Presentation on theme: "FINAL EXAM RDG 081. Quote: Chapter 6: Relationships II 2 common types of relationships: Relationships that involve addition Relationships that involve."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6: Relationships II 2 common types of relationships: Relationships that involve addition Relationships that involve time Relationships that involve illustration Relationships that involve comparison and contrast Relationships that involve cause and effect
Illustration Illustration Words: Words that indicate that an author will provide one or more examples to develop and clarify a given idea. For example IncludingAs an illustration One For instancespecificallyTo illustrateonce Such asTo be specific
Comparison Comparison words signal similarities. Authors use comparison transition to show that a second idea is like the first one in some way. (just) asLikewiseIn a similar manner (just) likeIn like mannerIn the same way alikesimilar(ly)resemble
Contrast Contrast words show that things differ in one or more ways. butinsteadstillEven though yetIn contrastAs opposed todifferently howeverOn the other hand In spite ofDiffers from althoughOn the contrary despiteunlike neverthelessconverselyRather thanwhile
Block Method: Topic Sentence: College is quite different from high school. BLOCK "A" College Courses Instructors Activities Transition (word or phrase): on the contrary BLOCK "B" High School Courses Instructors Activities Concluding sentence: Even though it is more challenging, college is much more exciting.
Point By Point: Topic Sentence: College is quite different from high school. Courses College High School Instructors ◦ College ◦ High School Activities College High School Concluding sentence: Even though it is more challenging, college is much more exciting.
Cause and Effect Cause and effect words: signal that the author is explaining the reason why something happened or the result of something happening. thereforesoresultBecause of thusAs a resulteffectreason As a consequence Results incauseexplanation consequentlyLeads toIf…thenaccordingly Due tosinceaffect
Chapter 7 Inferences An inference or conclusion is an idea that is suggested by the facts or details in a passage or picture. A valid inference is a logical conclusion based on evidence. What are the emotions shown in this picture?
Elkhart Community Schools12 Inference Background Knowledge (schema) Background Knowledge (schema) Making Connections Making Connections Questioning Predictions Imagination/ Visualization Imagination/ Visualization Analysis of Text: Interpretation/ Judgment Analysis of Text: Interpretation/ Judgment Drawing Conclusions
Elkhart Community Schools13 All the processes work together. Each works in concert with the others to aid the reader in comprehending text.
The VALID Approach to Inferences Step 1: Verify and value the facts. Step 2: Assess prior knowledge. Step 3: Learn from the text. Step 4: Investigate for bias. Step 5: Detect contradictions.
Chapter Eight: Purpose and Tone There is an author—a person with thoughts, feelings, and opinions—behind everything you read. Authors write from a personal point of view. That point of view is reflected in the purpose of a piece of writing—to inform, to persuade, or to entertain—and its tone: the expression of attitude and feeling.
Purpose The author’s reason for writing is called the purpose of a selection. Three common purposes for writing: To inform—to give information about a subject. Example: “Eating food between two slices of bread—a sandwich— is a practice that has its origins in eighteenth-century England.” To persuade—to convince the reader to agree with the author’s point of view on a subject. Example: “There are good reasons why every sandwich should be made with whole-grain bread.” To entertain—to amuse and delight; to appeal to the reader’s senses and imagination. Example: “What I wanted was a midnight snack, but what I got was better—the biggest, most magical sandwich in the entire world.”
Tone Tone is a reflection of a writer’s or speaker’s attitude toward a subject of a poem, story, or other literary work. Tone may be communicated through words and details that express particular emotions and that evoke and emotional response from the reader. For example, word choice or phrasing may seem to convey respect, anger, lightheartedness, or sarcasm.
Here are four different versions of a murder confession. To appreciate the differences in tone that writers can use, read them aloud—in the tone of voice appropriate in each case. “I just shot my husband five times in the chest with this.357 Magnum.” (Tone: matter-of-fact, objective.) “How could I ever have killed him? I just can’t believe I did that!” (Tone: shocked, disbelieving.) “Oh, my God. I’ve murdered my husband. How can I ever be forgiven for this dreadful deed?” (Tone: guilty, regretful.) “That dirty rat. He’s had it coming for years. I’m glad I finally had the nerve to do it.” (Tone: revengeful, self-satisfied.)
Objective words are impartial and factual. They are also ◦ Unbiased ◦ Neutral ◦ Formal Subjective words are personal, opinionated, and emotional: They are also ◦ Biased ◦ Emotional ◦ Informal What characterizes tone words?
Tone and Purpose in Review Authors combine facts with emotional appeals to sway readers to their point of view when their purpose is to persuade. A writer whose purpose is to entertain sets out to amuse or interest the audience. The main reason the author writes the passage is his or her primary purpose. Verbal irony occurs when the author’s words state one thing but imply the opposite. Situational irony occurs when the events of a situation differ from what is expected.
Chapter 9: Argument Point: What the Author is trying to say. Support: How the author proves his/her point Good Argument: Provides a persuasive and logical evidence to back it up. Relevant: It really applies to the point. Irrelevant: Information that applies to the topic but not to the point. Adequate: Enough amount of support to make the relevant statement reliable to be proved.
Pit and the Pendulum: Socratic 10 Pit and the Pendulum Quiz: Where is the setting of the story? What is the Pit? What is the Pendulum? What did the narrator think in the beginning of the story? What was happening to him internally and externally? What animal or creature was in the dungeon with him? What did it do? How did the narrator escape from falling in the pit? What were the different ways the narrator could have died in the dungeon? What was he most afraid of? What is the characters conflict? Is it internal or external? In "The Pit and the Pendulum," after his sentence of death the narrator says he could not see anything. What happens to him? http://www.poestories.com/text.php?file=pit
The Pedestrian: Socratic 11 http://barrum.com/14/the- pedestrian-by-ray-bradbury-1951 http://barrum.com/14/the- pedestrian-by-ray-bradbury-1951 http://www.argo217.k12.il.us/departs /english/blettiere/pedestrian_student.pdf http://www.argo217.k12.il.us/departs /english/blettiere/pedestrian_student.pdf ARTICLE: Each student is required to have read one of the article options for socratic seminar week 11
Chapter 6: Relationships Compare and Contrast Graphic Organizer for one of the short stories. http://www.readwritethink.org/materials/venn/venn.pdf Cause and Effect http://www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/GO/GO_pdf/causeeffect _tchart.pdf http://www.edhelper.com/teachers/Sequencing_graphic_organizers.h tm