3Chapter 6: Relationships II 2 common types of relationships:Relationships that involve additionRelationships that involve timeRelationships that involve illustrationRelationships that involve comparison and contrastRelationships that involve cause and effect
4IllustrationIllustration Words: Words that indicate that an author will provide one or more examples to develop and clarify a given idea.For exampleIncludingAs an illustrationOneFor instancespecificallyTo illustrateonceSuch asTo be specificIllustrations can be with Definition and Examples:Certain colors are associated with particular emotions. For instance, green represents jealousy, red stands for anger, and blue means gloomy.When a cat’s curiosity can get it into ridiculous situations. Once, a neighbor’s cat got its head stuck in the garbage disposal.
5ComparisonComparison words signal similarities. Authors use comparison transition to show that a second idea is like the first one in some way.(just) asLikewiseIn a similar manner(just) likeIn like mannerIn the same wayalikesimilar(ly)resembleWhen buying milk, my mother always takes a bottle from the back of the shelf. Similarly, when my father buys a newspaper, he usually grabs one from the middle of the pile.The printing press greatly changed the way people learned news and ideas. In a similar manner, the internet has revolutionized the way in which people obtain information.
6Contrast Contrast words show that things differ in one or more ways. butinsteadstillEven thoughyetIn contrastAs opposed todifferentlyhoweverOn the other handIn spite ofDiffers fromalthoughOn the contrarydespiteunlikeneverthelessconverselyRather thanwhileSkunks are unpopular creatures, yet they eat lots of mice and bugs and don’t spray unless they feel threatened.Some people look upon eating as something to be done quickly so they can get on to better things. In contrast, others think eating is one of the better things.
7Block Method:Topic Sentence: College is quite different from high school.BLOCK "A"College CoursesInstructorsActivitiesTransition (word or phrase): on the contraryBLOCK "B" High School CoursesConcluding sentence: Even though it is more challenging, college is much more exciting.
8Topic Sentence: College is quite different from high school. Point By Point:Topic Sentence: College is quite different from high school.Courses CollegeHigh SchoolInstructorsCollegeActivitiesConcluding sentence: Even though it is more challenging, college is much more exciting.
9Cause and EffectCause and effect words: signal that the author is explaining the reason why something happened or the result of something happening.thereforesoresultBecause ofthusAs a resulteffectreasonAs a consequenceResults incauseexplanationconsequentlyLeads toIf…thenaccordinglyDue tosinceaffect
11Chapter 7 InferencesAn inference or conclusion is an idea that is suggested by the facts or details in a passage or picture.A valid inference is a logical conclusion based on evidence.What are the emotions shown in this picture?
12Analysis of Text: Interpretation/ MakingConnectionsBackgroundKnowledge(schema)QuestioningInferenceDrawing ConclusionsPredictionsWhen proficient readers infer, they create a meaning that is not necessarily stated in the text. Inference is a tough strategy to learn because it involves many processes and requires the reader to hold several ideas in his/her mind.When we infer, we use a combination of ~QuestioningMaking ConnectionsBackground Knowledge (Schema)PredictionsImagination/VisualizationAnalysis of Text: Interpretation JudgmentsDrawing ConclusionsAnalysis of Text: Interpretation/JudgmentImagination/VisualizationElkhart Community Schools
13All the processes work together. Each works in concert with InferringAll the processeswork together.Each works inconcert withthe others toaid the readerin comprehending text.Read Slide.Elkhart Community Schools
14The VALID Approach to Inferences Step 1: Verify and value the facts.Step 2: Assess prior knowledge.Step 3: Learn from the text.Step 4: Investigate for bias.Step 5: Detect contradictions.
15Chapter Eight: Purpose and Tone There is an author—a person with thoughts, feelings, and opinions—behind everything you read.Authors write from a personal point of view.That point of view is reflected in• the purpose of a piece of writing—to inform, to persuade, or to entertain—and• its tone: the expression of attitude and feeling.See page 319 in textbook.
16Purpose Three common purposes for writing: See page 320 in textbook. The author’s reason for writing is called the purpose of a selection.Three common purposes for writing:To inform—to give information about a subject.Example: “Eating food between two slices of bread—a sandwich— is a practice that has its origins in eighteenth-century England.”To persuade—to convince the reader to agree with the author’s point of view on a subject.Example: “There are good reasons why every sandwich should be made with whole-grain bread.”To entertain—to amuse and delight; to appeal to the reader’s senses and imagination.Example: “What I wanted was a midnight snack, but what I got was better—the biggest, most magical sandwich in the entire world.”See page 320 in textbook.
17ToneTone is a reflection of a writer’s or speaker’s attitude toward a subject of a poem, story, or other literary work. Tone may be communicated through words and details that express particular emotions and that evoke and emotional response from the reader. For example, word choice or phrasing may seem to convey respect, anger, lightheartedness, or sarcasm.
18Here are four different versions of a murder confession. To appreciate the differences in tone that writers can use, read them aloud—in the tone of voice appropriate in each case.“I just shot my husband five times in the chest with this .357 Magnum.” (Tone: matter-of-fact, objective.)“How could I ever have killed him? I just can’t believe I did that!” (Tone: shocked, disbelieving.)“Oh, my God. I’ve murdered my husband. How can I ever be forgiven for this dreadful deed?” (Tone: guilty, regretful.)“That dirty rat. He’s had it coming for years. I’m glad I finally had thenerve to do it.” (Tone: revengeful, self-satisfied.)See page 325 in textbook.
19What characterizes tone words? Objective words are impartial and factual.They are alsoUnbiasedNeutralFormalSubjective words are personal, opinionated, and emotional:They are alsoBiasedEmotionalInformal
20Tone and Purpose in Review Authors combine facts with emotional appeals to sway readers to their point of view when their purpose is to persuade.A writer whose purpose is to entertain sets out to amuse or interest the audience.The main reason the author writes the passage is his or her primary purpose.Verbal irony occurs when the author’s words state one thing but imply the opposite.Situational irony occurs when the events of a situation differ from what is expected.
21Chapter 9: Argument Point: What the Author is trying to say. Support: How the author proves his/her pointGood Argument: Provides a persuasive and logical evidence to back it up.Relevant: It really applies to the point.Irrelevant: Information that applies to the topic but not to the point.Adequate: Enough amount of support to make the relevant statement reliable to be proved.
36Pit and the Pendulum: Socratic 10 Pit and the Pendulum Quiz:Where is the setting of the story?What is the Pit? What is the Pendulum?What did the narrator think in the beginning of the story?What was happening to him internally and externally?What animal or creature was in the dungeon with him? What did it do?How did the narrator escape from falling in the pit?What were the different ways the narrator could have died in the dungeon?What was he most afraid of?What is the characters conflict? Is it internal or external?In "The Pit and the Pendulum," after his sentence of death the narrator says he could not see anything. What happens to him?
37The Pedestrian: Socratic 11 pedestrian-by-ray-bradbury-1951/english/blettiere/pedestrian_student .pdfARTICLE:Each student is required to have read one of the article options for socratic seminar week 11
38Chapter 6: Relationships Compare and Contrast Graphic Organizer for one of the short stories.Cause and Effect_tchart.pdftm