o (not was well design) oThe report will soon be written. o (not will soon be wrote)