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Sciences, Technology and Innovation in China: From Fundamental Research to Industrialization Chunli BAI Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Industrial Technologies.

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Presentation on theme: "Sciences, Technology and Innovation in China: From Fundamental Research to Industrialization Chunli BAI Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Industrial Technologies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sciences, Technology and Innovation in China: From Fundamental Research to Industrialization Chunli BAI Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Industrial Technologies 21st, June 2012

2 I.An overview of S&T and innovation in China II.Roadmap of S&T and Innovation III.A Brief Touch on CAS IV.Analysis and conclusion Outline

3 I.An overview of S&T and Innovation in China II.Roadmap of S&T an d Innovation III.A Brief Touch on CAS IV. Analysis and conclusion

4 General Statements China has set up a complete S&T and innovation system with a few fields ranking at the top of the world Has the world's 2 nd largest R&D workforce with a total R&D expenditure at 1.8% of GDP As the second largest economy with diversified development, China allows enough room to try all kinds of S&T innovations Has obviously reached the stage we can rely more on S&T contributions, innovation and skills of workforce for further progress

5 R&D force in selected countries Source: Main Science & Technology Indicators 2010/2 (OECD) Ranked No. 2 in 2009 with a total of 2.29 million China’s R&D workforce

6 Global R&D expenditures by country/region:2009 Became the second largest in the world in 2009, taking up 12% of the global total China $154B(12%) Central Asia $33B(2.6%) Europe $319B(25%) Africa$9 B(0.7%) Austrialia & Oceania $22B(1.8%) USA $402B(31%) Central America & Caribbean $0.6(<0.1%) South America $31B(2.4%) South Asia $34B(2.6%) Source: Science and Engineering Indicator 2012 Japan $138(11%) China’s R&D investment

7 Remains around 20% annually in the past decades, being the highest in the world Still a big GAP In percentage Source: Science and Engineering Indicator 2012 China’s R&D growth rate Suggesting the need to further increse

8 Gross expenditures on R&D by performing sector, in selected countries: 2008 or 2009 Has t he largest share, being the third highest among the world’s major countries in proportion CountryBusinessGovernmentHigher educationPrivate nonprofit US(2009)70.311.713.54.4 China (2009)73.218.78.10.0 Japan (2009)75.89.213.41.6 Germany (2009)67.514.917.6** France (2009)61.916.320.61.2 Korea (2008)75.412.111.11.4 UK(2009)60.49.227.92.5 Source: Science and Engineering Indicator 2012 China’s R&D investment from the business sector

9 8 Source: Science and Engineering Indicator 2012 S&E journal articles produced, by selected region/country: 1995–2009 Have increased rapidly over the years, became No.2 in total in 2009 Thousand China’s international S&T publications

10 Also witnessed a rapid increase such as in Nature, Science, JACS, PRL and Lancet, etc Source: CAS Documentation Center Comprehensive journals such as Nature and Science More specialized journals such as JACS and PRL S&T publications in high impact journals

11 Became No. 3 in 2009 but far behind Japan and the U.S. Source: MOST; Main Science & Technology Indicators 2010/2 (OECD) Invention patents granted in selected countries (2009) China’s invention patents

12  China has accomplished a great deal in a wide range of science, technology and innovation  These successes cover frontiers of science, areas for social benefits and sustainability, and industrial competitiveness and national security Nano Technology is such a good case

13  Government Investment to National Nano S&T Nano S&T was listed as an important item in the Chinese National S&T Development Program (2006- 2020)  National Research Institutes Having seen various kinds of entities set up  Publications and Patents SCI/EI Publications in Nanotechnology—China became No. 1 in 2010  Has Made Success both on Basic Research and Application Rapid Development of NanoTechnology since 1980s

14 Lu, et al, Science, 287, 1463 (2000): Superplastic Extensibility of at Room Temperature Lu, et al, Science, 323, 607 (2009): Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper This feature is useful for advancing processing technology of metals and alloys. Nanostructure copper can be elongated to more than 50 times without breaking. This unique behavior demonstrates that the nanocrystalline structure significantly facilitates plastic deformation at lower temperatures. This feature is useful for advancing processing technology of metals and alloys.  =200%  =600%  =2000%  =5100% As-deposited RT~ 0.22T m Developed nanocrystalline materials: Super Cu ExamplesNano Basic Research Lu, et al, Science, 304, 426 (2004): Ultrahigh Strength and High Electrical Conductivity Institute of Metal Research, CAS

15 Laser phototypesetting system Two steps photographic development Burning Plate PS plate Photosensitive film Laser phototype -setting machine Picture and text information Computer Film fix developexpose Chemical Treatment Process fixdevelopexpose Plate Chemical Treatment Process CTP -Int’l mainstream technology One step photographic development Picture and text Computer CTP equipment PlateCTP plate fixdevelopexpose Process of Photoreception and Chemical Treatment Problems Photographic imaging, need to process in darkness Chemical development, cause liquid waste discharge Pre-coating, waste resources (80-90%) Fuji、Kodak、Agfa… Technology advantage  No need to avoid light  No pollution  Low cost  Recoverable “Giving up darkness to light” as we say in Chinese 。 Current tech 。 No photographic process Picture and text information ComputerPrinting plate Reduces costs and farewell to pollution by a click of the mouse. A Comparison between Green Printing Tech and LPS & CTP Currently Used in the Market ExamplesNano Application Institute of Chemistry, CAS

16 Innovation No need pre-coating process All process green Key technologies Control the nano/micro-structure of the super-hydrophilic plate. Modulate the wettability of the printing images Achieve printing endurance Nano-particles Polymer layer Surface modification Super- hydrophilicity Examples Nanomaterials-based Green Printing Plate Technology @ Nanomaterials-based Green Printing Plate Technology Innovation & Key technologies Innovation & Key technologies Nano Application

17 Examples @ Nanomaterials-based Green Printing Plate Technology Some Printed Samples with the New Technology Some Printed Samples with the New Technology Nano Application

18 I. An overview of S&T and innovations in China II. Roadmap of S&T and Innovation III. A Brief Touch upon CAS IV. Analysis and conclusion Outline

19 This Outline was worked out in 2006, involving contributions of over 3000 individuals It aims to turn China into an innovation-driven country & a well-off society through fostering strategic emerging industries Its specific goals include: Further build up our national innovation system Forge stronger linkages between S&T and industries Make enterprises to be main players in R&D and innovations Improve S&T contributions to economy up to 60% from current 40% Increase R&D expenditure up to 2.5% of GDP Establish Chinese modern research system 2006-2020 National S&T Outline

20 Main Areas include:  Energy  Agriculture  Environment  Transportation  Population and health  Manufacturing industry  Information industry and modern service Industry  Water and mineral resources  Urbanization and city development  National safety and public security To achieve innovation and frog- leap development and provide strong support for the future To achieve innovation and frog- leap development and provide strong support for the future National Priorities Specified Initiated 16 major national special projects to carry out the implementation

21  Financial and taxation policies  Enhanced IP strategy & standards  Efforts to optimize funding structure  Efforts to promote a diversified system of S&T investment  Initiatives to expand both int’l and domestic S&T cooperation  … … Has issued various supporting policies and measures to support the implementation of the Outline such as: Our basic approach is to adopt whatever policy and initiatives needed that are not in practice We need to improve our eco-system as China actually introduced the innovation concept from the West Various Supporting Policies and Measures

22 21 National S&T Outline Key S&T areas To achieve indigenous innovation capacity-building To enhance strategic emerging industry development General S&T To carry out major national S&T programs S&T development plans for specific areas or agencies To implement national S&T programs in 12th Five-Year Plan To implement programs under CAS, NSFC etc. To carry out national programs in environment & marine science etc. Local and industrial S&T plans To implement provincial S&T programs and industrial plans such petrochemical initiatives S&T Development Outline in the 12th Five-Year-Plan (2011-2015)

23 Eight Major Tasks in the 12 th Five-Year-Plan Aim to: Cultivate & develop strategic new industries Achieve breakthroughs in key industrial technologies Deploy basic and frontier tech research ahead of time Build up S&T innovation bases and platforms Train innovative talent Implement national key special S&T projects Achieve breakthroughs in key techs for People's livelihood Improve National Innovation System

24 I. An overview of S&T and innovations in China II. Roadmap of S&T and Innovations III. A Brief Touch on CAS IV. Analysis and conclusion Outline

25 A “National Team” representing the highest scientific standard in China A “Big School” fostering of scientific talent in China A “Pioneer” facilitating the country’s S&T structure reform A Think-Tank promoting the country’s science -based development An “Engine” of S&T innovation in leading the country’s S&T progress CAS’s Strategic Positioning in China’s S&T Has proved and will continue to prove to be: CAS is the national scientific institution in China with multiple functions CAS

26 108 Institutes covering all disciplines, distributed all over China 2 Universities 90% of mega science facilities in China 12 Botanic gardens, 26 Herbariums 38 Billions RMB in budget in 2011 22 shareholding companies Members of CAS: 750 Total staff : 58,300 Students : 47,000(38,000 graduates) Statistics as of 2011 Chinese Academy of Sciences Facts & Figures

27 Highlights on CAS Strength 22% of the National Key Basic Science Projects (973) 40% of PIs for key natural science projects under NSFC 32% of the National Excellent Young Scholars awardees Over 50% of the publications in Science and Nature from mainland with only 4% of national R&D workforce

28  Always attaches great importance to int’l cooperation  Formed various forms and kinds  Joint projects/labs/centers/institutes/partnership groups CAS-Max Plank Partner Institute on Computational Biology-no legal status CAS-Pasteur Inst. On Virology-legal status China-Australia Joint Center on Phonomics Research, China/US La on Software, Kavli Institute  Partnerships with major S&T institutions in developed countries  Cooperation with talent from world-over  Selectively join in int’l mega-science programs  Establish joint research units when mature  Also pay attention to cooperate with less developed countries and scientists there Strategy CAS International Cooperation CAS International Cooperation

29 Cooperation with Nordic Countries  Strategic Dialogues: Basis for the concrete cooperative projects CAS-Nordic Forum on Strategies for S&T Cooperation 2006 in Beijing CAS-Nordic Forum on Strategies for S&T Cooperation 2007 in Lund  AF-CAS Workshop on “Climate Change – Atmospheric composition; Adaptation of ecosystem to climate change” in 2011 (3 projects selected)  Joint Call for proposals in the field of “Climate and Environment” (6 projects selected) between the Research Council of Norway and CAS

30 Highlights of Cooperation with Denmark  Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research Partners: 8 Danish universities, the Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, the Graduate University of CAS and CAS; promoting and strengthening collaboration between Danish and Chinese research and learning institutions, and joint training of PhD and MSc students.

31 Highlights of Cooperation with Denmark  Cooperation with Novo Nordisk CAS-NN Research Foundation (cooperative research projects and international conferences supported) CAS-NN Great Wall Professorship Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences-Novo Nordisk Translational Center for PreDiabetes  CAS Award for International Scientific Cooperation in 2011 Prof. Flemming Besenbacher (nominated by National Nanocenter)

32 Some Thoughts on future cooperation  CAS would like to strengthen the cooperation with the European Countries on many priority areas, such as joint call for projects, personnel exchange, postgraduate student training;  Establish and maintain strategic dialogue mechanism for identification of priority areas and hot topics of common interest for addressing the global or regional challenges;  Set up cooperative research program or project based Scientist Group, Joint Center, or Laboratory etc.

33 Some Thoughts on future cooperation  Initiate interactive exchange programs for PhD students and young scientists;  Hold multi-lateral frontiers of sciences workshops and conduct jointly big science facility based interdisciplinary research;  Combine bottom-top and top-down two mechanisms for both sides, to push forward the practical cooperation;  The scientists from EU countries are welcome to visit and work in CAS through “CAS Visiting Professorship Program for Senior International Scientists” and “Fellowship Program for Young International Scientists”.

34 I. An overview of S&T and innovations in China II. Roadmap of S&T and Innovations III. A Brief Touch upon CAS IV. Analysis and conclusion

35 Basic science Not much Chinese contributions. A lack of internationally recognized Chinese scientists High-tech An over dependency on core technologies from overseas in a wide range of areas Industrialization China ’s S&T contribution ratio to economic growth 70% (2006) Enterprises are far from being the backbone of R&D and innovation in spite of huge pushing Problems of concern Analysis  Though made lots of achievements and has clear roadmaps, problems remain with China’s S&T and innovation  Much more needs to be done to make our S&T and innovation system more effective

36  Anything big will be small with 1.3 billion  Anything small will be big with 1.3 billion  Constrains: resources, environment & energy Made&Created by China 中国 创造 A knowledge-based economy is a must for China S&T and Innovation: the Ultimate Solution Major Problems, Challenges and Opportunities for China  Must rely on S&T and innovations to transform our mode of economic development and to achieve sustainable development  Also Need to green our industrialization, urbanization, lifestyle and trade mode Analysis

37  To accelerate the transformation of the mode of economic development is the key strategic task of the whole nation for our construction of a resource-efficient and environment-friendly society  Must rely on S&T and innovations to achieve all this as required by China’s conditions and the world reality  A further enhanced S&T and innovation will guarantee China to take advantages of various S&T progress for the benefits of China and the world Concluding remarks

38  Innovations can only best occur with active international cooperation as it is an effective means to utilize global S&T progress, wisdom and innovative resources  International cooperation is strongly complimentary to each other as each has advantages  An enhanced partnership between both countries in S&T and innovation will surely lead us to a brighter and forever brighter future Concluding remarks

39 Thank you! CAS and the World

40 Source: Science and Engineering Indicator 2012 The output of Chinese knowledge & Tech intensive industry( KTI) remains to be low in spite of huge R&D investment from business China’s KTI share of the total economic output is about 20%, but US is 40%, EU 32% and Japan 30% Output of KTI as a share of GDP, by region/country: 1995 & 2010 INPUT OUTPUT For example: Analysis

41 Various interactions create the condition for such a revolution S&T Internal Evolution Pressure on Resources & Environment Social Economic Development Needs International Financial Crisis Major S&T Breakthroughs& World S&T Revolution Interactions of various factors Showing increasingly obvious signs of revolutionary breakthroughs in major science fields and crucial technologies as occurred in history Analysis


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