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Advanced FBA-BIP When Tier III is Really Tier III Teri Lewis Oregon Director NW PBIS Network.

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Presentation on theme: "Advanced FBA-BIP When Tier III is Really Tier III Teri Lewis Oregon Director NW PBIS Network."— Presentation transcript:

1 Advanced FBA-BIP When Tier III is Really Tier III Teri Lewis Oregon Director NW PBIS Network


3 School Environment Lack of discipline is viewed as one of the most serious challenges facing public schools National Education Goals Report (1995) U.S. Surgeon General’s Report (2002) Teachers report that problem behavior is increasing and is a threat to effective learning Skiba and Peterson, (2000)

4 Classroom Environment  Students behaviors impact teacher-student interactions (Gunter, et al., 1993; Sutherland, 2002)  Teachers may inadvertently contribute to problem behavior (Carr, Taylor, & Robinson, 1991; Gunter, et al., 1993)  Teachers spend less academic time with students (Nelson & Roberts, 2000; Stein & Davis, 2000; Sutherland, Wehby, & Yoder, 2002)

5 Student Impact Generally attain unfavorable educational outcomes (US Department of Ed, 2001; Walker, et al., 1999) Early onset of problem behavior and low academic engagement can lead to identification of EBD and placement in special education About 50% drop out of school Earn lower grades, increased truancy, fail more classes Unsuccessfully employed, poor work records

6 Student Impact Expulsions and suspensions are increasing (Cartledge, Tillman, & Johnson, 2001) In spite of evidence that expelled or suspended students are likely to drop out of high school (DeRidder, 1991; Verdugo, 2000).

7 Tier I - Universal School-wide discipline system for all students, staff, & settings that is effective for 80% of students Clearly & positively stated expectations Procedures for teaching expectations Continuum of procedures for teaching expectations Continuum of procedures for encouraging expectations Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations Procedures for monitoring & modifying procedures

8 Tier II - Secondary Specialized group administered system for students who display high-risk problem behavior & are unresponsive to universal interventions Functional assessment based intervention decisions Daily behavioral monitoring Regular & frequent opportunities for positive reinforcement Home-school connection Individualized academic accommodations for academic success Planned social skills instruction Behaviorally based interventions

9 Tier III - Tertiary Specialized individually administered system for students who display most challenging problem behavior & are unresponsive to targeted group interventions Simple request for assistance Immediate response (24-48 hours Functional behavioral assessment-based behavior support planning Team-based problem solving process Data-based decision making Comprehensive service delivery derived from a wraparound process

10 Comprehensive System School: (a) Training, (b) Technical assistance, (c) communication and coordination, and (b) on-going monitoring District: Coordinating resources, training and assessment across schools Community: Support that links families, school/district personnel and community agencies (e.g., juvenile justice, community mental health, etc.).

11 Guiding Principles Functional Perspective: Behavior is considered within environmental context Behavioral Competence: School-based individual who has expertise. Systems Foundation. Team-based approach to problem solving and efficient request assistance with function-based support. Multiple Levels: Build off SW Discipline model, intervene early.




15 Example 1 – DEBS (District Effective Behavior Support) District and Community Wide School Psychologist School Representative Spec ED Director Juvenile Justice After school Program United Way … Schools had to have high level of implementation at Tier I to participate Brought FBA-BIP, records to meeting Often brought key teacher/staff

16 In general, DEBS Met weekly for 1 hour Schools can present a student to team and then team brainstorms support Because community agencies were present it was fast and efficient to coordinate wrap-around services

17 Example 2 – BISSC (Bethel Individual Student Systems Cadre) The purpose of BISSC is to extend the existing school-based continuum of PBS to the district level by: increasing communication between key individuals, coordination of efforts, and specialized technical assistance. District MTSS Model 11 schools 5679 students District-wide PBIS project District-wide reading project Beginning a District-wide math project

18 In general, BISSC Met monthly with School-based Teams (at the school) Technical Assistance, Monitoring Quarterly District-wide Training, Coordination & Communication Monthly Advisory Council Systems and Planning for trainings and technical assistance Monthly District Leadership Team Connect to other initiatives (e.g., academic, multi-cultural)

19 Survey Summary Over the three years of implementation: It is easier to complete the FBA-BIP process They complete more without district or expert support Members believe that the BIPs are more effective As team member confidence increased, as reliance on outside support has decreased However, it took three years for schools to establish a system for referring students for BISSC support

20 Check-in Individual Student Systems Do you have a team that supports teacherswith at-risk students? Available to all staff? Y N Available to all parents? Y N Simple Request for Assistance? Y N Protected meeting time? Data sources Committee Review Worksheet, Staff Handbook,general knowledge…


22 What is FBA? A systematic problem solving process for developing statements about factors that: Contribute to the occurrence and maintenance of problem behavior, and More importantly, serve as basis for developing proactive & comprehensive behavior support plans.

23 Steps in an FBA 1.Collect Information to determine function. 2.Develop testable hypothesis or summary statements and indicate functions. 3.Collect direct observation data to confirm summary statement. 4.Identify desired and acceptable replacement behaviors. 5.Develop behavior intervention plan. 6.Develop comprehensive BIP to ensure high fidelity implementation. 7.Develop on-going monitoring system.

24 Step 1: Collect Information Multiple sources Student, parent, teacher, etc. Multiple settings Where it occurs & doesn’t occur Strengths Reinforcers, goals, hobbies, social skills, academic achievements, etc.

25 Step 1 ….continued Multiple methods Archival review Office discipline referrals, behavior incident reports, etc. Checklist/inventory FACTS, routine analysis Interview Brief, student-guided, parent, teacher Direct observation O’Neill et al., ABC, scatter plot

26 Hayley You have been asked to assist the team in providing support to Hayley who is in 7 th grade. Hayley’s teacher is concerned about Hayley because she hasn’t turned in enough work to pass English, math, and science for the first two quarters and is already missing assignments during the first two weeks of the third quarter. In addition Hayley skips several classes a week, usually those that occur after lunch, and refuses to dress for PE.

27 Hayley –Teacher Interview You decide to interview Hayley’s teacher Mr. Nedry who requested assistance and teaches both the math and science classes. During the interview Mr. Nedry states that Hayley rarely turns work and when asked says she doesn’t care. In class she spends a lot of time “getting ready to work.” For example, she looks through her back-pack for paper, pencil, books, etc., she sharpens her pencil, asks to go to the bathroom, and straightens her coat on the back of her chair. She doesn’t talk to many students in or out of class and is not involved in any school activities. About two years ago Hayley was assessed for special education but did not meet eligibility requirements. Mr. Nedry believes that the home environment is hectic and that Hayley may be getting involved in prostitution.

28 Hayley – Student Interview During the interview, Hayley states that she doesn’t like many of the teachers at school. She does like the special education teacher and the front office secretary. She is not very interested in school, but wants to go to California to live with her older sister and work as a secretary. Hayley says that doesn’t have many friends at school and that a lot of her tine after school is spent looking after her younger sister. She also states that she has trouble with math and doesn’t like to write. In addition, when she hasn’t much sleep the night before she has more trouble at school than usually. Hayley also tells you that she skips class to smoke, go to the corner market, and that she shoplifts.

29 Hayley- Archival Review You decide to review two types of information. First, you get the attendance records for the year and find that Hayley skips about one whole day per week and about four other classes per week. She hasn’t received any office discipline referrals for the past 2 years. Second, you get assignment records from her teacher and learn that she has turned in about 17% of the assignments in math, 35% in science, and about 32% in English. Hayley hasn’t received any office discipline referrals, detentions, or suspensions this year.

30 Defining behavior Must be in operational, observable, or measurable terms. To achieve high agreement between two people.

31 Defining Behavior: Noncompliance Doesn’t follow adult directions to clean up lunch table. Walks away from teacher without responding. Flips tray over on table and tells the teacher to go to _________. Ask the teacher how their weekend was, talks for a few minutes, and then goes out to break.

32 Defining Behavior: Doesn’t complete class work Starts work when asked, gets stuck after a few minutes and begins to draw on the assignment. Spends the first 15 minutes “getting ready”, e.g., opening book, sharpening pencil, getting paper, fixing coat on back of chair, etc. Completes the assignment, shuts assignment in binder, and forgets to turn in when leaving.

33 Consider behavior dimensions : Topography/shape Frequency Duration Latency Intensity or force Locus Aggression = hitting, biting, & kicking or name calling & verbal abuse

34 Consider response class “Set of topographically different behaviors that have the same effect or function” (Sprague & Horner, 1999, p. 99) To escape difficult request: hit, push, runaway, cry

35 Consider response chains Predictable sequence of behaviors in which each behavior occasions next behavior in the chain, & functions as a reinforcer for previous behavior in chain. Given a task, student (a) talks with friends, (b) writes on papers, (c) says work is stupid, (d) throws paper in waste basket, & (e) leaves room.

36 Hayley Problem Behaviors Not completing work & Off-task Skipping/Not participating in PE/Shoplifting Not completing work – Low rate of work completion in Science, Math and Literature Not Engaged– Hayley spends 10-15 minutes getting ready (latency). Getting ready includes finding materials (backpack, cubby), sharpening pencil, straightening coat, etc.

37 Activity Defining Behavior Review the information you have about thestudent. Do you need additional information? Student, Teacher or Parent interview ODRs, other discipline records Academic and/or Health information Identify your target behavior(s) e.g., aggression, disruptive, non-compliant Write an operational definition of the student’starget behavior (s) Observable and measurable e.g., disruption – frequently out of seat walkingaround the room, takes others items off theirdesk, …

38 STEP 2. Develop summary statement. Testable hypothesis (“objective guess”). Write in observable terms. If not confirmable, collect more information & restate. Developed from review of assessment information. Composed of (a) problem behavior, (b) triggering antecedent, (c) maintaining consequences, & (d) setting events.

39 Antecedents Occurs before behavior, acts as a “trigger” Stimulus Control When an stimulus (event) reliably predicts that a behavior will or will not happen. What do you do at a red light? Why? What do you do at a green light? Why

40 Consequences Occurs after behavior, maintains it (meets a need). Either increases or decreases behavior. Possible functions Get/obtain (social, activity, tangible) Escape (social, activity/tasks) Automatic/sensory stimulation

41 Setting Events Happen before, similar to antecedents, but are more distant. Can even be several hours or several days before Because of this rarely “see” the setting event and hard to identify Think of the setting event as “setting up” the behavior and antecedents as “setting off” the behavior E.g., lack of sleep, missed breakfast, fight with peer, did poorly in earlier class, stayed with dad (or mom), allergies, not feeling well, …..

42 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Testable Hypothesis

43 Examples of summary statements When he misses breakfast & peers tease him about his walk, Caesar calls them names & hits them. The teasing stops.

44 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Testable Hypothesis Misses breakfast. Teased by peers. Name calling & Hits. Teasing stops.

45 Camillia stares off into space & does not respond to teacher directions when she doesn’t know how to do a difficult math problem. Her teacher removes the work.

46 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Testable Hypothesis None Difficult Math Stares into space Doesn’t respond Escape math

47 When his teacher gives him clear directions & praises him privately, Charlop completes his work.

48 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Testable Hypothesis Clear directions. Completes work. Private teacher praise.

49 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Hayley Lack of sleep Math Writing assignments Getting Ready to work Not Engaged Escapes work

50 Activity Testable Hypothesis Develop a testable hypothesis for you targetstudent Operational definition of the problem behavior Triggering antecedent Maintaining Consequence Consider if there are Setting Events Put answers in the middle row of theCompeting Path Analysis Data sources Guess & Check Brief FBAI

51 STEP 3. Collect direct observation data to confirm summary statement Testable hypothesis Multiple settings Measures of problem behavior triggering antecedents, maintaining consequences, & setting events

52 Measurement Process of assignment numbers, values, units to some feature(s) of an event Johnston & Pennypacker (1993) Researchers operationalize empiricism Achieve a scientific understanding Practitioners Optimize effectiveness and resources Ethical and accountable

53 Hayley – Percent of Intervals Not engaged

54 Activity Confirming Summary Statement What data do you have now to support yoursummary statement Behavior, antecedent, consequence & settingevent ODRs, DPR, record review, anecdotal What additional data do you need to collect? What are you unsure about? Considering adding direct observation

55 STEP 4. Developing “competing pathways” summary statement Components Confirmed summary statements Desired replacement behavior to be displayed in problem situation (behavioral objective) Alternative replacement behavior that could achieve same outcome as problem behavior



58 Hayley Setting event Lack of Sleep Antecedent Math Writing assignments Problem Behavior Not engaged Low work completion Maintaining Consequence Escape work Alternative Behavior Ask to go to Sped for assistance Existing Consequence Grades More work Desired Behavior Start work quickly Stay engaged

59 Activity Competing Path Analysis Finish completing the Competing Path Analysisfor your target student Desired Behavior – Long term goal Consequence for Desired Behavior Alternative Behavior – Short term goal Meets same function as problem behavior Easier and more effective than problem behavior

60 Behavior Intervention Planning

61 STEP 5. Develop behavior support plan. Tactics for discouraging problem behavior, teaching & encouraging desirable & acceptable replacement behavior, preventing & responding to emergency/crisis situations, & monitoring implementation effectiveness Emphasis on manipulation of (a) behaviors, (b) antecedents, (c) consequences, & (d) setting events

62 Guidelines Design antecedent strategies to make triggering antecedents irrelevant. So they no longer serve as triggers. Design behavior teaching strategies to make problem behaviors inefficient. So more acceptable behaviors are easier to do.

63 Guidelines Design consequence strategies to make maintaining consequences ineffective. So they no longer are present or Are less reinforcing. Design setting event strategies to eliminate or neutralize effects of setting events. So they have less impact on routines & reinforcers.


65 Hayley  Check in with Hayley in AM  Let her sleep if tired  Have clean clothes & supplies in office Neutralize  Give her shorter & easier assignments  Ask her how much work she will complete  Teacher precorrection  Remove from PE  Don’t assign homework Irrelevant  Teach Hayley to: - ask for help -ask to go to spec ed -How to decide how much of the assignment she can complete Inefficient  Let Hayley go to Spec Ed when she asks  Let Hayley go to office to assist when completes work  Let her choose from personal items when she completes assignments Ineffective Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Teaching Behaviors Maintaining Consequences

66 Problem Behavior Pathway Headaches Noise Peers Talking No work Obtain Peer Attention Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior

67 Competing Behavior Pathway Setting event Headaches Antecedent Noise Peers Problem Talking No work Maintaining consequence Obtain Peer Attention Alternative Ask for Peer buddy Consequence Better grades Desired Sit quietly Do work

68  Have Cary check-in with the teacher at the beginning of the day  If Cary has a headache, give him a choice of tasks  Give Cary a choice a seating  Remind Cary that he can a sk to sit at the back table or move up  Give Cary a self-management  Teach Cary to ask for assistance (peer buddy)  Teach Cary to ask to sit at the back table, and how to move up  Teach Cary how to monitor his own behavior  When Cary talks give reminder and/or ask him to take a break  When Cary asks for assistance/ change seating immed. respond  Good day/week give Cary praise and summary to take home Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Teaching Behaviors Maintaining Consequences

69 Problem Behavior Pathway Prior “upsetting” event Difficult Work Groups Head down AWOL Escape Difficult work Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior

70 Competing Behavior Pathway Setting event Prior “upsetting” event Antecedent Difficult Work Groups Problem Head down AWOL Maintaining consequence Escape Difficult work Alternative Ask for Break Consequence Better grades Friends Desired Participate Do work

71  Home and school phone if possible upsetting event  Meet Sean at door/bus  Give options for schedule  Reading instruction  Stress Thermometer  Art Basket  Establish Cool down areas  Give choice to be part of group from desk  Teach Sean to use Cool down  Teach Sean to use art basket  Teach Sean to ask for alternative activity  Teach Sean to use Stress Thermometer  When Sean has good day let him choose “medal”  When Sean is becoming upset remind him about break options  If Sean is walking around room, redirect to desk or break area  If Sean leaves area, begin search & call home Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Teaching Behaviors Maintaining Consequences

72 Activity Behavior Intervention Plan Use the Competing Path Analysis to identifystrategies for the behavior intervention plan Neutralize setting events Prevent antecedents from being triggers Teach alternative and desired behavior Consequences to encourage alternative anddesired behaviors Consequences to discourage problem behavior

73 STEP 6. Develop details & routines for full implementation of behavior support plan Logistics E.g., schedules, people, materials, training, monitoring Scripts for adults to Modify structural/routine/environment “Neutralize” setting events Manipulate antecedent & consequence events Teach response/skills Respond to emergency/crisis situations


75 Hayley  Check in with Hayley in AM  Let her sleep if tired  Have clean clothes & supplies in office Neutralize  Give her shorter & easier assignments  Ask her how much work she will complete  Teacher precorrection  Remove from PE  Don’t assign homework Irrelevant  Teach Hayley to: - ask for help -ask to go to spec ed -How to decide how much of the assignment she can complete Inefficient  Let Hayley go to Spec Ed when she asks  Let Hayley go to office to assist when completes work  Let her choose from personal items when she completes assignments Ineffective Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Teaching Behaviors Maintaining Consequences

76 Generic Plan Template - Hayley Beginning of class-Remind Hayley she can ask to go to spec ed -Ask her how much of the assignment she will be able to complete -If she is tired, let he take a nap in the office When Hayley raises her hand -Ask if you can help -If she wants to go to spec ed let her go If Hayley is not- engaged -Ask if you can help -Remind her she can go to spec ed When she completes agreed upon work -Praise her for keeping her commitment -Ask if she would like to go work in the office When Hayley turns in assignments -Praise her for being responsible -Let her choose a personal item from her “store”


78 Activity BIP Implementation Decide how you will summarize the BIP so thatall individuals can easily understand andimplement Two column summary FAQ Flow-chart Identify what materials will need to bedeveloped before the BIP can be implemented

79 STEP 7. Monitor & evaluate implementation of behavior support plan. Data Impact on student behavior, lifestyle outcomes significant others Fidelity of implementation

80 Consider contextual fit (Albin, Lucyshyn, Horner, & Flannery, 1996) Characteristics of person for whom plan is designed. Variables related to people who will implement plan. Features of environments & systems within which plan will be implemented. (p. 82)

81 How do I know if I’ve done an FBA? Develop testable hypothesis statement Confirm hypothesis with direct observations Develop behavior support plan Develop implementation plan Monitor/evaluate implementation

82 Big Ideas FBA-BIP is a process designed to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of individualized behavior support planning. FBA-BIP is appropriate for all students and all types of problem behavior. Intensity of FBA-BIP should match intensity of problem and needs of students.

83 Next Steps

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