Presentation on theme: "Healing the trauma that predisposes youth offending Jill Worrall"— Presentation transcript:
1Healing the trauma that predisposes youth offending Jill Worrall Foster and Kin CareHealing the trauma that predisposes youth offendingJill Worrall
2My Experience Foster Parent Foster Care Social worker Foster Care Programme ManagerUniversity Lecturer and ResearcherBoard Member Youth Horizons TrustBoard Member Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Trust
3International Crisis in Care of troubled children and Youth Increasing number of children and young people needing careCaregivers increasingly difficult to recruit and retainIncreasingly complex needs of young peopleNeed for higher level of caregiver skillIncreasing costs to maintain care system.
4Consequences of Crisis Placements made in terms of expedienceHigh level of caregiver burnout and turnoverChildren and young people experiencing multiple placements and peer contaminationIncreasing number of Abuse Allegations against caregiversProblem recruiting and maintaining carersInternational move to placing within Family
5Current Practice Trends Inclusive Holistic Foster Care Models- continuity of family relationships- parenting education in foster care- re-integration support – (pre & post)Supplemental Care vs Substitute CareFocus on Attachment HistoriesTherapeutic/Treatment Foster CareFlexible discharge dates for young people.
6Current Practice Trends Care support responsibility of NGO’s(foster and kin)Growth in ‘For-Profit’ agenciesRetainer FeesPeer supervision and support projectsIncrease in Family care targets
7New Zealand Children Young Persons and their Families Act 1989 S208c ‘The principle that, any measures for dealing with offending by children and young persons should be designed :i) to strengthen the family, whanau, hapu, iwi and family group of the child/young person concernedii) to foster the ability of families, whanau, hapu, iwi and family groups to develop their own means of dealing with offending by their children and young persons
8CYF Foster Care Statistics as at June 2008 Foster Care Kin CareMaori % (n 406) 53% (n 970)Pacific Is 41% (n 47) 59% (n 137)NZ Pakeha 69% (n 1307 ) 31% (n 937 )(Worrall 2008)
9Allegations in Care Ohio 1-10 chance – after 5 years 50% chance New Zealand – increasing number (NZFFCF report 08).CausesLack of trainingInadequate carer assessmentsBurnoutOver use
10Multi-systemic Causality Youth Offending Individual characteristicsFamily CharacteristicsPeer relationsSchool FactorsCommunity FactorsTherefore, A Need for:Rigorous Family and Child Assessments Multi-Systemic Treatment Foster Care
11Professionalisation Tiered Frameworks Compulsory Education/training Training currency /making it countYounger age setShorter duration (3-5 years)Specific field of care (youth, disability, fragile infants)Some philosophical resistance from NGO’s
13Level One Standard Care giving Family Assessment Compulsory pre-placement TrainingCompulsory Inservice Foster Care Training programmeCompletion of Certificate in Foster CareStandard Board PaymentsAttendance at Foster Care Support Group
14Level Two Completion of Foster Care Certificate Enhanced Board Payments according to child’s level of difficultiesOn-going in-service trainingPeer Supervision/Group SupervisionAbility to work with child’s parents if appropriate
15Level Three (Therapeutic Foster Care) Salaried according to level of expertiseDiploma in Foster Care or higherBoard payments according to child’s needsIntensive on-going trainingHigh level of support/supervisionAbility to team work with other professionals (eg therapists, psychologists, teachers).Ability to implement treatment plansAbility to work with child’s family –(guardians)Mentor/trainer of other foster carers
16Whanau/Kin Care study (Worrall 2005) Issues identified by caregivers:COMMITMENT! -in spite of:The difficulty of managing the behaviour of traumatized childrenThe difficulties of dealing with the children’s parents particularly those with drug and alcohol dependence.The struggle to manage financially when income has decreased and family needs have significantly increased
17Research Issues (cont) The isolation of the caregivers and alienation from their families, in some instances, and their former social communities and supports.The complexities of the legal system and the drain on finances and stress levels when having to achieve legal permanence for the childrenAffect of Age - Weariness and need for respite, day care and after school care.
18Web-SiteThe complete report of the GRG study and the Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Handbookcan be downloaded from: