3LIFE IN THE COLONIESPopulation Growth: Between 1607 and 1790: 600,000 Europeans and 300,000 Slaves came to AmericaTraveler of the colonies suggests that the colonies were “as different as fire and water,” and would never be able to unite.
4LIFE IN NEW ENGLANDThin, rocky soil made large scale farming impossible.New England farmers had small farms that practiced subsistence farmingShipbuilding and fishing were major economic factors (ways to make money).Ships from New England would trade goods (furs, fruit, and fish) to the Southern Colonies and to the West Indies.producing just enough food to meet the needs of their families, with little left over to sell/exchange
5TRIANGULAR TRADEThe trade route to different countries formed the triangular trade.They crossed the Atlantic to trade fish, fur, and fruit for manufactured goods in England and Europe.They would also trade with colonies and islands in the West Indies, bringing sugar and molasses to the New England colonies.In the colonies, the molasses would be made into rum. The rum was used to be traded to Africa, in return for slaves that had been captured.
7THE MIDDLE PASSAGEThe Middle Passage is the route enslaved Africans took to the West IndiesIt was a horrific voyage filled with disease, torture, heat, and deathThe people were treated as cargo, and at times chained in the lower galleys of ships for the journey.
9LIFE IN THE MIDDLE COLONIES Farming was better here than in New England due to fertile soil and a slightly milder climate.Farmers grew large quantities of wheat and other Cash CropsNYC and Philadelphia became busy ports, importing and exporting productscrops that could be sold easily in markets in the colonies and overseas
10LIFE IN THE MIDDLE COLONIES 100,000 Germans settled in Pennsylvania during this time. They became successful farmers.Together with the Dutch, Swedish and other non-English immigrants, they gave the Middle Colonies cultural diversity that was not found in New England.With the diversity came tolerance for religious and cultural differences.variety
11SOUTHERN COLONIESWith their rich soil and warm climate, the Southern Colonies were well suited to certain kinds of farming.They had no need to develop trade or industry because their farming was going so well.Maryland and Virginia - tobacco
12SOUTHERN COLONIES South Carolina and Georgia – rice Rice paddies required strenuous work so growers relied on slave labor.Tidewater was a region of flat low-lying plains along the seacoast which was home to most of the large Southern plantations.low-lying areas along the coast where damns were built to crate rice fields
13SOUTHERN COLONIESPlantations were located around rivers so the crops could be sent to the ports quickly.They often had slave cabins, barns, and stables. Some plantations were large enough to have their own blacksmith shops and storeroomsThey might have their own kitchen, church, or school.large farms
14SOUTHERN COLONIESWest of the Tidewater lay a region of hills and forest climbing up toward the Appalachian Mountains which was known as the backcountry.It was settled by newcomers with small farms.
15SLAVESLarge plantation owners hired overseers to keep the slaves working hard.By the early 1700s, many colonies had issued slave codesSlaves were whipped for minor offenses and burned or hanged for serious crimes.Those who ran away were often caught and punished severelybossesstrict rules governing the behavior & punishment of enslaved Africans
16CRITICISM OF SLAVERYSlavery was the main reason for economic success of South CarolinaNot everyone believed in slaveryPuritans refused to hold enslaved peopleQuakers did not allow slavery
17Government Religion and Culture Section 2Government Religion and Culture
18ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS Signed in 1689 Guaranteed certain basic rights to all citizens
19MAKING MONEYMercantilism is a theory that states as a nation’s trade grows, its gold reserves increase, and the nation become more powerful.England viewed its North American colonies as an economic resource by receiving its raw materials, using them to produce finished goods, and then selling them back to the colonists.
20MAKING MONEYTo make money, a country had to export more goods than it imported from foreign markets.sell abroadbuy from other countries
21NAVIGATION ACTS Navigation Acts Controlled the trade of goods between England and the coloniesForced colonies to use English ships, and NOT foreign ships.Even if those foreign ships offered cheaper ratesSome colonists ignored the laws and started smuggling goods to Europe or the West Indiestrading illegally with other nations
223 TYPES OF COLONIESCharter Colonies were established by settlers who had been given rights and privileges (CT, RI)Proprietary Colonies – were ruled by individuals who Britain had granted land. (DE, MD, PA)Royal Colonies were directly ruled by England. (GA, MA, NH, NJ, NY, NC, VA)
23GOV’T IN THE ROYAL COLONIES Parliament (The English Government) appointed a governor for each colony known as the upper houseThe colonists elected the lower houseConflicts would happen when laws like taxes came from EnglandOnly white men who owned land could vote
24THE GREAT AWAKENINGIn the 1730’s and 1740’s, preachers believed that a “new birth,” a return to the strong faith of earlier days.Preachers such as Jonathan Edwards of Massachusetts were very convincing in their sermons.The great awakening led to:Emphasis on educationFormation of new churches
25A NEW COLONIAL CULTUREAll members of the families worked on the farm (including children and women)Children would work as apprentices (learning assistants) and learn a trade
26WOMENMarried women were considered subject to their husbands authority.Unmarried women might work as maids, cooks, and nurses. They could not vote.
27THE ENLIGHTENMENT Began in Europe A movement that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society
28FREEDOM OF THE PRESS 1735 John Peter Zenger New York Weekly JournalFaced libel charges for printing a critical report about the royal governor of NYAndrew Hamilton argued in his defense that free speech was a basic right of English peopleDecision based on truth not offensiveness
29France and Britain Clash in America Section 3France and Britain Clash in America
30FRANCE VS. BRITAINBritish colonists set out to explore the Ohio River Valley, however that land belonged to the French.The French were angry, because they felt the English were taking their fur trading lands.The result was the French building forts on one side of the border and English Colonists building forts on the other side.
32A RIGHT HOOK BY FRANCEThe colonists of both countries joined the rivalry that France and Great Britain have had for years.France attacked Nova Scotia (Canada) in the 1740’s. England responded by taking an important fortress at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, North of Nova ScotiaThe British colonists felt surrounded by all the French settlements.
33NATIVE AMERICANS TAKE SIDES Native Americans favored the French because they treated them better. They would often help the French by raiding British settlements.The Iroquois traded with both colonists, and took advantage of the situation.However, as English colonists moved west toward Ohio, they came under pressure and eventually allied with the British against the French.
34AMERICAN COLONISTS TAKE ACTION A group of Virginians wanted to settle in Ohio and they sent a young George Washington to the territory.He delivered a message to the French to leave English land, but France did not move.In spring of 1754, he was named lieutenant colonel and was sent back to Ohio with a militia of 150 men.a civilian army
35BUILDING FORTSWashington established Fort Necessity near the French fort, Fort Duquesne.The French surrounded Washington and his soldiers, and forced them to surrender.They were later released and sent back to Virginia. In spite of defeat, English colonists saw Washington as the man who struck the first blow against the French.
36BACK IN ALBANY, NYRepresentatives in NY, New England, PA, and MD talked about war.They prepared for a war with France.They tried to get the Natives on their side.
38FAILUREBen Franklin suggested what would be known as the Albany Plan of Union.It proposed the power to:Establish an elected legislatureCollect taxesRaise troopsRegulate tradeNot a single colonial assembly passed Franklin’s idea
39A disappointed Franklin wrote, “Everyone cries, a union is necessary, but when they come to the manner and form of the Union their weak noodles are perfectly distracted.”
40The French and Indian War Section 4The French and Indian War
41PLANS PREPARING FOR WAR Some natives fought on the side of the British.Many others fought against the British.The French formed alliances with Native Americans.a civilian army
42ENGLISH GOV’T GET INVOLVED Previously, the conflict was about the colonists NOT England.In 1754, England appointed General Edward Braddock commander in chief of the British forces in America and sent him to drive the French out of the Ohio Valley.
43POOR DECISIONSIt took Braddock and his army several weeks to go through the forest.He spent time building roads and bridgesGeorge Washington served as one of his aides.He informed Braddock that the army’s style of marching was not well suited to fighting in frontier country.It made them easy targets.
44On July, 9th Native Americans fought from behind trees and hills, and fired at the bright red uniforms.The British could not see their attackers.Braddock ordered an orderly retreat, but the opposite happened, and the troops panicked.Braddock was killed, and the battle was a bitter defeat.
45FULL SCALE WARWashington led the survivors back to Virginia and word got back to England about Braddock.Britain officially declared war on France.Marking the beginning of the Seven Years’ War.
46SEVEN YEARS’ WARIn Europe, the French and Indian War was called the Seven Years’ War.The first years were disastrous for colonists. Native Americans used roads that General Braddock built on his way through Ohio against them.They killed settlers, burned farmhouses and crops, and drove families back to the coast.
47NEW PRIME MINISTERWilliam Pitt came to power as England’s Secretary of State and then as Prime Minister.He was an outstanding military planner.He chose skilled commanders.To avoid colonists’ complaints about the cost of the war, he decided Great Britain would pay the full cost.He delayed the moment colonists would have to pay for the warBritain raised colonists’ taxes after the war.
48THE TIDE TURNSIn Pitt’s quest to conquer French Canada, he sent energetic officers Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe to North America.In 1758, they led a British assault that recaptured the fortress at LouisbourgA group of New Englanders captured Fort Frontenacc at Lake OntarioAnother British assault forced the French to abandon Fort Duquesne then renamed Fort Pitt.
49Quebec, the capital of New France, was thought to be impossible to attack. One of Wolfe’s scouts found a poorly guarded path up the back of a cliff at night.They defeated the guards and surprised and defeated the French capital. Wolfe died in battle.
50TREATY OF PARIS 1763The fall of Quebec and General Amherst’s capture of Montreal brought the fighting to an end.The Treaty of ParisWas a peace treatyLet France keep the West IndiesForced to give up Canada and most of its lands east of the Mississippi RiverTook Florida from Spain and gave it to Great BritainGave Spain French lands west of the Mississippi River and the port of New OrleansFrance lost all power in North America
52TROUBLE ON THE FRONTIER Britain’s win dealt a blow to Native Americans on the Ohio River valley.They continued to trade with the British even though they considered them their enemies.Why?They lost their French allies/trading partnersThey no longer got paid for the use of their landBritish settlers began moving into the valleys of western PA
54To prevent more fighting, Britain called a halt to the settlers’ westward expansion. In the Proclamation of 1763, King George III declared that the Appalachian Mountains were the temporary western boundary for the colonies.It angered many people especially speculators who had already bought land west of the mountains.They were furious that Britain ignored their land claims.The war brought peace, but the proclamation created friction that would bring more conflicts between Britain and the colonists in North America.investors