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Business English at Work © 2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill References.

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Presentation on theme: "Business English at Work © 2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill References."— Presentation transcript:

1 Business English at Work © 2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill References

2 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Objectives Identify prepositions. Recognize prepositional phrases, objects of prepositions, and compound prepositions. Differentiate between infinitive phrases and prepositional phrases. PP 14-1a continued

3 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Objectives PP 14-1b continued Recognize the functions of prepositional phrases as adjectives and adverbs. Determine inclusion, exclusion, and placement of prepositions. continued

4 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Objectives PP 14-1c continued Differentiate between commonly confused prepositions. Use the correct idiomatic prepositional combinations.

5 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Use of Prepositions PP 14-2 Use a preposition to connect the object of the preposition (noun or pronoun) to another word or set of words in a sentence. Our manager recognizes our strengths and compensates for our weaknesses. Top executives spend approximately 90 percent of their time with others. The need for constant approval at work can be counterproductive.

6 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Common Prepositions PP 14-3

7 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Compound Prepositions PP 14-4a A compound preposition consists of a combination of words that is often considered as one preposition and connects the object of a preposition to another word or set of words. according toin place ofahead of in regard to along within spite of apart frominstead ofbecause of by means ofin front ofout of Examples

8 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Compound Prepositions PP 14-4b I gave the company tour on behalf of my manager. In addition to Sara, we have five vice presidents in our company. Because of my positive attitude, Mary chose me as group leader. Examples continued

9 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Infinitive Phrases/ Prepositional Phrases PP 14-5 An infinitive phrase consists of the word to followed by a verb. A leader has to dramatize a vision for his or her organization. Employers need to build the trust of their employees. No verb appears in a prepositional phrase. Leaders set high goals and objectives for themselves.

10 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Prepositions and Adverbs PP 14-6 The words by, through, and in can be used as adverbs without objects. When these same words take objects, they are prepositions. Casual Fridays are in. (In is an adverb that answers the question Where? No object follows the word in.) Causal Friday attire is described in the company handbook. (In is a preposition. In this sentence, it takes the object handbook.)

11 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Objects of Prepositions and Pronouns PP 14-7 Use the objective case of a pronoun as the object of a preposition. her him you me us them it whom Objective Case We awarded the Web design project to them. Between you and me, I prefer working in the accounting department.

12 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Adjective Functions PP 14-8 Use a prepositional phrase as an adjective to modify a noun or a pronoun. Place the prepositional phrase after the word or words being modified or after a linking verb. Carol requested an office with a window. John Garcia from Newsweek will interview our president next week.

13 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Adverb Functions PP 14-9 Use a prepositional phrase as an adverb to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. A leader assists in problem solving. A motivated employee completes all assignments with enthusiasm.

14 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH General Placement PP 14-10a Avoid ending a sentence with a preposition. Place a preposition before its object in the majority of sentences. We did not know the appointments which he was scheduled for. Avoid We did not know the appointments for which he was scheduled. Revised

15 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH General Placement PP 14-10b Examples Some of the technology jargon is difficult to relate to. Avoid I find it difficult to relate to some of the technology jargon. Revisedcontinued

16 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Inclusion of Necessary Prepositions PP Do not omit a preposition when it is needed. The cancelled flight prevented Lynn from going to the leadership seminar. Use separate prepositions when words cannot be related to one object by the same preposition. Doug has knowledge of and experience with various management techniques.

17 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Omission of Unnecessary Prepositions PP Omit prepositions that do not add clarity to the meaning of a sentence. Our international headquarters are near the San Francisco airport. (Do not use near to the San Francisco airport.) Do not repeat a preposition in a sentence if phrases make sense by using the same preposition. Our president speaks at national and international leadership seminars. (The preposition at does not need to be repeated before national and international since the same preposition applies to both phrases.)

18 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Beside/Besides PP Use beside as a preposition to mean “by the side of” or “not connected with something.” Darrell usually sits beside me during management staff meetings. Use besides as a preposition to mean “in addition to” or “other than.” Besides Sherry, the manager promoted Joyce and Bob.

19 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Among/Between PP Use between to refer to two persons, places, activities, ideas, things, or qualities. Our manager distributed the work between the two programmers. Use among to refer to more than two persons, places, activities, ideas, things, or qualities. I was among those who voted for Andy as the team leader.

20 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Different From PP Use the word different followed by the preposition from when from connects an object to another word or set of words in a sentence. The latest sales figures are different from what I expected. Marion’s leadership style is quite different from mine.

21 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Like/As PP Use like to mean “similarly to” or “resembling.” Do not use a verb after the preposition like. Do not use like to join clauses. Stacy handles her responsibilities like a true leader. We are looking for a manager with leadership characteristics like Gordon’s. Use the conjunction as or as if to join clauses. Stacy acts as if she wants to be a leader. This schedule looks as if it were hastily developed.

22 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Off/From PP Do not use off of in prepositional phrases. Roger was positive that Edward took the production results off his desk. (Do not use off of his desk.) Do not substitute off for from in certain phrases. Lorraine borrowed paper from Erica during the meeting. (Do not use off Erica as the prepositional phrase.)

23 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH In/Into PP Use in to indicate a “location or position within a place.” Please place your self-evaluation form in my mailbox. Use into to indicate “movement or direction from outside to inside” or a “change of condition or form.” Please step into my office to discuss your concerns. We divided the report into three sections.

24 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH To/Too/Two PP 14-19a Use the preposition to to indicate “toward.” Please this message to all the other managers. Use to as an infinitive or as a part of an infinitive phrase. She plans to promote Gale next month. Use too as an adverb to indicate an “excessive amount” or “also.” The president made the hiring decision too quickly. Our company is moving to Minneapolis too.

25 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH To/Too/Two PP 14-19b Use two to indicate the number. We have two outstanding candidates for the R.B. Rutledge Leadership Award this year. The selection committee chose two candidates for the president to interview. continued

26 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Identification of Idiomatic Expressions PP An idiom refers to an expression that has evolved from general usage through the years but which has no established rule for this usage. Many idioms involve a verb and preposition combination.

27 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Accompanied by/ Accompanied by or with PP Wesley is accompanied by an interpreter on his trips to Japan. Jan’s leadership award was accompanied with a check for $500.

28 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Adapted from/Adapted to PP Our performance evaluation is adapted from a computer software program that Leon purchased. The new manager soon adapted to our company’s culture.

29 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Agree in/Agree on/ Agree with PP Oscar agreed in principle with the plan for the new building. The staff agreed on the need to lengthen our customer service hours. The managers agreed with the employees about replacing the copy machine.

30 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Angry at/Angry about/Angry with PP Bill is angry about our antiquated system. My manager was angry with Lucy for not regulating Internet usage in her department.

31 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Argue about/Argue for/Argue with PP Several employees argued about the evaluation system. Our manager argued for decision-making software. Sometimes I argue with Richard.

32 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Arrive at/Arrive by PP She will arrive at 6 p.m. They plan to arrive by train. Peggy plans to arrive in St. Louis by Monday.

33 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Concur in/Concur with PP Most employees concurred in recommending that we reorganize our department. Do you concur with Zachary about the lack of leadership in our company?

34 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Correspond by/Correspond to/ Correspond with PP We feel that correspondence by mail is too slow. The expense allocation corresponded to employee requests. Our president corresponds with a leadership consultant in Vail.

35 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Enter in or on/Enter into PP Our receptionist enters every visitor’s name and address in a log book. The union and the managers entered into a binding arbitration agreement.

36 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Live at/Live in/Live on PP We decided that those lawyers must live at their offices. Most federal workers live in the Washington, D.C. area. I could not live on the salary that they offered me during the interview.

37 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Reconciled to/ Reconciled with PP We are finally reconciled to the fact that we will not receive a raise this year. Our accountant insists on the reconciliation of our returns with the sales.

38 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Talk about/Talk for PP Lorraine did not want to talk about her salary. The manager talked for an hour about the reorganization plans.

39 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Talk to/Talk with PP Have you talked to your coworkers about your concerns? Loretta and I talked with our manager about job sharing.

40 Business English at Work Prepositions Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Wait at/Wait for/Wait on PP Please wait at the front door for a security clearance. We waited for our manager’s response to the scheduling problem. Waiting on a customer is always a first priority for us.

41 Business English at Work © 2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill References End of


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