3 School EnvironmentLack of discipline is viewed as one of the most serious challenges facing public schoolsNational Education Goals Report (1995)U.S. Surgeon General’s Report (2002)Teachers report that problem behavior is increasing and is a threat to effective learningSkiba and Peterson, (2000)
4 Classroom Environment Students behaviors impact teacher-student interactions (Gunter, et al., 1993; Sutherland, 2002)Teachers may inadvertently contribute to problem behavior (Carr, Taylor, & Robinson, 1991; Gunter, et al., 1993)Teachers spend less academic time with students (Nelson & Roberts, 2000; Stein & Davis, 2000; Sutherland, Wehby, & Yoder, 2002)
5 Student ImpactGenerally attain unfavorable educational outcomes (US Department of Ed, 2001; Walker, et al., 1999)Early onset of problem behavior and low academic engagement can lead to identification of EBD and placement in special educationAbout 50% drop out of schoolEarn lower grades, increased truancy, fail more classesUnsuccessfully employed, poor work records
6 Student ImpactExpulsions and suspensions are increasing (Cartledge, Tillman, & Johnson, 2001)In spite of evidence that expelled or suspended students are likely to drop out of high school (DeRidder, 1991; Verdugo, 2000).
7 Tier I - UniversalSchool-wide discipline system for all students, staff, & settings that is effective for 80% of studentsClearly & positively stated expectationsProcedures for teaching expectationsContinuum of procedures for teaching expectationsContinuum of procedures for encouraging expectationsContinuum of procedures for discouraging rule violationsProcedures for monitoring & modifying procedures
8 Tier II - SecondarySpecialized group administered system for students who display high-risk problem behavior & are unresponsive to universal interventionsFunctional assessment based intervention decisionsDaily behavioral monitoringRegular & frequent opportunities for positive reinforcementHome-school connectionIndividualized academic accommodations for academic successPlanned social skills instructionBehaviorally based interventions
9 Tier III - TertiarySpecialized individually administered system for students who display most challenging problem behavior & are unresponsive to targeted group interventionsSimple request for assistanceImmediate response (24-48 hoursFunctional behavioral assessment-based behavior support planningTeam-based problem solving processData-based decision makingComprehensive service delivery derived from a wraparound process
10 Comprehensive SystemSchool: (a) Training, (b) Technical assistance, (c) communication and coordination, and (b) on-going monitoringDistrict: Coordinating resources, training and assessment across schoolsCommunity: Support that links families, school/district personnel and community agencies (e.g., juvenile justice, community mental health, etc.).
11 Guiding PrinciplesFunctional Perspective: Behavior is considered within environmental contextBehavioral Competence: School-based individual who has expertise.Systems Foundation. Team-based approach to problem solving and efficient request assistance with function-based support.Multiple Levels: Build off SW Discipline model, intervene early.
15 Example 1 – DEBS (District Effective Behavior Support) District and Community WideSchool PsychologistSchool RepresentativeSpec ED DirectorJuvenile JusticeAfter school ProgramUnited Way…Schoolshad to have high level of implementation at Tier I to participateBrought FBA-BIP, records to meetingOften brought key teacher/staff
16 In general, DEBS Met weekly for 1 hour Schools can present a student to team and then team brainstorms supportBecause community agencies were present it was fast and efficient to coordinate wrap-around services
17 Example 2 – BISSC (Bethel Individual Student Systems Cadre) The purpose of BISSC is to extend the existing school-based continuum of PBS to the district level by:increasing communication between key individuals,coordination of efforts, andspecialized technical assistance.District MTSS Model11 schools5679 studentsDistrict-wide PBIS projectDistrict-wide reading projectBeginning a District-wide math project
18 In general, BISSC Met monthly with School-based Teams (at the school) Technical Assistance, MonitoringQuarterly District-wideTraining, Coordination & CommunicationMonthly Advisory CouncilSystems and Planning for trainings and technical assistanceMonthly District Leadership TeamConnect to other initiatives (e.g., academic, multi-cultural)
19 Survey Summary Over the three years of implementation: It is easier to complete the FBA-BIP processThey complete more without district or expert supportMembers believe that the BIPs are more effectiveAs team member confidence increased, as reliance on outside support has decreasedHowever, it took three years for schools to establish a system for referring students for BISSC support
20 Check-in Individual Student Systems Do you have a team that supports teachers with at-risk students?Available to all staff? Y NAvailable to all parents? Y NSimple Request for Assistance? Y NProtected meeting time?Data sourcesCommittee Review Worksheet, Staff Handbook, general knowledge…Check-in
22 What is FBA?A systematic problem solving process for developing statements about factors that:Contribute to the occurrence and maintenance of problem behavior, andMore importantly, serve as basis for developing proactive & comprehensive behavior support plans.
23 Steps in an FBA Collect Information to determine function. Develop testable hypothesis or summary statements and indicate functions.Collect direct observation data to confirm summary statement.Identify desired and acceptable replacement behaviors.Develop behavior intervention plan.Develop comprehensive BIP to ensure high fidelity implementation.Develop on-going monitoring system.
24 Step 1: Collect Information Multiple sourcesStudent, parent, teacher, etc.Multiple settingsWhere it occurs & doesn’t occurStrengthsReinforcers, goals, hobbies, social skills, academic achievements, etc.
26 HayleyYou have been asked to assist the team in providing support to Hayley who is in 7th grade. Hayley’s teacher is concerned about Hayley because she hasn’t turned in enough work to pass English, math, and science for the first two quarters and is already missing assignments during the first two weeks of the third quarter. In addition Hayley skips several classes a week, usually those that occur after lunch, and refuses to dress for PE.
27 Hayley –Teacher Interview You decide to interview Hayley’s teacher Mr. Nedry who requested assistance and teaches both the math and science classes. During the interview Mr. Nedry states that Hayley rarely turns work and when asked says she doesn’t care. In class she spends a lot of time “getting ready to work.” For example, she looks through her back-pack for paper, pencil, books, etc., she sharpens her pencil, asks to go to the bathroom, and straightens her coat on the back of her chair. She doesn’t talk to many students in or out of class and is not involved in any school activities. About two years ago Hayley was assessed for special education but did not meet eligibility requirements. Mr. Nedry believes that the home environment is hectic and that Hayley may be getting involved in prostitution.
28 Hayley – Student Interview During the interview, Hayley states that she doesn’t like many of the teachers at school. She does like the special education teacher and the front office secretary. She is not very interested in school, but wants to go to California to live with her older sister and work as a secretary. Hayley says that doesn’t have many friends at school and that a lot of her tine after school is spent looking after her younger sister. She also states that she has trouble with math and doesn’t like to write. In addition, when she hasn’t much sleep the night before she has more trouble at school than usually. Hayley also tells you that she skips class to smoke, go to the corner market, and that she shoplifts.
29 Hayley- Archival Review You decide to review two types of information. First, you get the attendance records for the year and find that Hayley skips about one whole day per week and about four other classes per week. She hasn’t received any office discipline referrals for the past 2 years. Second, you get assignment records from her teacher and learn that she has turned in about 17% of the assignments in math, 35% in science, and about 32% in English. Hayley hasn’t received any office discipline referrals, detentions, or suspensions this year.
30 Defining behaviorMust be in operational, observable, or measurable terms.To achieve high agreement between two people.
31 Defining Behavior: Noncompliance Doesn’t follow adult directions to clean up lunch table.Walks away from teacher without responding.Flips tray over on table and tells the teacher to go to _________.Ask the teacher how their weekend was, talks for a few minutes, and then goes out to break.
32 Defining Behavior: Doesn’t complete class work Starts work when asked, gets stuck after a few minutes and begins to draw on the assignment.Spends the first 15 minutes “getting ready”, e.g., opening book, sharpening pencil, getting paper, fixing coat on back of chair, etc.Completes the assignment, shuts assignment in binder, and forgets to turn in when leaving.
33 Aggression = hitting, biting, & kicking or name calling & verbal abuse Consider behavior dimensions:Topography/shapeFrequencyDurationLatencyIntensity or forceLocusAggression = hitting, biting, & kicking or name calling & verbal abuse
34 To escape difficult request: hit, push, runaway, cry Consider response class“Set of topographically different behaviors that have the same effect or function” (Sprague & Horner, 1999, p. 99)To escape difficult request: hit, push, runaway, cry
35 Consider response chains Predictable sequence of behaviors in which each behavior occasions next behavior in the chain, & functions as a reinforcer for previous behavior in chain.Given a task, student (a) talks with friends, (b) writes on papers, (c) says work is stupid, (d) throws paper in waste basket, & (e) leaves room.
36 Hayley Problem Behaviors Not completing work & Off-taskSkipping/Not participating in PE/ShopliftingNot completing work – Low rate of work completion in Science, Math and LiteratureNot Engaged– Hayley spends minutes getting ready (latency). Getting ready includes finding materials (backpack, cubby), sharpening pencil, straightening coat, etc.
37 Activity Defining Behavior Review the information you have about the student. Do you need additional information?Student, Teacher or Parent interviewODRs, other discipline recordsAcademic and/or Health informationIdentify your target behavior(s)e.g., aggression, disruptive, non-compliantWrite an operational definition of the student’s target behavior (s)Observable and measurablee.g., disruption – frequently out of seat walking around the room, takes others items off their desk, …Activity
38 STEP 2. Develop summary statement. Testable hypothesis (“objective guess”).Write in observable terms.If not confirmable, collect more information & restate.Developed from review of assessment information.Composed of (a) problem behavior, (b) triggering antecedent, (c) maintaining consequences, & (d) setting events.
39 Antecedents Occurs before behavior, acts as a “trigger” Stimulus ControlWhen an stimulus (event) reliably predicts that a behavior will or will not happen.What do you do at a red light? Why?What do you do at a green light? Why
40 ConsequencesOccurs after behavior, maintains it (meets a need). Either increases or decreases behavior.Possible functionsGet/obtain (social, activity, tangible)Escape (social, activity/tasks)Automatic/sensory stimulation
41 Setting EventsHappen before, similar to antecedents, but are more distant.Can even be several hours or several days beforeBecause of this rarely “see” the setting event and hard to identifyThink of the setting event as “setting up” the behavior and antecedents as “setting off” the behaviorE.g., lack of sleep, missed breakfast, fight with peer, did poorly in earlier class, stayed with dad (or mom), allergies, not feeling well, …..
42 Testable Hypothesis Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem BehaviorMaintainingConsequences
43 Examples of summary statements When he misses breakfast & peers tease him about his walk, Caesar calls them names & hits them. The teasing stops.
49 Hayley Lack of sleep Math Writing assignments Getting Ready to work Setting EventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesLack of sleepMathWriting assignmentsGetting Readyto workNotEngagedEscapeswork
50 Activity Testable Hypothesis Develop a testable hypothesis for you target studentOperational definition of the problem behaviorTriggering antecedentMaintaining ConsequenceConsider if there are Setting EventsPut answers in the middle row of the Competing Path AnalysisData sourcesGuess & CheckBrief FBAIActivity
51 STEP 3. Collect direct observation data to confirm summary statement Testable hypothesisMultiple settingsMeasures ofproblem behaviortriggering antecedents,maintaining consequences, &setting events
52 MeasurementProcess of assignment numbers, values, units to some feature(s) of an event Johnston & Pennypacker (1993)Researchersoperationalize empiricismAchieve a scientific understandingPractitionersOptimize effectiveness and resourcesEthical and accountable
54 Activity Confirming Summary Statement What data do you have now to support your summary statementBehavior, antecedent, consequence & setting eventODRs, DPR, record review, anecdotalWhat additional data do you need to collect?What are you unsure about?Considering adding direct observationActivity
55 STEP 4. Developing “competing pathways” summary statement ComponentsConfirmed summary statementsDesired replacement behavior to be displayed in problem situation (behavioral objective)Alternative replacement behavior that could achieve same outcome as problem behavior
58 Hayley Start work quickly Stay engaged Grades More work Lack of Sleep Desired BehaviorStart workquicklyStay engagedExisting ConsequenceGradesMore workSetting eventLack of SleepAntecedentMathWritingassignmentsProblem BehaviorNot engagedLow workcompletionMaintaining ConsequenceEscapeworkAlternative BehaviorAsk to go to Sped for assistance
59 Activity Competing Path Analysis Finish completing the Competing Path Analysis for your target studentDesired Behavior – Long term goalConsequence for Desired BehaviorAlternative Behavior – Short term goalMeets same function as problem behaviorEasier and more effective than problem behaviorActivity
61 STEP 5. Develop behavior support plan. Tactics fordiscouraging problem behavior,teaching & encouraging desirable & acceptable replacement behavior,preventing & responding to emergency/crisis situations, &monitoring implementation effectivenessEmphasis on manipulation of (a) behaviors, (b) antecedents, (c) consequences, & (d) setting events
62 GuidelinesDesign antecedent strategies to make triggering antecedents irrelevant.So they no longer serve as triggers.Design behavior teaching strategies to make problem behaviors inefficient.So more acceptable behaviors are easier to do.
63 GuidelinesDesign consequence strategies to make maintaining consequences ineffective.So they no longer are present orAre less reinforcing.Design setting event strategies to eliminate or neutralize effects of setting events.So they have less impact on routines & reinforcers.
65 Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences HayleySetting EventsTriggering AntecedentsTeaching BehaviorsMaintaining ConsequencesCheck in with Hayley in AMLet her sleep if tiredHave clean clothes & supplies in officeNeutralizeGive her shorter & easier assignmentsAsk her how much work she will completeTeacher precorrectionRemove from PEDon’t assign homeworkIrrelevantTeach Hayley to: - ask for help-ask to go to spec ed-How to decide howmuch of theassignment shecan completeInefficientLet Hayley go to Spec Ed when she asksLet Hayley go to office to assist when completes workLet her choose from personal items whenshe completesassignmentsIneffective
66 Problem Behavior Pathway SettingEventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesHeadachesNoisePeersTalkingNo workObtain PeerAttention
68 Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Setting EventsTriggering AntecedentsTeaching BehaviorsMaintaining ConsequencesHave Cary check-in with the teacher at the beginning of the dayIf Cary has a headache, give him a choice of tasksGive Cary a choice a seatingRemind Cary that he can a sk to sit at the back table or move upGive Cary a self-managementTeach Cary to ask for assistance (peer buddy)Teach Cary to ask to sit at the back table, and how to move upTeach Cary how to monitor his own behaviorWhen Cary talks give reminder and/or ask him to take a breakWhen Cary asks for assistance/ change seating immed. respondGood day/week give Cary praise and summary to take home
69 Problem Behavior Pathway SettingEventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesPrior“upsetting”eventDifficult WorkGroupsHead downAWOLEscapeDifficult work
71 Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Setting EventsTriggering AntecedentsTeaching BehaviorsMaintaining ConsequencesHome and school phone if possible upsetting eventMeet Sean at door/busGive options for scheduleReading instructionStress ThermometerArt BasketEstablish Cool down areasGive choice to be part of group from deskTeach Sean to use Cool downTeach Sean to use art basketTeach Sean to ask for alternative activityTeach Sean to use Stress ThermometerWhen Sean has good day let him choose “medal”When Sean is becoming upset remind him about break optionsIf Sean is walking around room, redirect to desk or break areaIf Sean leaves area, begin search & call home
72 Activity Behavior Intervention Plan Use the Competing Path Analysis to identify strategies for the behavior intervention planNeutralize setting eventsPrevent antecedents from being triggersTeach alternative and desired behaviorConsequences to encourage alternative and desired behaviorsConsequences to discourage problem behaviorActivity
73 STEP 6. Develop details & routines for full implementation of behavior support plan LogisticsE.g., schedules, people, materials, training, monitoringScripts for adults toModify structural/routine/environment“Neutralize” setting eventsManipulate antecedent & consequence eventsTeach response/skillsRespond to emergency/crisis situations
75 Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences HayleySetting EventsTriggering AntecedentsTeaching BehaviorsMaintaining ConsequencesCheck in with Hayley in AMLet her sleep if tiredHave clean clothes & supplies in officeNeutralizeGive her shorter & easier assignmentsAsk her how much work she will completeTeacher precorrectionRemove from PEDon’t assign homeworkIrrelevantTeach Hayley to: - ask for help-ask to go to spec ed-How to decide howmuch of theassignment shecan completeInefficientLet Hayley go to Spec Ed when she asksLet Hayley go to office to assist when completes workLet her choose from personal items whenshe completesassignmentsIneffective
76 Generic Plan Template - Hayley Beginning of classRemind Hayley she can ask to go to spec edAsk her how much of the assignment she will be able to completeIf she is tired, let he take a nap in the officeWhen Hayley raises her hand-Ask if you can help-If she wants to go to spec ed let her goIf Hayley is not-engaged-Remind her she can go to spec edWhen she completes agreed upon work-Praise her for keeping her commitment-Ask if she would like to go work in the officeWhen Hayley turns in assignments-Praise her for being responsible-Let her choose a personal item from her “store”
78 Activity BIP Implementation Decide how you will summarize the BIP so that all individuals can easily understand and implementTwo column summaryFAQFlow-chartIdentify what materials will need to be developed before the BIP can be implementedActivity
79 STEP 7. Monitor & evaluate implementation of behavior support plan. DataImpact onstudent behavior, lifestyle outcomessignificant othersFidelity of implementation
80 Consider contextual fit (Albin, Lucyshyn, Horner, & Flannery, 1996) Characteristics of person for whom plan is designed.Variables related to people who will implement plan.Features of environments & systems within which plan will be implemented. (p. 82)
81 How do I know if I’ve done an FBA? Develop testable hypothesis statementConfirm hypothesis with direct observationsDevelop behavior support planDevelop implementation planMonitor/evaluate implementation
82 Big IdeasFBA-BIP is a process designed to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of individualized behavior support planning.FBA-BIP is appropriate for all students and all types of problem behavior.Intensity of FBA-BIP should match intensity of problem and needs of students.
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