Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "FINAL EXAM RDG 081."— Presentation transcript:


2 Quote:

3 Chapter 6: Relationships II
2 common types of relationships: Relationships that involve addition Relationships that involve time Relationships that involve illustration Relationships that involve comparison and contrast Relationships that involve cause and effect

4 Illustration Illustration Words: Words that indicate that an author will provide one or more examples to develop and clarify a given idea. For example Including As an illustration One For instance specifically To illustrate once Such as To be specific Illustrations can be with Definition and Examples: Certain colors are associated with particular emotions. For instance, green represents jealousy, red stands for anger, and blue means gloomy. When a cat’s curiosity can get it into ridiculous situations. Once, a neighbor’s cat got its head stuck in the garbage disposal.

5 Comparison Comparison words signal similarities. Authors use comparison transition to show that a second idea is like the first one in some way. (just) as Likewise In a similar manner (just) like In like manner In the same way alike similar(ly) resemble When buying milk, my mother always takes a bottle from the back of the shelf. Similarly, when my father buys a newspaper, he usually grabs one from the middle of the pile. The printing press greatly changed the way people learned news and ideas. In a similar manner, the internet has revolutionized the way in which people obtain information.

6 Contrast Contrast words show that things differ in one or more ways.
but instead still Even though yet In contrast As opposed to differently however On the other hand In spite of Differs from although On the contrary despite unlike nevertheless conversely Rather than while Skunks are unpopular creatures, yet they eat lots of mice and bugs and don’t spray unless they feel threatened. Some people look upon eating as something to be done quickly so they can get on to better things. In contrast, others think eating is one of the better things.

7 Block Method: Topic Sentence:   College is quite different from high school. BLOCK "A" College Courses Instructors Activities Transition (word or phrase):  on the contrary BLOCK "B"  High School Courses Concluding sentence:  Even though it is more challenging, college is much more exciting.

8 Topic Sentence: College is quite different from high school.
Point By Point: Topic Sentence:   College is quite different from high school. Courses College High School Instructors College Activities Concluding sentence:  Even though it is more challenging, college is much more exciting.

9 Cause and Effect Cause and effect words: signal that the author is explaining the reason why something happened or the result of something happening. therefore so result Because of thus As a result effect reason As a consequence Results in cause explanation consequently Leads to If…then accordingly Due to since affect


11 Chapter 7 Inferences An inference or conclusion is an idea that is suggested by the facts or details in a passage or picture. A valid inference is a logical conclusion based on evidence. What are the emotions shown in this picture?

12 Analysis of Text: Interpretation/
Making Connections Background Knowledge (schema) Questioning Inference Drawing Conclusions Predictions When proficient readers infer, they create a meaning that is not necessarily stated in the text. Inference is a tough strategy to learn because it involves many processes and requires the reader to hold several ideas in his/her mind. When we infer, we use a combination of ~ Questioning Making Connections Background Knowledge (Schema) Predictions Imagination/Visualization Analysis of Text: Interpretation Judgments Drawing Conclusions Analysis of Text: Interpretation/ Judgment Imagination/ Visualization Elkhart Community Schools

13 All the processes work together. Each works in concert with
Inferring All the processes work together. Each works in concert with the others to aid the reader in comprehending text. Read Slide. Elkhart Community Schools

14 The VALID Approach to Inferences
Step 1: Verify and value the facts. Step 2: Assess prior knowledge. Step 3: Learn from the text. Step 4: Investigate for bias. Step 5: Detect contradictions.

15 Chapter Eight: Purpose and Tone
There is an author—a person with thoughts, feelings, and opinions—behind everything you read. Authors write from a personal point of view. That point of view is reflected in • the purpose of a piece of writing—to inform, to persuade, or to entertain—and • its tone: the expression of attitude and feeling. See page 319 in textbook.

16 Purpose Three common purposes for writing: See page 320 in textbook.
The author’s reason for writing is called the purpose of a selection. Three common purposes for writing: To inform—to give information about a subject. Example: “Eating food between two slices of bread—a sandwich— is a practice that has its origins in eighteenth-century England.” To persuade—to convince the reader to agree with the author’s point of view on a subject. Example: “There are good reasons why every sandwich should be made with whole-grain bread.” To entertain—to amuse and delight; to appeal to the reader’s senses and imagination. Example: “What I wanted was a midnight snack, but what I got was better—the biggest, most magical sandwich in the entire world.” See page 320 in textbook.

17 Tone Tone is a reflection of a writer’s or speaker’s attitude toward a subject of a poem, story, or other literary work. Tone may be communicated through words and details that express particular emotions and that evoke and emotional response from the reader. For example, word choice or phrasing may seem to convey respect, anger, lightheartedness, or sarcasm.

18 Here are four different versions of a murder confession.
To appreciate the differences in tone that writers can use, read them aloud—in the tone of voice appropriate in each case. “I just shot my husband five times in the chest with this .357 Magnum.” (Tone: matter-of-fact, objective.) “How could I ever have killed him? I just can’t believe I did that!” (Tone: shocked, disbelieving.) “Oh, my God. I’ve murdered my husband. How can I ever be forgiven for this dreadful deed?” (Tone: guilty, regretful.) “That dirty rat. He’s had it coming for years. I’m glad I finally had the nerve to do it.” (Tone: revengeful, self-satisfied.) See page 325 in textbook.

19 What characterizes tone words?
Objective words are impartial and factual. They are also Unbiased Neutral Formal Subjective words are personal, opinionated, and emotional: They are also Biased Emotional Informal

20 Tone and Purpose in Review
Authors combine facts with emotional appeals to sway readers to their point of view when their purpose is to persuade. A writer whose purpose is to entertain sets out to amuse or interest the audience. The main reason the author writes the passage is his or her primary purpose. Verbal irony occurs when the author’s words state one thing but imply the opposite. Situational irony occurs when the events of a situation differ from what is expected.

21 Chapter 9: Argument Point: What the Author is trying to say.
Support: How the author proves his/her point Good Argument: Provides a persuasive and logical evidence to back it up. Relevant: It really applies to the point. Irrelevant: Information that applies to the topic but not to the point. Adequate: Enough amount of support to make the relevant statement reliable to be proved.





26 Chapter 10: Critical Reading






32 ry_mrup_1/

33 The Yellow Wallpaper: Socratic 7

34 A Cup of Tea: Socratic 8 td/misc/ACupOfTea.html

35 The Lottery: Socratic 9 ackson/SS/TheLottery.html yworksheet.pdf

36 Pit and the Pendulum: Socratic 10
Pit and the Pendulum Quiz: Where is the setting of the story? What is the Pit? What is the Pendulum? What did the narrator think in the beginning of the story? What was happening to him internally and externally? What animal or creature was in the dungeon with him? What did it do? How did the narrator escape from falling in the pit? What were the different ways the narrator could have died in the dungeon? What was he most afraid of? What is the characters conflict? Is it internal or external? In "The Pit and the Pendulum," after his sentence of death the narrator says he could not see anything. What happens to him?

37 The Pedestrian: Socratic 11
pedestrian-by-ray-bradbury-1951 /english/blettiere/pedestrian_student .pdf ARTICLE: Each student is required to have read one of the article options for socratic seminar week 11

38 Chapter 6: Relationships
Compare and Contrast Graphic Organizer for one of the short stories. Cause and Effect _tchart.pdf tm

39 Chapter 7: Inference Worksheet

40 Chapter 8: Purpose and Tone aphic_org_lesson_3.doc

41 Chapter 9: Argument /pdfs/go_2colarguments.pdf

42 Chapter 10: Critical Thinking

Download ppt "FINAL EXAM RDG 081."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google