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Foster and Kin Care Healing the trauma that predisposes youth offending Healing the trauma that predisposes youth offending Jill Worrall.

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Presentation on theme: "Foster and Kin Care Healing the trauma that predisposes youth offending Healing the trauma that predisposes youth offending Jill Worrall."— Presentation transcript:

1 Foster and Kin Care Healing the trauma that predisposes youth offending Healing the trauma that predisposes youth offending Jill Worrall

2 My Experience Foster ParentFoster Parent Foster Care Social workerFoster Care Social worker Foster Care Programme ManagerFoster Care Programme Manager University Lecturer and ResearcherUniversity Lecturer and Researcher Board Member Youth Horizons TrustBoard Member Youth Horizons Trust Board Member Grandparents Raising Grandchildren TrustBoard Member Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Trust

3 International Crisis in Care of troubled children and Youth Increasing number of children and young people needing careIncreasing number of children and young people needing care Caregivers increasingly difficult to recruit and retainCaregivers increasingly difficult to recruit and retain Increasingly complex needs of young peopleIncreasingly complex needs of young people Need for higher level of caregiver skillNeed for higher level of caregiver skill Increasing costs to maintain care system.Increasing costs to maintain care system.

4 Consequences of Crisis Placements made in terms of expediencePlacements made in terms of expedience High level of caregiver burnout and turnoverHigh level of caregiver burnout and turnover Children and young people experiencing multiple placements and peer contaminationChildren and young people experiencing multiple placements and peer contamination Increasing number of Abuse Allegations against caregiversIncreasing number of Abuse Allegations against caregivers Problem recruiting and maintaining carersProblem recruiting and maintaining carers International move to placing within FamilyInternational move to placing within Family

5 Current Practice Trends Inclusive Holistic Foster Care ModelsInclusive Holistic Foster Care Models - continuity of family relationships - parenting education in foster care - re-integration support – (pre & post) Supplemental Care vs Substitute CareSupplemental Care vs Substitute Care Focus on Attachment HistoriesFocus on Attachment Histories Therapeutic/Treatment Foster CareTherapeutic/Treatment Foster Care Flexible discharge dates for young people.Flexible discharge dates for young people.

6 Current Practice Trends Care support responsibility of NGO’sCare support responsibility of NGO’s (foster and kin) Growth in ‘For-Profit’ agenciesGrowth in ‘For-Profit’ agencies Retainer FeesRetainer Fees Peer supervision and support projectsPeer supervision and support projects Increase in Family care targetsIncrease in Family care targets

7 New Zealand Children Young Persons and their Families Act 1989 S208c ‘The principle that, any measures for dealing with offending by children and young persons should be designed :‘The principle that, any measures for dealing with offending by children and young persons should be designed : i) to strengthen the family, whanau, hapu, iwi and family group of the child/young person concernedi) to strengthen the family, whanau, hapu, iwi and family group of the child/young person concerned ii) to foster the ability of families, whanau, hapu, iwi and family groups to develop their own means of dealing with offending by their children and young personsii) to foster the ability of families, whanau, hapu, iwi and family groups to develop their own means of dealing with offending by their children and young persons

8 CYF Foster Care Statistics as at June 2008 Foster CareKin Care Maori 47% (n 406) 53% (n 970)Maori 47% (n 406) 53% (n 970) Pacific Is41% (n 47) 59% (n 137)Pacific Is41% (n 47) 59% (n 137) NZ Pakeha69% (n 1307 ) 31% (n 937 )NZ Pakeha69% (n 1307 ) 31% (n 937 ) (Worrall 2008)(Worrall 2008)

9 Allegations in Care Ohio 1-10 chance – after 5 years 50% chanceOhio 1-10 chance – after 5 years 50% chance New Zealand – increasing number (NZFFCF report 08).New Zealand – increasing number (NZFFCF report 08). CausesCauses –Lack of training –Inadequate carer assessments –Burnout –Over use

10 Multi-systemic Causality Youth Offending Individual characteristicsIndividual characteristics Family CharacteristicsFamily Characteristics Peer relationsPeer relations School FactorsSchool Factors Community FactorsCommunity Factors Therefore, A Need for:Therefore, A Need for: Rigorous Family and Child Assessments Multi-Systemic Treatment Foster CareRigorous Family and Child Assessments Multi-Systemic Treatment Foster Care

11 Professionalisation Tiered FrameworksTiered Frameworks Compulsory Education/trainingCompulsory Education/training Training currency /making it countTraining currency /making it count Younger age setYounger age set Shorter duration (3-5 years)Shorter duration (3-5 years) Specific field of care (youth, disability, fragile infants)Specific field of care (youth, disability, fragile infants) Some philosophical resistance from NGO’sSome philosophical resistance from NGO’s

12 Alternative Approach Tiered Structure Level 3 Hi needs Level 2 Medium Term Therapeutic as needed Level 1 Low level of difficulty Short-term, respite.

13 Level One Standard Care giving Family AssessmentStandard Care giving Family Assessment Compulsory pre-placement TrainingCompulsory pre-placement Training Compulsory Inservice Foster Care Training programmeCompulsory Inservice Foster Care Training programme Completion of Certificate in Foster CareCompletion of Certificate in Foster Care Standard Board PaymentsStandard Board Payments Attendance at Foster Care Support GroupAttendance at Foster Care Support Group

14 Level Two Completion of Foster Care CertificateCompletion of Foster Care Certificate Enhanced Board Payments according to child’s level of difficultiesEnhanced Board Payments according to child’s level of difficulties On-going in-service trainingOn-going in-service training Peer Supervision/Group SupervisionPeer Supervision/Group Supervision Ability to work with child’s parents if appropriateAbility to work with child’s parents if appropriate

15 Level Three (Therapeutic Foster Care)  Salaried according to level of expertise  Diploma in Foster Care or higher  Board payments according to child’s needs  Intensive on-going training  High level of support/supervision  Ability to team work with other professionals (eg therapists, psychologists, teachers).  Ability to implement treatment plans  Ability to work with child’s family –(guardians)  Mentor/trainer of other foster carers

16 Whanau/Kin Care study (Worrall 2005) Issues identified by caregivers: COMMITMENT! -in spite of:COMMITMENT! -in spite of: The difficulty of managing the behaviour of traumatized childrenThe difficulty of managing the behaviour of traumatized children The difficulties of dealing with the children’s parents particularly those with drug and alcohol dependence.The difficulties of dealing with the children’s parents particularly those with drug and alcohol dependence. The struggle to manage financially when income has decreased and family needs have significantly increasedThe struggle to manage financially when income has decreased and family needs have significantly increased

17 Research Issues (cont) The isolation of the caregivers and alienation from their families, in some instances, and their former social communities and supports.The isolation of the caregivers and alienation from their families, in some instances, and their former social communities and supports. The complexities of the legal system and the drain on finances and stress levels when having to achieve legal permanence for the childrenThe complexities of the legal system and the drain on finances and stress levels when having to achieve legal permanence for the children Affect of Age - Weariness and need for respite, day care and after school care.Affect of Age - Weariness and need for respite, day care and after school care.

18 Web-Site The complete report of the GRG study and the Grandparents Raising Grandchildren HandbookThe complete report of the GRG study and the Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Handbook can be downloaded from: can be downloaded from:


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